The Islamic Republic of Iran 伊朗伊斯兰共和国
【国 名】 伊朗伊斯兰共和国（The Islamic Republic of Iran）。
【面 积】 164.5万平方公里
【人 口】 8165万。人口比较集中的省份有德黑兰、伊斯法罕、法尔斯、呼罗珊拉扎维和东阿塞拜疆。全国人口中波斯人占66%，阿塞拜疆人占25%，库尔德人占5%，其余为阿拉伯人、土库曼人等少数民族。官方语言为波斯语。伊斯兰教为国教，98.8%的居民信奉伊斯兰教，其中91%为什叶派，7.8%为逊尼派。
【首 都】 德黑兰（Tehran），人口1100万，平均海拔1220米。年气温最高的月份为7月，平均最低和最高气温分别为22℃和37℃；年气温最低的月份为1月，平均最低和最高气温分别为3℃和7℃。
【货 币】 伊朗里亚尔（Riyal）。
【领 袖】 赛义德·阿里·哈梅内伊（Seyyed Ali Khamenei），1989年6月4日当选。
【国家元首】 总统哈桑·鲁哈尼（Hassan Rouhani ），2013年6月当选，2017年5月连任。
【简 况】 位于亚洲西南部，同土库曼斯坦、阿塞拜疆、亚美尼亚、土耳其、伊拉克、巴基斯坦和阿富汗相邻，南濒波斯湾和阿曼湾，北隔里海与俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦相望，素有“欧亚陆桥”和“东西方空中走廊”之称。海岸线长2700公里。境内多高原，东部为盆地和沙漠。属大陆性气候，冬冷夏热，大部分地区干燥少雨。
[Country name] The Islamic Republic of Iran.
[area] 1.645 million square kilometers
[People] 81.65 million. The provinces with concentrated populations are Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azerbaijan. Persians account for 66% of the country’s population, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurds 5%, and the rest are Arabs, Turkmen and other minorities. The official language is Persian. Islam is the state religion, 98.8% of the people believe in Islam, 91% of them are Shiites, and 7.8% are Sunnis.
[Capital] Tehran, with a population of 11 million and an average elevation of 1,220 meters. The highest annual temperature in July is July, with average minimum and maximum temperatures of 22°C and 37°C respectively; the lowest annual temperature is January, with average minimum and maximum temperatures of 3°C and 7°C, respectively.
[Currency] Iranian Rial (Riyal).
[Leader] Seyyed Ali Khamenei, elected on June 4, 1989.
[Head of State] President Hassan Rouhani, elected in June 2013, re-elected in May 2017.
[Main Festival] Victory Day of the Islamic Revolution: February 11th; Iranian New Year: March 21.
[Profile] Located in southwestern Asia, adjacent to Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan, south of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and across the Caspian Sea from Russia and Kazakhstan, known as “Eurasia” Land Bridge and the East and West Air Corridor. The coastline is 2,700 kilometers long. There are many plateaus in the territory, and the basin and desert in the east. It has a continental climate, cold winters and hot summers, and most areas are dry and less rainy.
Iran is an ancient civilization with a history of four or five thousand years. It is known as Persia. In the 6th century BC, the ancient Persian Empire flourished. After the 7th century AD, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and Afghans successively invaded and ruled Iraq. In the late 18th century, the Turkmen tribes of the Turkmen in northeastern Iran unified Iraq and established the Sangha dynasty. After the 19th century, Iran became a semi-colonial country of Britain and Russia. In 1925, the Pahlavi dynasty was established. From 1978 to 1979, Khomeini led the Islamic revolution and overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. On February 11, 1979, Huo officially took power and established the Islamic Republic on April 1. Huo became the leader of the Iranian revolution.
【政 治】 1979年霍梅尼执政后，实行政教合一的制度。1989年6月3日霍病逝，原总统哈梅内伊继任领袖。7月28日，原议长拉夫桑贾尼当选总统。1993年6月11日，拉夫桑贾尼连任总统。1997年5月，伊总统文化事务顾问、前文化和伊斯兰指导部长哈塔米当选总统，并于2001年6月大选中获选连任。2005年6月，伊举行第九届总统选举，德黑兰市长艾哈迈迪内贾德当选。2009年6月，艾哈迈迪内贾德在伊第十届总统选举中获得连任。2013年6月15日，哈桑•鲁哈尼当选伊第十一届总统，并在2017年5月的第十二届总统选举中胜选连任。
【宪 法】 伊斯兰革命后于1979年12月颁布第一部宪法，规定伊实行政教合一制度。1989年4月伊对宪法进行部分修改，突出伊斯兰信仰、体制、教规、共和制及最高领袖的绝对权力不容更改。同年7月，哈梅内伊正式批准经全民投票通过的新宪法。
【议 会】 伊斯兰议会是伊最高国家立法机构，实行一院制。议会通过的法律须经宪法监护委员会批准方可生效。议员共290名，由选民直接选举产生，任期4年。议会设有主席团和12个专门委员会。主席团由议长、两名副议长、三名干事、六名秘书共12人组成，主要负责制订会议议程、起草会议文件等工作，任期1年，任满后由议员投票改选，可连选连任。第10届议会于2016年5月经选举成立，议长为阿里·拉里贾尼（Ali Larijani）。
【政 府】 实行总统内阁制。总统是国家元首，也是政府首脑，可授权第一副总统掌管内阁日常工作，并有权任命数名副总统，协助主管其它专门事务。现任第一副总统为埃斯哈格·贾汉吉里（Eshaq Jahangiri）。本届内阁于2017年8月成立。
[Politics] After Khomeini took office in 1979, he was a system of administrative and religious integration. On June 3, 1989, Huo died, and former President Khamenei succeeded as leader. On July 28, the former Speaker, Rafsanjani, was elected president. On June 11, 1993, Rafsanjani was re-elected as president. In May 1997, Presidential Cultural Affairs Adviser, former Culture and Islamic Guidance Minister Khatami was elected President and was re-elected in the June 2001 general election. In June 2005, Iraq held its ninth presidential election, and Tehran Mayor Ahmadinejad was elected. In June 2009, Ahmadinejad was re-elected in the tenth presidential election in Iraq. On June 15, 2013, Hassan Rohani was elected as the eleventh president of Iraq and won the re-election in the twelfth presidential election in May 2017.
[Constitution] After the Islamic Revolution, the first constitution was promulgated in December 1979, which stipulated the Isis administration and teaching system. In April 1989, Iraq amended the Constitution in part, highlighting the absolute power of Islamic beliefs, institutions, canons, republics, and supreme leaders. In July of the same year, Khamenei formally approved the new constitution adopted by the referendum.
[Parliament] The Islamic Parliament is the highest national legislative body in Iraq and implements a one-chamber system. The law passed by the Parliament is subject to the approval of the Constitutional Guardianship Committee. A total of 290 members are elected directly by voters for a four-year term. The Parliament has a bureau and 12 special committees. The Presidium consists of 12 Speakers, 2 Deputy Speakers, 3 Officers and 6 Secretaries. It is mainly responsible for formulating the agenda of the meeting and drafting meeting documents. The term of office is one year. After the term of office, the presidium will be reelected by a member of the House of Representatives and may be re-elected. The 10th Parliament was elected in May 2016 and the speaker was Ali Larijani.
[Government] Implement the presidential cabinet system. The president is the head of state and the head of government. He can authorize the first vice president to take charge of the daily work of the cabinet and has the power to appoint several vice presidents to assist in other specialized matters. The current first vice president is Eshaq Jahangiri. The current cabinet was established in August 2017.
[Administrative Division] There are 31 provinces in the country.
【司法机构】 司法总监是国家司法最高首脑，由领袖任命，任期5年。最高法院院长和总检察长由司法总监任命，任期5年。司法部长由司法总监推荐，总统任命，议会批准，负责协调行政权与司法权的关系。在司法总监领导下，还设有行政公正法庭和国家监察总局，分别审理民众对政府机关的诉讼和监督国家机关的工作。现任司法总监易卜拉欣·莱希（Ebrahim Raisi），最高法院院长侯赛因·卡里米（Hossein Karimi），总检察长穆罕默德·贾法尔·蒙塔泽里（Mohammad Jafer Motazeri）。
【专家会议】 1979年通过的宪法中规定专家会议为常设机构，由公民投票选举86名法学家和宗教学者组成。其职责是选定和罢免领袖。每年举行两次会议。第五届专家会议于2016年5月经选举成立，现任主席为艾哈迈德·贾纳提（Ahmad Janati）。
【确定国家利益委员会】 1988年3月17日成立，1989年7月经宪法确认。主要职责是为领袖制订国家大政方针出谋划策，协助领袖监督、实施各项大政方针，当议会和宪法监护委员会就议案发生分歧时进行仲裁。现任主席为萨迪格·拉里贾尼（Sadegh Larijani）。
【宪法监护委员会】 由12人组成，其中6名宗教法学家由领袖直接任命，另6名普通法学家由司法总监在法学家中挑选并向议会推荐，议会投票通过后就任，任期6年。主要负责监督专家会议、总统和伊斯兰议会选举及公民投票，批准议员资格书和解释宪法；审议和确认议会通过的议案，裁定是否与伊斯兰教义和宪法相抵触，如有抵触则退回议会重新审议和修改。如与议会就议案发生争议且无法解决，则提交确定国家利益委员会进行仲裁。现任秘书艾哈迈德·贾纳提（Ahmad Janati）。
[Judiciary] The Judicial Director is the highest judicial head of the country and is appointed by the leader for a term of five years. The President of the Supreme Court and the Attorney General are appointed by the Judicial Director for a term of five years. The Minister of Justice is recommended by the Judicial Director, appointed by the President, approved by the Parliament, and responsible for coordinating the relationship between executive power and judicial power. Under the leadership of the Judicial Director, there is also an Administrative Justice Court and the State General Administration of Supervision to examine the public’s actions against government agencies and supervise the work of state organs. The current judicial director, Ebrahim Raisi, the president of the Supreme Court, Hossein Karimi, and the Attorney General Mohammad Jafer Motazeri.
[Expert Meeting] The Constitution adopted in 1979 stipulated that the expert meeting was a permanent institution, and 86 jurisprudents and religious scholars were elected by referendum. Its duty is to select and remove leaders. Two meetings are held each year. The fifth expert meeting was elected in May 2016 and the current chairman is Ahmad Janati.
[Determining the National Interest Committee] Established on March 17, 1988 and confirmed by the Constitution in July 1989. The main responsibilities are to formulate guidelines for leaders to formulate national policies, assist leaders in supervising and implementing major policies, and arbitrate when the parliament and the Constitutional Guardian Council disagree on the bill. The current chairman is Sadegh Larijani.
[Constitutional Guardianship Committee] It consists of 12 members, of which 6 religious jurists are directly appointed by the leader. The other 6 common jurists are selected by the Judicial Director among the jurists and recommended to the parliament. After the parliament vote, they will serve for 6 years. Mainly responsible for supervising expert meetings, presidential and Islamic parliamentary elections and referendums, approving parliamentary qualifications and interpreting the constitution; reviewing and confirming the bill passed by the parliament, deciding whether it is in conflict with Islamic doctrine and constitution, and if there is any conflict, return it to parliament for reconsideration and modify. If there is a dispute with the parliament on the bill and it cannot be resolved, it shall be submitted to the Committee for the Determination of National Interest for arbitration. The current secretary, Ahmad Janati.
[important person] Saeed Ali Khamenei: leader. Born in 1939 in the holy city of Mashhad in eastern Iraq. In 1958, he went to study at the Coom Theological Seminary. After 1963, he was arrested and exiled several times for participating in anti-King activities. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, he served as a member of the Revolutionary Committee, Deputy Minister of Defense, Commander of the Revolutionary Guards, Dean of Tehran City, Secretary of the Islamic Republican Party, Chairman of the Supreme National Defense Commission, and President. After his death in June 1989, Khomeini succeeded as leader. And the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He visited China as a president in May 1989. Married with six children.
Hassan Rohani: President. Born in Solheim, Semnan Province, Iran in November 1948, he studied Islamic law at the Semnan Theological Seminary and the Kum Theological Seminary. In 1972, Rohani graduated from Tehran University with a law degree and then went on to study for a master’s degree in law at the University of Caledonia, Glasgow, England. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Rohani was a member of Parliament from 1980 to 2000. He served as Chairman of the National Defense Committee, Chairman of the Foreign Policy Committee, and First Deputy Speaker. After the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war, Lu was the deputy commander of the battlefield from 1983 to 1985. During his tenure as President of Rafsanjani from 1989 to 1997, Lu served as Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of Iran and continued to serve until 2005. During Khatami’s presidency, Rohani became Iran’s chief nuclear negotiator from 2003 to 2005. During his tenure as chief nuclear negotiator, he reached an agreement with the United Kingdom, France and Germany to suspend Iran’s uranium enrichment activities. After resigning in 2005, he served as Director of the Strategic Research Center for the National Interests Committee. In June 2013, he won the election and won the election. He was sworn in on August 4. In May 2014, Rohani visited China and attended the AsiaInfo Shanghai Summit. In May 2017, Rohani was re-elected. In June 2018, Luhani joined the SCO summit in Shanghai to conduct a working visit to China.
Ali Larijani: Speaker. Born in 1957. Doctor of Western Philosophy, Tehran University. He has served as Chairman of the Iranian National Audiovisual Organization and Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance. From August 2005 to March 2008, he served as Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of Iran, identified members of the National Interest Committee and the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution, and was responsible for the external negotiations on the Iranian nuclear issue. In March 2008, he was elected as Speaker, and has been re-elected 10 times in a row. Lazen visited China four times in January 2006, January 2007, October 2013, and February 2019.
【经 济】 伊盛产石油，石油产业是伊经济支柱和外汇收入的主要来源之一，石油收入占伊外汇总收入的一半以上。近年，伊经济总体保持低速增长。2017年，伊国内生产总值4277亿美元，人均国内生产总值5250美元。
【资 源】 石油、天然气和煤炭蕴藏丰富。截至2016年底，已探明石油储量1584亿桶，居世界第四位，天然气储量33.5万亿立方米，居世界第一位。2016年，伊朗石油日产量350.2万桶，天然气年产量1925亿立方米。
【工 业】 以石油开采业为主，另外还有炼油、钢铁、电力、纺织、汽车制造、机械制造、食品加工、建材、地毯、家用电器、化工、冶金、造纸、水泥和制糖等，但基础相对薄弱，大部分工业原材料和零配件依赖进口。
【军 事】 国家武装力量由军队、伊斯兰革命卫队和治安部队组成。领袖是武装力量总司令。实行义务兵役制，服役期二年。
[Economy] Yisheng produces oil, which is one of the main sources of the Iraqi economy and foreign exchange income. Oil revenue accounts for more than half of the total income of Iraq. In recent years, the Iraqi economy has maintained a low growth rate overall. In 2017, Iraq’s GDP was US$ 427.7 billion and its per capita GDP was US$ 5,250.
[Resources] Oil, natural gas and coal are abundant. By the end of 2016, the proven oil reserves were 158.4 billion barrels, ranking fourth in the world, and natural gas reserves were 33.5 trillion cubic meters, ranking first in the world. In 2016, Iranian oil produced 3.502 million barrels per day and natural gas produced 192.5 billion cubic meters per year.
Other mineral resources are also very rich, and the amount of mining is huge. At present, 3,800 mines have been discovered, with reserves of 27 billion tons of minerals; among them, iron ore reserves are 4.7 billion tons; copper reserves are 3 billion tons (average grade of ore is 0.8%), accounting for about 5% of the world’s total reserves, ranking the world Three places; zinc ore reserves of 230 million tons (average grade 20%), ranking first in the world; chromium ore reserves of 20 million tons; gold reserves of 150 tons. In addition, there are a large number of mineral resources such as manganese, antimony, lead, boron, barite, and marble. At present, 56 types of mining have been opened, with an annual output of 150 million tons, accounting for 0.55% of the total reserves, accounting for 1.2% of the total global production of mineral products.
[Industrial] In the oil exploitation industry, there are also refining, steel, electric power, textile, automobile manufacturing, machinery manufacturing, food processing, building materials, carpets, household appliances, chemicals, metallurgy, paper, cement and sugar, but The foundation is relatively weak, and most industrial raw materials and spare parts are imported.
[Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Deputy Fisheries] Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy. Iran has abundant agricultural resources. The country has more than 52 million hectares of arable land, accounting for more than 30% of its land area. The cultivated area is 18 million hectares, including 8.3 million hectares of irrigable land and 9.4 million hectares of dry land. The agricultural population accounts for 43% of the total population, and the per capita cultivated land of farmers is 5.1 hectares. The degree of agricultural mechanization is relatively low, and the total number of harvesters and tractors is 13,000 and 360,000 respectively. In recent years, the Iraqi government has attached great importance to and vigorously developed agriculture. At present, food production has achieved 90% self-sufficiency.
[Tourism] Iraq has a history of thousands of years of civilization, rich in natural geography and ancient civilization. Before the Islamic Revolution, there were millions of people traveling to Iraq every year. After the Iran-Iraq war, the tourism industry was greatly damaged. From 1979 to 1994, the number of tourists to Iraq was less than 100,000 per year. Since 1991, the government has been striving to develop tourism and the tourism industry has gradually recovered. From March 2013 to March 2014, the number of foreigners who traveled to Iran for pilgrimage and pilgrimage reached 4 million, and the tourism income was 5 billion US dollars. There are about 3,000 travel organizations and travel agencies in Iraq. Tehran, Isfahan, Shiraz, Yazd, Kerman and Mashhad are the main tourist areas of Iraq.
[Foreign Trade] The main export commodities of Iraq are oil and gas, metal ore, leather, carpet, fruit, dried fruit and caviar. The main imported products are grain and oil food, medicine, transportation tools, machinery and equipment, livestock, chemical raw materials, beverages and tobacco. . From April 2017 to March 2018, the total import and export of Iraqi-African oil was about 101.23 billion US dollars, of which exports were 46.93 billion US dollars and imports were 54.30 billion US dollars.
[Military] The national armed forces are composed of the army, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and the security forces. The leader is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is two years.
The Supreme National Security Council is an important institution involved in the formulation of national foreign affairs, national defense, and security policies. The President serves as the chairman. The President directly appoints a secretary to be responsible for day-to-day management.
At present, the armed forces have a total strength of about 900,000 people and mobilized about 1.1 million troops. The army consists of the army, navy, air force and air defense units, with a total strength of about 430,000, of which the army is about 365,000, the navy is 30,000, and the air force is 35,000. The total strength of the Revolutionary Guard is about 443,000 and the security forces are about 400,000.
【教 育】 实行中、小学免费教育。重视高等教育，并于1989年制订高等教育5年发展计划，通过提供贷款和给予物质、政策支持等措施鼓励民办高等教育。6岁以上受教育人口占全国人口的82.5%。目前全国共有高等院校2515所，大学生近440万人。德黑兰大学是伊朗著名的高等学府。
国家广播电视台成立于1966年，1979年改名为伊朗伊斯兰共和国声像组织。现任主席是阿里·阿斯卡里（Ali Asgari）。电台用波斯语、阿拉伯语、英语、法语、德语及汉语等二十五种语言对外广播。电视有7个台播放节目，并有3个卫星台向海外播出。目前，外国新闻社驻伊代表机构有百余个，登记外国记者1000余人。2007年7月，伊朗开通伊首家英语电视台PRESS TV。
[Education] Free education for primary and secondary schools. Attach importance to higher education, and in 1989, formulate a five-year development plan for higher education, and encourage private higher education by providing loans and giving material and policy support. The educated population over 6 years old accounts for 82.5% of the national population. At present, there are 2,515 institutions of higher learning in the country, with nearly 4.4 million college students. Tehran University is a famous institution of higher learning in Iran.
[Press and Publication] At present, there are more than 1,700 kinds of newspapers and periodicals in Iyo, most of which are published in Tehran. The main newspapers are: “Iranian”, “News”, “World News”, “Citizen”, “Oriental”, “The Sun” and the English version of “Tehran Times”, “Iran News” and “Iran Daily International Edition.
The Islamic Republic of Iran News Agency is the only official news agency. Before the Islamic Revolution in 1979, it was called the Persian News Agency.
The National Radio and Television Station was established in 1966 and was renamed the Islamic Republic of Iran Audiovisual Organization in 1979. The current chairman is Ali Asgari. The radio is broadcast in 25 languages, including Persian, Arabic, English, French, German and Chinese. The TV has 7 stations to broadcast, and 3 satellite stations broadcast to overseas. At present, there are more than 100 foreign correspondent agencies in Iraq, and more than 1,000 foreign journalists are registered. In July 2007, Iran opened its first English TV station, PRESS TV.
[External Relations] Pursue an independent, non-aligned foreign policy, oppose hegemonism, power politics, and a unipolar world. We are willing to develop relations with all countries except Israel on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. Advocate different civilizations to engage in dialogue and establish a fair and rational new international political and economic order. It is believed that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country should be respected. All countries have the right to choose the path of social development according to their own history, culture and religious traditions, and oppose the Western countries’ interference with other countries’ internal affairs or their own under the pretext of democracy, freedom, human rights and disarmament. Values are imposed on other countries. Israel is considered to be the main source of tension in the Middle East. It supports the Palestinian people’s just struggle for the liberation of the occupied territories and opposes the Arab-Israeli peace talks, but says it will not take actions that interfere with and hinder the Middle East peace process. It is said that peace and security in the Persian Gulf region should be realized through understanding and cooperation between the coastal countries, opposing foreign interference and opposing foreign troops. It expressed its willingness to become a stable factor in the Persian Gulf region.
In June 2014, after being elected president of Iran, Rohani expressed his willingness to engage in constructive interaction with the international community to improve relations between Iran and the international community. In July 2015, the six Iranian nuclear issue (China, the United States, Russia, Britain, France, Germany) reached a comprehensive agreement with Iran on the Iranian nuclear issue. On January 16, 2016, the comprehensive agreement was officially implemented. In May 2018, the United States announced its withdrawal from a comprehensive agreement to fully resume unilateral sanctions against Iran’s nuclear field. All parties to the comprehensive agreement objected to the unilateral withdrawal of the agreement from the US, indicating that they will continue to support the maintenance of the comprehensive agreement.