The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 阿富汗伊斯兰共和国

【国名】阿富汗伊斯兰共和国(The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)。

【面积】64.75万平方公里。

【人口】约3680万(IMF,2017年)。普什图族占40%,塔吉克族占25%,还有哈扎拉、乌兹别克、土库曼等20多个少数民族。普什图语和达里语是官方语言,其他语言有乌兹别克语、俾路支语、土耳其语等。逊尼派穆斯林占86%,什叶派穆斯林占13%,其他占1%。

【首都】喀布尔(Kabul),人口约452万(阿富汗中央统计局,2016)。气候温和,四季分明,全年平均气温13℃左右。

【国家元首】穆罕默德·阿什拉夫·加尼(Mohammad Ashraf Ghani)。2014年9月当选阿富汗总统,任期5年。

【重要节日】阿富汗新年:3月21日;阿富汗独立纪念日:8月19日;开斋节:每年日期不定,依伊斯兰历而变;古尔邦节:每年日期不定,随伊斯兰历而变。

【地理】亚洲中西部的内陆国家。北邻土库曼斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦,西接伊朗,南部和东部连巴基斯坦,东北部凸出的狭长地带与中国接壤。属大陆性气候,全年干燥少雨,冬季寒冷,夏季炎热,全国年平均降雨量仅240毫米左右。

[Country name] The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

[Area] 647,500 square kilometers.

[Population] about 36.8 million (IMF, 2017). The Pashtuns account for 40%, the Tajiks account for 25%, and there are more than 20 ethnic minorities such as Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmenistan. Pashto and Dari are the official languages, and other languages ​​are Uzbek, Baluchi, Turkish, etc. Sunni Muslims account for 86%, Shiite Muslims account for 13%, and others account for 1%.

[Capital] Kabul, with a population of about 4.52 million (Afghanistan Central Bureau of Statistics, 2016). The climate is mild and the four seasons are distinct. The annual average temperature is around 13 °C.

[Head of State] Mohammad Ashraf Ghani. In September 2014, he was elected President of Afghanistan for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] Afghan New Year: March 21; Afghan Independence Day: August 19; Eid al-Fitr: annual date is uncertain, according to the Islamic calendar; Gulben Festival: The annual date is uncertain, with the Islamic calendar.

[Geography] A landlocked country in the Midwest of Asia. It borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north, Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, and a narrow strip in the northeast bordering China. It has a continental climate, dry and dry throughout the year, cold in winter and hot in summer. The annual average annual rainfall is only 240 mm.

【历史】阿富汗王国建立于1747年,曾一度强盛。19世纪后,国力日衰,成为英国和沙俄的角逐场。1919年摆脱英国殖民统治获得独立,8月19日为独立日。1979年12月,苏联入侵阿富汗。1989年2月,苏军撤出。后因各派抗苏武装争权夺势,阿陷入内战。1994年塔利班兴起,1996年9月攻占喀布尔,建立政权。1997年10月改国名为“阿富汗伊斯兰酋长国”,在阿实行伊斯兰统治。“9·11”事件后,塔利班政权在美军事打击下垮台。在联合国主持下,阿富汗启动战后重建“波恩进程”。2001年12月,阿成立临时政府。2002年6月,成立过渡政府。2004年10月,卡尔扎伊当选阿首任民选总统。2009年8月,阿举行第二次总统选举,卡尔扎伊取胜,同年11月就职。2014年阿富汗举行总统选举。9月29日,加尼宣誓就职阿富汗总统,阿卜杜拉被任命为首席执行官。

近年来,阿富汗政治与经济重建虽取得积极进展,但安全局势持续不靖,塔利班依旧活跃,腐败、毒品泛滥等问题也威胁阿富汗的稳定和发展。2010年10月,阿富汗成立由前总统拉巴尼任主席、众多前圣战领导人参加的高级和平委员会,负责推动阿富汗政府与塔利班等反政府武装和谈。2011年9月拉巴尼遇刺身亡,阿富汗和解进程严重受挫。2012年1月,阿富汗塔利班宣布在卡塔尔设立和谈办公室,用以与美国等接触和谈。后因发生驻阿美军焚烧《古兰经》和枪杀阿富汗平民等事件,塔利班宣布中止与美国接触。2013年6月,阿塔以“阿富汗伊斯兰酋长国”名义宣布在卡塔尔首都多哈成立塔利班办事处,引起阿政府强烈不满。在各方压力下,阿塔被迫取消有关称谓,但该办事处实际仍在运转。2015年7月,塔利班同阿政府在巴基斯坦举行首轮公开和谈,后因塔领导人奥马尔死讯曝光,和谈中止,迄未取得实质性进展。

[History] The Kingdom of Afghanistan was founded in 1747 and was once strong. After the 19th century, the national strength was declining and it became the competition between Britain and Russia. In 1919, he gained independence from British colonial rule, and August 19 was Independence Day. In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. In February 1989, the Soviet army withdrew. After the fact that the various factions resisted the Soviet armed forces and seized power, Ah fell into a civil war. The rise of the Taliban in 1994 and the capture of Kabul in September 1996 established power. In October 1997, the country was renamed “Afghanistan Islamic Emirate” and practiced Islamic rule in Afghanistan. After the “9.11” incident, the Taliban regime collapsed under the US military strike. Under the auspices of the United Nations, Afghanistan launched the post-war reconstruction of the Bonn process. In December 2001, A set up an interim government. In June 2002, a transitional government was established. In October 2004, Karzai was elected as the first elected president. In August 2009, A held the second presidential election, Karzai won, and took office in November of the same year. In 2014, Afghanistan held a presidential election. On September 29, Ghani was sworn in as the Afghan president and Abdullah was appointed chief executive.

In recent years, although the political and economic reconstruction of Afghanistan has made positive progress, the security situation continues to be unsettled, the Taliban is still active, and corruption and drug abuse are also threatening the stability and development of Afghanistan. In October 2010, Afghanistan established a high-level peace committee chaired by former President Rabbani and a number of former jihadist leaders, responsible for promoting the Afghan government and the Taliban and other anti-government armed forces. In September 2011, Rabbani was assassinated and the Afghan reconciliation process was severely frustrated. In January 2012, the Afghan Taliban announced the establishment of a peace talks office in Qatar to engage in peace talks with the United States. After the incident of the burning of the Qur’an and the shooting of Afghan civilians in the United States, the Taliban announced that they would suspend contact with the United States. In June 2013, Atta announced the establishment of the Taliban office in Doha, Qatar under the name of “Afghanistan Islamic Emirate”, causing strong dissatisfaction from the Afghan government. Under the pressure of all parties, Atta was forced to cancel the title, but the office is still operating. In July 2015, the Taliban held the first round of public peace talks with the Afghan government in Pakistan. After the death of the leader of the tower, Omar, the peace talks were suspended and no substantive progress has been made.

【宪法】2002年1月至2004年1月,阿富汗沿用前国王查希尔颁布的1964年宪法。2004年1月26日,阿富汗过渡政府总统卡尔扎伊签署颁布新宪法,确立阿国名为“阿富汗伊斯兰共和国”,实行总统制。

【议会】根据阿富汗宪法,国民议会是国家最高立法机关,由人民院(下院)和长老院(上院)组成。人民院议员不超过250名,根据各地人口数量平均分配,但保证每省至少有2名女议员。长老院议员从各省、区管理委员会成员中间接选举产生。国民议会有权弹劾总统,但须召集大支尔格会议并获得2/3以上多数通过才可免除总统职务。阿现议会于2010年9月选举产生,2011年1月正式成立。现任长老院主席为法扎尔·哈迪·穆斯林姆亚尔(Fazal Hadi Muslimyar),人民院议长为阿卜杜·拉乌夫·伊卜拉希米(Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi)。

【大支尔格会议】又称“大国民会议”。根据阿富汗新宪法,大支尔格会议是阿人民意愿的最高体现,由议会上下两院议员、各省议会议长组成,负责制定和修改宪法,批准国家其他有关法律;有权决定涉及阿国家独立、主权、领土完整和国家利益等问题;审议总统提交的内阁组成名单;内阁部长、最高法院法官和大法官可以列席会议;会议不定期举行。

2002年6月阿召集紧急支尔格大会,选举产生以卡尔扎伊总统为首的阿富汗过渡政府。2003年12月召开制宪支尔格大会,制定并通过新宪法。2010年6月召开和平支尔格大会,呼吁塔利班等参与政治和解进程。2011年11月召开大支尔格会议,讨论阿富汗同美国商签战略伙伴关系文件。

【政府】现主要成员包括:总统穆罕默德·阿什拉夫·加尼,第一副总统阿卜杜勒·拉希德·杜斯塔姆(Abdul Rashid Dostum),第二副总统萨瓦尔·丹尼什(Sarwar Danish),首席执行官阿卜杜拉·阿卜杜拉(Abdullah Abdullah ),第一副首席执行官穆罕默德·汗(Mohammad Khan),第二副首席执行官穆罕默德·穆哈齐克(Mohammad Mohaqiq),外交部长萨拉胡丁·拉巴尼(Salahuddin Rabbani),代理财政部长穆罕默德·胡马雍·卡尤米(Mohammad Humayon Qayoumi),代理国防部长阿萨杜拉·哈立德(Assadullah Khaled),代理内政部长阿姆鲁拉·萨利赫(Amrullah Saleh ),朝觐及伊斯兰事务部长法伊兹·穆罕默德·奥斯玛尼(Faiz Mohammad Osmani),农村复兴与发展部长穆吉布·拉赫曼·卡瑞米(Mujib Rahman Karimi),难民和归国部长赛义德·侯赛因·阿里米·巴勒齐(Sayed Hussain Alimi Balkhi)。

[Constitution] From January 2002 to January 2004, Afghanistan followed the 1964 Constitution promulgated by former King Zahir. On January 26, 2004, the President of the Afghan Transitional Government, Karzai, signed a new constitution to establish the name of the “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan” and the presidential system.

[Parliament] According to the Afghan Constitution, the National Assembly is the highest legislative body of the country, consisting of the People’s Court (lower house) and the Presbyterian Church (upper house). There are no more than 250 members of the People’s Assembly, which are distributed equally according to the population of each place, but guarantee that there are at least two women members in each province. Members of the Senate are elected indirectly from members of the provincial and district management committees. The National Assembly has the power to impeach the President, but it is necessary to convene a large ergge meeting and obtain a majority of more than two-thirds to waive the presidency. The current parliament was elected in September 2010 and was formally established in January 2011. The current president of the Presbyterian Church is Fazal Hadi Muslimyar, and the Speaker of the House of People is Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi.

[Greater Jirga Conference] Also known as the “Great National Assembly.” According to the new Afghan Constitution, the Great Loya Jirga is the highest embodiment of the will of the Afghan people. It consists of members of the upper and lower houses of the parliament and the provincial council presidents. It is responsible for formulating and amending the constitution, approving other relevant laws of the country, and having the power to decide on the independence and sovereignty of the country. Issues such as territorial integrity and national interests; review of the list of cabinets submitted by the President; cabinet ministers, Supreme Court judges and justices may attend the meeting; meetings are held from time to time.

In June 2002, Azerbaijan convened an emergency Loya Jirga to elect the Afghan Transitional Government headed by President Karzai. In December 2003, the Constitutional Loya Jirga was held to formulate and adopt a new constitution. The Peace Loya Jirga was held in June 2010, calling on the Taliban to participate in the political reconciliation process. The Big Jirga Conference was held in November 2011 to discuss Afghanistan’s strategic partnership with the United States.

[Government] The main members now include: President Mohamed Ashraf Ghani, First Vice President Abdul Rashid Dostum, Second Vice President Saval Danny Sarwar Danish, CEO Abdullah Abdullah, first deputy chief executive Mohammad Khan, second deputy chief executive Mohamed Muhazic ( Mohammad Mohaqiq), Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani, Acting Minister of Finance Mohammad Humayon Qayoumi, Acting Secretary of Defense Assadullah Khaled Acting Interior Minister Amrullah Saleh, Minister of Hajj and Islamic Affairs Faiz Mohammad Osmani, Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Mujib Rah Mujib Rahman Karimi, Refugee and Returning Minister Sayed Hussain Alimi Balkhi.

【行政区划】全国划分为34个省,省下设县、区、乡、村。各省名称:喀布尔、巴达赫尚、塔哈尔、昆都士、巴尔赫、朱兹詹、法利亚布、巴德吉斯、赫拉特、古尔、萨尔普勒、萨曼甘、巴格兰、巴米扬、帕尔旺、瓦尔达克、卡比萨、拉格曼、努尔斯坦、库纳尔、楠格哈尔、洛加尔、加兹尼、乌鲁兹甘、法拉、尼姆鲁兹、赫尔曼德、坎大哈、扎布尔、帕克蒂亚、帕克蒂卡、霍斯特、潘杰希尔、戴孔迪。

【司法机构】阿富汗司法系统分为三级。最基层为地方法院,全国共有350个左右;中层为上诉法院,分设于阿各省;最高层为最高法院,设在首都喀布尔。

【政党】阿过渡政府于2003年10月颁布《政党法》。现有政党近百个。主要政党包括:

(1)阿富汗伊斯兰促进会(Jamiati Islami):1972年成立。伊斯兰教温和派,成员多为塔吉克族。逊尼派。主要领导人是萨拉胡丁·拉巴尼(Salahuddin Rabbani),塔吉克族;阿塔·穆罕默德·努尔(Atta Mohammad Noor),塔吉克族。

(2)阿富汗伊斯兰统一党(Hizb-i Wahdat Islami,哈利利派):原阿富汗伊斯兰革命联盟,1987年成立。1991年改用现名。1995年3月,原领导人马扎里被塔利班杀害,该党分裂。属伊斯兰教什叶派,成员多为哈扎拉族人。党主席是穆罕默德·卡里姆·哈利利(Abdul Karim Khalili),哈扎拉族。

(3)阿富汗伊斯兰民族运动(Junbish-i-Milli Islami):主要领导人是阿卜杜尔·拉希德·杜斯塔姆(Abdur Rashid Dostum),乌兹别克族。

(4)阿富汗伊斯兰达瓦组织(Tanzim-e-Dahwat-e Islami-ye):主要领导人是阿卜杜·拉苏尔·萨亚夫(Abdul Rasul Sayyaf),普什图族。

【重要人物】穆罕默德·阿什拉夫·加尼:总统,普什图族。1949年出生于阿富汗卢格尔省的一个普什图族家庭,获美国哥伦比亚大学博士学位。曾在加州大学伯克利分校和约翰·霍普金斯大学任教,在联合国和世界银行任职,并曾随世界银行官员主持过阿富汗战后重建工作。曾出任卡尔扎伊过渡政府财政部长。曾参加2009年阿富汗大选,2014年9月就任阿总统。

阿卜杜拉·阿卜杜拉:政府首席执行官,塔吉克族。1960年生,医学博士。1978年毕业于喀布尔大学医学院。1992年起历任拉巴尼政府国防部国际司司长、发言人、北方联盟政府副外长、外长。2010年阿和平重建进程启动后,曾任阿外长。2014年9月被任命为首席执行官。

哈米德·卡尔扎伊:前总统。普什图族。1957年生,获印度喜马偕尔邦大学政治学硕士学位。1982年起参加抗苏斗争。1997年移居巴基斯坦,开展支持前国王查希尔的政治活动。2001年底返阿,协助美英军队打击塔利班。同年12月,被阿各派代表推举为临时政府主席。2002年6月,任过渡政府总统。2004年10月,当选阿首位民选总统。2009年8月连任。2014年9月卸任。

法扎勒·哈迪·穆斯林姆亚尔:议会长老院主席,1970年生,楠格哈尔省普什图族人。曾获法律学士学位,参加过抗苏战争。2005—2009年,任楠格哈尔省议会主席。2010年当选阿议会长老院第一副主席。2011年1月当选长老院主席。

阿卜杜勒·拉乌夫·伊卜拉希米:议会人民院议长。乌兹别克族前军阀,来自阿北部昆都士省,曾参加抗苏战争。2011年2月当选人民院议长。

[Administrative divisions] The country is divided into 34 provinces, with counties, districts, townships and villages. Names of the provinces: Kabul, Badakhshan, Tahar, Kunduz, Balkh, Juzcan, Faryab, Badghis, Herat, Gul, Sarpur, Samangan , Baghlan, Bamiyan, Parwan, Wardak, Kappa, Laghman, Nuerstein, Kunar, Nangarhar, Logar, Ghazni, Uruzgan, Farah , Nimruz, Helmand, Kandahar, Zabul, Paktia, Paktika, Horst, Panjshir, Daikondi.

[Judiciary] The Afghan judicial system is divided into three levels. The most basic level is the local court. There are about 350 in the country; the middle is the appeal court, which is located in the provinces of Afghanistan; the highest level is the Supreme Court, which is located in the capital Kabul.

[Party] The Transitional Government of Afghanistan promulgated the Political Parties Act in October 2003. There are nearly one hundred existing parties. The main political parties include:

(1) Jamiati Islami: Established in 1972. Islam moderates, mostly members of the Tajik. Sunni. The main leaders are Salahuddin Rabbani, Tajik; Atta Mohammad Noor, Tajik.

(2) Afghan Islamic Unity Party (Hizb-i Wahdat Islami, Khalili): The former Afghan Islamic Revolutionary Union, established in 1987. In 1991, the current name was changed. In March 1995, former leader Mazari was killed by the Taliban and the party split. It is an Islamic Shia, and its members are mostly Hazara. The party chairman is Abdul Karim Khalili, Hazara.

(3) The Islamic National Movement of Afghanistan (Junbish-i-Milli Islami): The main leader is Abdur Rashid Dostum, Uzbek.

(4) Tanzim-e-Dahwat-e Islami-ye: The main leader is Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, Pashtun.

[Important] Muhammad Ashraf Garni: President, Pashtun. A Pashtun family born in 1949 in the province of Lugar, Afghanistan, received a doctorate from Columbia University. He has taught at the University of California at Berkeley and Johns Hopkins University, has served in the United Nations and the World Bank, and has presided over post-war reconstruction in Afghanistan with World Bank officials. He was the Minister of Finance of the Karzai Transitional Government. He participated in the 2009 Afghan general election and became the President of Afghanistan in September 2014.

Abdullah Abdullah: CEO of the government, Tajik. Born in 1960, MD. Graduated from Kabul University School of Medicine in 1978. Since 1992, he has served as Director of the International Department of the Ministry of Defense of the Rabbani Government, spokesperson, Deputy Foreign Minister and Foreign Minister of the Northern Alliance Government. After the start of the peace reconstruction process in Afghanistan in 2010, he served as foreign minister. In September 2014, he was appointed as CEO.

Hamid Karzai: Former President. Pashtun. Born in 1957, he obtained a master’s degree in political science from the University of Himachal Pradesh, India. Since 1982, he has participated in the struggle against the Soviet Union. In 1997, he moved to Pakistan to carry out political activities in support of the former King Zahir. Returned to Afghanistan at the end of 2001 to assist the US and British forces in fighting the Taliban. In December of the same year, he was elected as the chairman of the interim government by representatives of the Afghan factions. In June 2002, he served as president of the Transitional Government. In October 2004, he was elected the first elected president. Re-elected in August 2009. Retired in September 2014.

Fazal Hadi Muslim Muir: Chairman of the Parliamentary Presbyterian Church, born in 1970, Pashtun in Nangarhar Province. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in law and participated in the war against the Soviet Union. From 2005 to 2009, he served as Chairman of the Nangarhar Provincial Council. In 2010, he was elected as the first vice chairman of the Afghan Parliament. In January 2011, he was elected chairman of the Presbyterian Institute.

Abdul Rauf Ibrahim: Speaker of the Parliamentary People’s Court. The former Uzbek warlords, from the northern province of Kunduz, participated in the war against the Soviet Union. In February 2011, he was elected Speaker of the People’s Court.

【经济】阿富汗是最不发达国家。历经30多年战乱,交通、通讯、工业、教育和农业基础设施遭到严重破坏,曾有600多万人沦为难民。国际社会积极支持阿和平重建与发展,向阿提供了近千亿美元的援助。2016年阿富汗问题布鲁塞尔国际会议期间,国际社会承诺将在四年内向阿提供152亿美元的援助资金。2017/2018财年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):202亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:681美元。

国内生产总值增长率:2.9%。

货币名称:阿富汗尼(Afghani),简称“阿尼”。

汇率:1美元≈68阿尼。

通货膨胀率:4.4%。

【资源】阿富汗矿藏资源较为丰富,但未得到充分开发。目前已探明的资源主要有天然气、煤、盐、铬、铁、铜、云母及绿宝石等。位于首都喀布尔南部的埃纳克铜矿已探明矿石总储量约7亿吨,铜金属总量达1133万吨。据估计可能是世界第三大铜矿带。阿还可能拥有全球第五大铁矿脉,煤储量约7300万吨。

阿富汗的河流大部分是内陆河,多注入沙漠和湖泊。主要河流有阿姆河、喀布尔河、赫尔曼德河和哈里鲁河等。

【工业】由于多年战乱,工业基础十分薄弱。以轻工业和手工业为主,主要有纺织、化肥、水泥、皮革、地毯、制糖和农产品加工等。近年来,由于喀布尔等大城市建筑业的繁荣,带动了制砖、木材加工等建材业相对发展。此外,面粉加工、手织地毯业等也有所发展。

【农牧业】农牧业是阿富汗国民经济的主要支柱。农牧业人口占全国总人口的80%。耕地不到全国土地总面积的10%。主要农作物包括小麦、棉花、甜菜、干果及各种水果。主要畜牧产品是肥尾羊、牛、山羊等。阿富汗是世界第一大毒源地“金新月”的中心。2018年鸦片产量预计约6400吨,严重影响阿和平重建进程,也对地区和平与安全带来威胁和挑战。

【交通运输】阿富汗是内陆国,无出海口。境内有通往伊朗和塔吉克斯坦的铁路。交通运输主要靠公路和航空。北部同乌兹别克斯坦和土库曼斯坦边界上的阿姆河和昆都士河部分河段有通航能力。

公路:阿全境共有公路约4.4万公里(2018年8月),主要包括喀布尔至马扎里沙里夫、赫拉特至坎大哈、喀布尔环城高速、托克汉姆至喀布尔等公路。

空运:目前有三家航空公司。阿利亚纳航空公司实力较为雄厚,主要经营国际航线。目前已开通至巴基斯坦、伊朗、阿联酋、印度、土耳其、德国、俄罗斯、阿塞拜疆、沙特、科威特和塔吉克等多条国际航线,2016年7月正式恢复开通喀布尔至乌鲁木齐航线。KAM及SAFI航空公司经营部分国内、国际航线。全国有机场43个,其中喀布尔机场等4个机场为国际机场。

[Economy] Afghanistan is the least developed country. After more than 30 years of war, traffic, communications, industry, education and agricultural infrastructure have been severely damaged, and more than 6 million people have become refugees. The international community actively supported the reconstruction and development of peace in Afghanistan and provided nearly 100 billion U.S. dollars in aid to Afghanistan. During the 2016 Brussels International Conference on Afghanistan, the international community pledged to provide A$15.2 billion in aid to Afghanistan within four years. The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $20.2 billion.

Per capita GDP: $681.

Gross domestic product growth rate: 2.9%.

Currency name: Afghani, referred to as “Ani”.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 68 Ani.

Inflation rate: 4.4%.

[Resources] Afghan mineral resources are abundant, but they have not been fully developed. The proven resources are mainly natural gas, coal, salt, chromium, iron, copper, mica and emerald. The Einak copper mine in the southern part of the capital Kabul has a proven total ore of 700 million tons of ore and a total of 11.33 million tons of copper. It is estimated that it may be the third largest copper belt in the world. A may also have the fifth largest iron ore vein in the world with a coal reserve of about 73 million tons.

Most of the rivers in Afghanistan are inland rivers, which are mostly injected into deserts and lakes. The main rivers are the Amu Darya, the Kabul River, the Helmand River and the Hariru River.

[Industry] Due to years of war, the industrial base is very weak. It is mainly based on light industry and handicraft industry, mainly including textiles, fertilizers, cement, leather, carpets, sugar and agricultural products processing. In recent years, due to the prosperity of the construction industry in major cities such as Kabul, the building materials industry such as brick making and wood processing has been relatively developed. In addition, flour processing, hand-woven carpet industry, etc. have also developed.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] Agriculture and animal husbandry is the main pillar of the Afghan national economy. The agricultural and livestock population accounts for 80% of the country’s total population. The cultivated land is less than 10% of the total land area of ​​the country. The main crops include wheat, cotton, beets, dried fruits and various fruits. The main livestock products are fat tail sheep, cattle, goats and so on. Afghanistan is the center of the “Golden Crescent”, the world’s largest source of poison. Opium production in 2018 is expected to be about 6,400 tons, which seriously affects the peace reconstruction process in Afghanistan and poses threats and challenges to regional peace and security.

[Transportation] Afghanistan is a landlocked country with no seaports. There are railways to Iran and Tajikistan. Transportation mainly depends on roads and aviation. The northern part of the Amu and Kunduz rivers on the border with Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan has navigational capacity.

Highway: A total of about 44,000 kilometers (August 2018), including Kabul to Mazar-i-Sharif, Herat to Kandahar, Kabul Ring Expressway, Tokham to Kabul and other roads.

Air transport: There are currently three airlines. Aliana Airlines is relatively strong and mainly operates international routes. It has been opened to Pakistan, Iran, United Arab Emirates, India, Turkey, Germany, Russia, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Tajikistan. In July 2016, the Kabul-Urumqi route was officially resumed. KAM and SAFI Airlines operate some domestic and international routes. There are 43 airports in the country, of which 4 airports including Kabul Airport are international airports.

【对外贸易】同60多个国家和地区有贸易往来。主要出口商品有天然气、地毯、干鲜果品、羊毛、棉花等。主要进口商品有各种食品、机动车辆、石油产品和纺织品等。主要出口对象为巴基斯坦、美国、英国、德国、印度等,主要进口国为中国、巴基斯坦、美国、日本、韩国、土库曼斯坦、印度等。

【医疗卫生】阿政府成立以来,在联合国及国际社会帮助下,大力恢复基本的民生设施,加大医务人员培训。截至2018年8月,国内共有531所医院,2400余个所各类卫生中心。

【军事安全】2002年,阿政府在美国帮助下开始筹建阿国民军。根据2012年5月北约芝加哥峰会通过的《阿富汗问题北约峰会宣言》,2014年底,美北约向阿完成安全责任移交。目前,阿富汗安全部队共约35万人,需要国际社会为其建设提供大量财政支持。2016年北约华沙峰会决定继续向阿国家安全部队提供每年10亿美元的资金支持,直至2020年。

【教育】实行12年义务教育。阿富汗教育事业受到战争严重破坏。在国际社会的大力援助下,近年阿教育事业取得很大进步。截至2018年8月,阿全国共有16100余所初等教育学校,共有897万余学生。

阿现有160所高等院校。喀布尔大学是全国最高学府,1946年创建。赫拉特大学是阿西部教育中心,2002年8月复校。

【新闻出版】共同各类报刊1336份,主要报纸有《喀布尔时报》(官方报纸)、《喀布尔周报》、《祖国报》、《阿尼斯报》等。阿富汗广播电台成立于1925年,对外用9种语言广播。阿富汗电视台于1978年建立,用波斯语、普什图语播音。

【对外交往】阿富汗重建主要依赖西方国家支持和援助。阿富汗政府外交以寻求援助为中心,积极发展同美国、德国、日本和欧盟等关系。

阿富汗重视发展与周边国家关系和参与区域合作,希望发挥地缘优势,成为本地区贸易和交通枢纽。2002年,阿富汗同包括中国在内的6个邻国共同签署《喀布尔睦邻友好宣言》《〈喀布尔睦邻友好宣言〉签署国政府关于鼓励更紧密的贸易、过境和投资合作的宣言》和《喀布尔睦邻友好禁毒宣言》。

2005年10月,阿富汗成为中亚区域经济合作组织成员,11月与上海合作组织(简称“上合组织”)建立联络组,同月成为南亚区域合作联盟成员。2012年6月,成为上合组织观察员国。

[Foreign Trade] Trade with more than 60 countries and regions. The main export commodities are natural gas, carpets, dried and fresh fruits, wool and cotton. The main imported goods are various foods, motor vehicles, petroleum products and textiles. The main export targets are Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, etc. The main importing countries are China, Pakistan, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Turkmenistan, and India.

[Medical Health] Since the establishment of the Afghan government, with the help of the United Nations and the international community, we have vigorously restored basic livelihood facilities and increased training for medical personnel. As of August 2018, there were 531 hospitals and more than 2,400 health centers in China.

[Military Security] In 2002, the Afghan government began to prepare for the establishment of the Afghan National Army with the help of the United States. According to the “NATO Summit Declaration on Afghanistan” adopted by the NATO Chicago Summit in May 2012, at the end of 2014, the United States and North Korea handed over the security responsibility to Afghanistan. At present, there are about 350,000 Afghan security forces, which require the international community to provide substantial financial support for its construction. The 2016 NATO Warsaw Summit decided to continue to provide Afghan national security forces with $1 billion in annual funding support until 2020.

[Education] Implement 12 years of compulsory education. The cause of education in Afghanistan has been severely damaged by the war. With the great assistance of the international community, the education industry in Afghanistan has made great progress in recent years. As of August 2018, there were more than 16,100 primary education schools across the country, with a total of 8.97 million students.

A total of 160 colleges and universities. The University of Kabul is the highest institution in the country and was founded in 1946. The University of Herat is the Western Education Center and re-established in August 2002.

[Press and Publication] There are 1,336 newspapers and magazines in common. The main newspapers include Kabul Times (official newspaper), Kabul Weekly, The Motherland, and Anis. The Afghan Radio Station was founded in 1925 and broadcast in nine languages. Afghan TV was established in 1978 and broadcast in Persian and Pashto.

[Foreign exchanges] Afghanistan’s reconstruction relies mainly on support and assistance from Western countries. The Afghan government’s diplomacy is centered on seeking assistance and actively develops relations with the United States, Germany, Japan and the European Union.

Afghanistan attaches importance to developing relations with neighboring countries and participating in regional cooperation. It hopes to play a geographical advantage and become a regional trade and transportation hub. In 2002, Afghanistan and the six neighboring countries including China signed the “Declaration on Good-Neighborliness and Friendship in Kabul”, “Declaration of the Kabul Good-Neighborly Declaration”, the Declaration of the Government of the Signing Countries on Encouraging Closer Trade, Transit and Investment Cooperation, and the Kabul Neighbourhood Friendly Anti-Drug Declaration.

In October 2005, Afghanistan became a member of the Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation Organization. In November, it established a liaison group with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (“SCO”) and became a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in the same month. In June 2012, he became an observer of the SCO.

【同中国的关系】1955年1月20日建交。两国关系传统友好,2001年阿和平重建以来,两国关系保持健康平稳发展。近年来,两国高层往来密切,经贸合作进展顺利,在国防、安全、文教、卫生等领域合作良好。2006年,中阿签署《中阿睦邻友好合作条约》。2012年,中阿建立战略合作伙伴关系。2002年至2014年卡尔扎伊担任总统期间,7次访华或来华参会。2014年10月,阿富汗总统加尼就任后,两国高层保持了频繁接触,加尼首次出访即是对中国进行国事访问并出席在京举行的阿富汗问题伊斯坦布尔进程第四次外长会开幕式。2017年6月,习近平主席在出席上合组织阿斯塔纳峰会期间与加尼总统举行会见。12月,李克强总理在出席索契上合组织总理会议期间与阿首席执行官阿卜杜拉举行会见。3月,阿长老院主席穆斯利姆亚尔来华出席博鳌论坛,张高丽副总理会见。9月,阿第一副首席执行官穆罕默德·汗来华出席2017年中国—阿拉伯国家博览会,全国人大常委会副委员长张平会见。同月,阿人民院议长易卜拉希米来华出席2017欧亚经济论坛,汪洋副总理会见。2018年6月,习近平主席在青岛会见来华出席上合组织峰会的加尼总统。同月,阿第二副首席执行官穆哈齐克来华出席第5届南博会,胡春华副总理会见。8月,阿议会长老院主席穆斯利姆亚尔来华出席第6届亚欧博览会,胡春华副总理会见。9月,阿第二副总统丹尼什来华出席第3届敦煌文博会,孙春兰副总理会见。10月,李克强总理在出席杜尚别上合组织总理会议期间与阿首席执行官阿卜杜拉举行会见。

中国对阿出口产品主要为机电、五金、纺织、日用品、轻工类等。自阿进口商品主要是牛羊皮等。2011年11月,中方宣布将对包括阿富汗在内33个最不发达国家97%的税目的产品给予零关税待遇。2017年,中阿双边贸易额为5.44亿美元,同比增长24.9%,其中中国出口额4.3亿美元。

中国驻阿富汗大使:刘劲松。馆址:Sardar Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Wat,Kabul,Afghanistan。电话:0093–20–2102548。传真:0093-20-2107248

阿富汗驻华临时代办:赛义德·哈比布拉曼 ·胡森普(S.Habiburahman Husinpur) 。馆址:北京市朝阳区东直门外大街8号。电话:010–65321582(中文秘书);传真:65322269。

[Relationship with China] Established diplomatic relations on January 20, 1955. The relations between the two countries have been traditionally friendly. Since the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan in 2001, relations between the two countries have maintained a healthy and stable development. In recent years, high-level exchanges between the two countries have been close, economic and trade cooperation has progressed smoothly, and cooperation has been well in the fields of national defense, security, culture, education and health. In 2006, China and Afghanistan signed the “China-Arab Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation.” In 2012, China and Argentina established a strategic partnership. During his tenure as President from 2002 to 2014, Karzai visited China or attended the conference in China. In October 2014, after the inauguration of Ghanaian President Ghani, the two countries maintained frequent contacts. Ghani’s first visit was a state visit to China and attended the opening ceremony of the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting on the Istanbul Process in Afghanistan. In June 2017, President Xi Jinping met with President Ghani during the SCO summit in Astana. In December, Premier Li Keqiang met with Azerbaijani President Abdullah during the Prime Minister’s meeting of the SCO. In March, Azure President Muslim Yayal came to China to attend the Boao Forum, and Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli met with him. In September, Afghan Deputy Chief Executive Mohamed Khan came to China to attend the 2017 China-Arab National Expo, and Zhang Ping, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, met with him. In the same month, Ibrahim, Speaker of the Afghan People’s Court, came to China to attend the 2017 Eurasian Economic Forum, and Vice Premier Wang Yang met with him. In June 2018, President Xi Jinping met in Qingdao with President Ghani, who is here to attend the SCO summit in China. In the same month, A second Deputy Chief Executive Muhazik came to China to attend the 5th South Expo and Vice Premier Hu Chunhua met with him. In August, the chairman of the Afghan Presbyterian Church, Muslim Yayal, came to China to attend the 6th Asia-Europe Expo, and Vice Premier Hu Chunhua met with him. In September, A second Vice President Daniush came to China to attend the 3rd Dunhuang Cultural Fair, and Vice Premier Sun Chunlan met with him. In October, Premier Li Keqiang met with the chief executive of the Abu Dhabi Abdullah during the meeting of the Prime Minister of the SCO.

China’s exports to Afghanistan are mainly electromechanical, hardware, textile, daily necessities, light industry and so on. Since the import of goods, mainly cattle and sheep skin. In November 2011, China announced that it would give zero-tariff treatment to 97% of the products of the 33 least developed countries including Afghanistan. In 2017, the bilateral trade volume between China and Afghanistan was US$544 million, a year-on-year increase of 24.9%, of which China’s exports amounted to US$430 million.

Chinese Ambassador to Afghanistan: Liu Jinsong. Venue: Sardar Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Wat, Kabul, Afghanistan. Phone: 0093–20–2102548. Fax: 0093-20-2107248

Afghan Interim Agency in China: S. Habiburahman Husinpur. Venue: No. 8, Dongzhimenwai Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing. Tel: 010–65321582 (Chinese Secretary); Fax: 65322269.

【同联合国的关系】联合国为推动阿富汗和平进程发挥了重要作用。2001年12月,联合国主持启动“波恩进程”,向阿派遣国际安全援助部队(ISAF)协助维护治安。2002年3月,联合国阿富汗援助团(UNAMA)成立,帮助阿政府维护稳定、保障人权、推进社会和经济发展。联合国还积极推动国际社会多次召开援阿国际会议。

【同美国的关系】阿美两国于1934年建交。“9·11”事件后,美全面主导阿富汗和平进程和经济重建,向阿提供巨额经济援助。美还协同北约等向阿地方派遣省级重建队(PRT)。2005年阿美建立战略伙伴关系并签署联合宣言,内容包括美在民主治理、经济发展、维护安全等方面向阿提供帮助,继续使用经双方同意的军事设施,在与阿协商一致的基础上享有在阿开展适当军事行动的自由等。

2012年5月,阿美签署《持久战略伙伴关系协议》,对2014年后阿美政治、经济、安全等领域合作做出规划。美国给予阿富汗“非北约主要盟国”地位,重申不寻求在阿拥有永久军事设施,但2014年后将在阿保留一定军事存在。2014年9月30日,加尼总统上台后,阿美双方签订了《双边安全与防务合作协定》。2017年8月,美国公布新的对阿富汗和南亚新政策,强调不再设定自阿撤军时限。

【同巴基斯坦的关系】阿巴两国联系紧密,巴接纳了大量阿富汗难民。但两国在边界、反恐等问题上有较大分歧。近年来,双边关系易受突发事件影响,起伏不定。双方均多次表示愿积极推动两国关系改善。2014年9月,巴基斯坦总统侯赛因出席加尼总统就职典礼。11月,加尼总统访巴。2017年10月,巴基斯坦陆军参谋长巴杰瓦访阿,提出“阿巴和平与团结行动计划(APAPPS)”2018年4月,时任巴基斯坦总理阿巴西访阿。5月,经过四轮磋商,阿巴就APAPPS案文达成一致,同意建立并尽快启动政治外交、经济、难民、军事、情报和机制审查六个工作组,推进双边合作,协商解决分歧。。

【同印度的关系】阿富汗政府重视发展对印度关系,两国高层保持密切往来。2011年10月两国建立战略合作伙伴关系。印度迄今累计向阿提供约30亿美元的援助。印度在阿设有1个使馆和4个总领馆。2006—2013年,卡尔扎伊总统8次访印,双方就印度援阿重建、加强反恐合作、推动经贸往来和区域合作等问题达成共识。2015年12月、2016年6月,印度总理莫迪两次访问阿富汗。2016年9月、2017年10月,加尼总统两次访问印度。2018年9月,加尼总统与阿卜杜拉首席执行官先后访问印度。

【同俄罗斯的关系】俄支持阿和平重建,免除阿所欠103.8亿美元债务。俄关注阿毒品问题,主张在阿周边建立禁毒“安全带”。2016年12月,俄罗斯在莫斯科举行俄罗斯—中国—巴基斯坦阿富汗问题磋商。2017年2月和4月,俄罗斯在莫斯科举行阿富汗问题磋商,中国、巴基斯坦、印度、伊朗。哈萨克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦等地区国家参加。

【同伊朗的关系】伊朗是阿富汗西部重要邻国,两国有着深厚的历史、文化、宗教、民族渊源和联系。伊朗接纳阿200多万难民。伊积极参与阿重建,重点援建与其毗邻的阿富汗赫拉特省。

【同上海合作组织的关系】阿希望成为上合组织正式成员,积极参与上合组织框架下活动。2009年至今,上合组织已举行5次阿问题副外长级磋商和一次阿富汗问题国际会议。2012年6月,阿正式成为上合组织观察员国。2017年10月,上海合作组织—阿富汗联络组首次副外长级会议在莫斯科召开。2018年5月,新一轮“上海合作组织—阿富汗联络组”副外长级会议在北京召开。

[Relationship with the United Nations] The United Nations has played an important role in promoting the peace process in Afghanistan. In December 2001, the United Nations hosted the “Bonn Process” and dispatched the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to Afghanistan to help maintain law and order. In March 2002, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established to help the Afghan government maintain stability, protect human rights, and promote social and economic development. The United Nations has also actively promoted the international community to hold a number of international conferences in Afghanistan.

[Relationship with the United States] The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1934. After the “September 11” incident, the United States comprehensively led the Afghan peace process and economic reconstruction, and provided huge economic assistance to Afghanistan. The United States also dispatched a provincial reconstruction team (PRT) to the local government in coordination with NATO. In 2005, Ami established a strategic partnership and signed a joint declaration, including the United States providing assistance to Afghanistan in the areas of democratic governance, economic development, and maintaining security. It continued to use military facilities agreed by both parties and enjoyed the agreement on the basis of consensus. A free exercise of appropriate military operations.

In May 2012, Arama signed the “Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement” to plan for cooperation in the fields of politics, economy and security in the post-2014 period. The United States has given Afghanistan the status of a “non-NATO major ally” and reiterated that it does not seek permanent military facilities in Afghanistan, but will retain a certain military presence in Afghanistan after 2014. On September 30, 2014, after President Ghani took office, the two sides signed the Agreement on Cooperation in Bilateral Security and Defense. In August 2017, the United States announced a new policy on Afghanistan and South Asia, emphasizing that it will no longer set a time limit for withdrawal from Afghanistan.

[Relationship with Pakistan] The two countries have close ties, and Pakistan has accepted a large number of Afghan refugees. However, the two countries have major differences on issues such as borders and anti-terrorism. In recent years, bilateral relations have been vulnerable to unexpected events and have been volatile. Both sides have repeatedly expressed their willingness to actively promote the improvement of bilateral relations. In September 2014, Pakistani President Hussein attended the inauguration ceremony of President Ghani. In November, President Ghani visited Pakistan. In October 2017, Pakistani Army Chief of Staff Bajwa visited Afghanistan and proposed the “Aba Peace and Solidarity Action Plan (APAPPS)” in April 2018, when Pakistani Prime Minister Abbas visited Afghanistan. In May, after four rounds of consultations, Abba reached an agreement on the APAPPS text and agreed to establish and start six working groups on political diplomacy, economics, refugees, military, intelligence and mechanism review as soon as possible, promote bilateral cooperation, and resolve differences through consultation. .

[Relationship with India] The Afghan government attaches importance to developing relations with India and maintains close contacts between the two countries. In October 2011, the two countries established a strategic partnership. India has so far provided Afghanistan with about $3 billion in aid. India has one embassy and four consulates in Afghanistan. From 2006 to 2013, President Karzai visited India eight times. The two sides reached consensus on issues such as India’s aid to Afghanistan, strengthening anti-terrorism cooperation, promoting economic and trade exchanges and regional cooperation. In December 2015 and June 2016, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Afghanistan twice. In September 2016 and October 2017, President Ghani visited India twice. In September 2018, President Ghani and the CEO of Abdullah visited India.

[Relationship with Russia] Russia supports the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan and exempts Afghanistan from debts of $10.38 billion. Russia is concerned about the Arab drug problem and advocates the establishment of an anti-drug “safety belt” around Afghanistan. In December 2016, Russia held a consultation on Russia-China-Pakistan Afghanistan in Moscow. In February and April 2017, Russia held consultations on Afghanistan in Moscow, China, Pakistan, India and Iran. Countries from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan participated.

[Relationship with Iran] Iran is an important neighbor of western Afghanistan. The two countries have profound historical, cultural, religious, ethnic origins and connections. Iran accepts more than 2 million refugees. Iraq actively participated in the reconstruction of Afghanistan and focused on building the Ahrat province of Afghanistan adjacent to it.

[Relationship with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization] Azerbaijan hopes to become a full member of the SCO and actively participate in activities under the framework of the SCO. Since 2009, the SCO has held five consultations at the vice foreign minister level and an international conference on Afghanistan. In June 2012, A-form officially became an observer of the SCO. In October 2017, the first deputy foreign ministerial meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group was held in Moscow. In May 2018, a new round of the “Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group” deputy foreign ministers meeting was held in Beijing.