The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan 阿富汗伊斯兰共和国
【国名】阿富汗伊斯兰共和国（The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan）。
【国家元首】穆罕默德·阿什拉夫·加尼（Mohammad Ashraf Ghani）。2014年9月当选阿富汗总统，任期5年。
[Country name] The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
[Area] 647,500 square kilometers.
[Population] about 36.8 million (IMF, 2017). The Pashtuns account for 40%, the Tajiks account for 25%, and there are more than 20 ethnic minorities such as Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmenistan. Pashto and Dari are the official languages, and other languages are Uzbek, Baluchi, Turkish, etc. Sunni Muslims account for 86%, Shiite Muslims account for 13%, and others account for 1%.
[Capital] Kabul, with a population of about 4.52 million (Afghanistan Central Bureau of Statistics, 2016). The climate is mild and the four seasons are distinct. The annual average temperature is around 13 °C.
[Head of State] Mohammad Ashraf Ghani. In September 2014, he was elected President of Afghanistan for a five-year term.
[Important Festival] Afghan New Year: March 21; Afghan Independence Day: August 19; Eid al-Fitr: annual date is uncertain, according to the Islamic calendar; Gulben Festival: The annual date is uncertain, with the Islamic calendar.
[Geography] A landlocked country in the Midwest of Asia. It borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north, Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, and a narrow strip in the northeast bordering China. It has a continental climate, dry and dry throughout the year, cold in winter and hot in summer. The annual average annual rainfall is only 240 mm.
[History] The Kingdom of Afghanistan was founded in 1747 and was once strong. After the 19th century, the national strength was declining and it became the competition between Britain and Russia. In 1919, he gained independence from British colonial rule, and August 19 was Independence Day. In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. In February 1989, the Soviet army withdrew. After the fact that the various factions resisted the Soviet armed forces and seized power, Ah fell into a civil war. The rise of the Taliban in 1994 and the capture of Kabul in September 1996 established power. In October 1997, the country was renamed “Afghanistan Islamic Emirate” and practiced Islamic rule in Afghanistan. After the “9.11” incident, the Taliban regime collapsed under the US military strike. Under the auspices of the United Nations, Afghanistan launched the post-war reconstruction of the Bonn process. In December 2001, A set up an interim government. In June 2002, a transitional government was established. In October 2004, Karzai was elected as the first elected president. In August 2009, A held the second presidential election, Karzai won, and took office in November of the same year. In 2014, Afghanistan held a presidential election. On September 29, Ghani was sworn in as the Afghan president and Abdullah was appointed chief executive.
In recent years, although the political and economic reconstruction of Afghanistan has made positive progress, the security situation continues to be unsettled, the Taliban is still active, and corruption and drug abuse are also threatening the stability and development of Afghanistan. In October 2010, Afghanistan established a high-level peace committee chaired by former President Rabbani and a number of former jihadist leaders, responsible for promoting the Afghan government and the Taliban and other anti-government armed forces. In September 2011, Rabbani was assassinated and the Afghan reconciliation process was severely frustrated. In January 2012, the Afghan Taliban announced the establishment of a peace talks office in Qatar to engage in peace talks with the United States. After the incident of the burning of the Qur’an and the shooting of Afghan civilians in the United States, the Taliban announced that they would suspend contact with the United States. In June 2013, Atta announced the establishment of the Taliban office in Doha, Qatar under the name of “Afghanistan Islamic Emirate”, causing strong dissatisfaction from the Afghan government. Under the pressure of all parties, Atta was forced to cancel the title, but the office is still operating. In July 2015, the Taliban held the first round of public peace talks with the Afghan government in Pakistan. After the death of the leader of the tower, Omar, the peace talks were suspended and no substantive progress has been made.
【议会】根据阿富汗宪法，国民议会是国家最高立法机关，由人民院（下院）和长老院（上院）组成。人民院议员不超过250名，根据各地人口数量平均分配，但保证每省至少有2名女议员。长老院议员从各省、区管理委员会成员中间接选举产生。国民议会有权弹劾总统，但须召集大支尔格会议并获得2/3以上多数通过才可免除总统职务。阿现议会于2010年9月选举产生，2011年1月正式成立。现任长老院主席为法扎尔·哈迪·穆斯林姆亚尔（Fazal Hadi Muslimyar），人民院议长为阿卜杜·拉乌夫·伊卜拉希米（Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi）。
【政府】现主要成员包括：总统穆罕默德·阿什拉夫·加尼，第一副总统阿卜杜勒·拉希德·杜斯塔姆（Abdul Rashid Dostum），第二副总统萨瓦尔·丹尼什（Sarwar Danish），首席执行官阿卜杜拉·阿卜杜拉（Abdullah Abdullah ），第一副首席执行官穆罕默德·汗（Mohammad Khan），第二副首席执行官穆罕默德·穆哈齐克（Mohammad Mohaqiq），外交部长萨拉胡丁·拉巴尼（Salahuddin Rabbani），代理财政部长穆罕默德·胡马雍·卡尤米（Mohammad Humayon Qayoumi），代理国防部长阿萨杜拉·哈立德（Assadullah Khaled），代理内政部长阿姆鲁拉·萨利赫（Amrullah Saleh ），朝觐及伊斯兰事务部长法伊兹·穆罕默德·奥斯玛尼（Faiz Mohammad Osmani），农村复兴与发展部长穆吉布·拉赫曼·卡瑞米（Mujib Rahman Karimi），难民和归国部长赛义德·侯赛因·阿里米·巴勒齐（Sayed Hussain Alimi Balkhi）。
[Constitution] From January 2002 to January 2004, Afghanistan followed the 1964 Constitution promulgated by former King Zahir. On January 26, 2004, the President of the Afghan Transitional Government, Karzai, signed a new constitution to establish the name of the “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan” and the presidential system.
[Parliament] According to the Afghan Constitution, the National Assembly is the highest legislative body of the country, consisting of the People’s Court (lower house) and the Presbyterian Church (upper house). There are no more than 250 members of the People’s Assembly, which are distributed equally according to the population of each place, but guarantee that there are at least two women members in each province. Members of the Senate are elected indirectly from members of the provincial and district management committees. The National Assembly has the power to impeach the President, but it is necessary to convene a large ergge meeting and obtain a majority of more than two-thirds to waive the presidency. The current parliament was elected in September 2010 and was formally established in January 2011. The current president of the Presbyterian Church is Fazal Hadi Muslimyar, and the Speaker of the House of People is Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi.
[Greater Jirga Conference] Also known as the “Great National Assembly.” According to the new Afghan Constitution, the Great Loya Jirga is the highest embodiment of the will of the Afghan people. It consists of members of the upper and lower houses of the parliament and the provincial council presidents. It is responsible for formulating and amending the constitution, approving other relevant laws of the country, and having the power to decide on the independence and sovereignty of the country. Issues such as territorial integrity and national interests; review of the list of cabinets submitted by the President; cabinet ministers, Supreme Court judges and justices may attend the meeting; meetings are held from time to time.
In June 2002, Azerbaijan convened an emergency Loya Jirga to elect the Afghan Transitional Government headed by President Karzai. In December 2003, the Constitutional Loya Jirga was held to formulate and adopt a new constitution. The Peace Loya Jirga was held in June 2010, calling on the Taliban to participate in the political reconciliation process. The Big Jirga Conference was held in November 2011 to discuss Afghanistan’s strategic partnership with the United States.
[Government] The main members now include: President Mohamed Ashraf Ghani, First Vice President Abdul Rashid Dostum, Second Vice President Saval Danny Sarwar Danish, CEO Abdullah Abdullah, first deputy chief executive Mohammad Khan, second deputy chief executive Mohamed Muhazic ( Mohammad Mohaqiq), Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani, Acting Minister of Finance Mohammad Humayon Qayoumi, Acting Secretary of Defense Assadullah Khaled Acting Interior Minister Amrullah Saleh, Minister of Hajj and Islamic Affairs Faiz Mohammad Osmani, Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Mujib Rah Mujib Rahman Karimi, Refugee and Returning Minister Sayed Hussain Alimi Balkhi.
（1）阿富汗伊斯兰促进会（Jamiati Islami）：1972年成立。伊斯兰教温和派，成员多为塔吉克族。逊尼派。主要领导人是萨拉胡丁·拉巴尼（Salahuddin Rabbani），塔吉克族；阿塔·穆罕默德·努尔（Atta Mohammad Noor），塔吉克族。
（2）阿富汗伊斯兰统一党（Hizb-i Wahdat Islami，哈利利派）：原阿富汗伊斯兰革命联盟，1987年成立。1991年改用现名。1995年3月，原领导人马扎里被塔利班杀害，该党分裂。属伊斯兰教什叶派，成员多为哈扎拉族人。党主席是穆罕默德·卡里姆·哈利利（Abdul Karim Khalili），哈扎拉族。
（3）阿富汗伊斯兰民族运动（Junbish-i-Milli Islami）：主要领导人是阿卜杜尔·拉希德·杜斯塔姆（Abdur Rashid Dostum），乌兹别克族。
（4）阿富汗伊斯兰达瓦组织（Tanzim-e-Dahwat-e Islami-ye）：主要领导人是阿卜杜·拉苏尔·萨亚夫（Abdul Rasul Sayyaf），普什图族。
[Administrative divisions] The country is divided into 34 provinces, with counties, districts, townships and villages. Names of the provinces: Kabul, Badakhshan, Tahar, Kunduz, Balkh, Juzcan, Faryab, Badghis, Herat, Gul, Sarpur, Samangan , Baghlan, Bamiyan, Parwan, Wardak, Kappa, Laghman, Nuerstein, Kunar, Nangarhar, Logar, Ghazni, Uruzgan, Farah , Nimruz, Helmand, Kandahar, Zabul, Paktia, Paktika, Horst, Panjshir, Daikondi.
[Judiciary] The Afghan judicial system is divided into three levels. The most basic level is the local court. There are about 350 in the country; the middle is the appeal court, which is located in the provinces of Afghanistan; the highest level is the Supreme Court, which is located in the capital Kabul.
[Party] The Transitional Government of Afghanistan promulgated the Political Parties Act in October 2003. There are nearly one hundred existing parties. The main political parties include:
(1) Jamiati Islami: Established in 1972. Islam moderates, mostly members of the Tajik. Sunni. The main leaders are Salahuddin Rabbani, Tajik; Atta Mohammad Noor, Tajik.
(2) Afghan Islamic Unity Party (Hizb-i Wahdat Islami, Khalili): The former Afghan Islamic Revolutionary Union, established in 1987. In 1991, the current name was changed. In March 1995, former leader Mazari was killed by the Taliban and the party split. It is an Islamic Shia, and its members are mostly Hazara. The party chairman is Abdul Karim Khalili, Hazara.
(3) The Islamic National Movement of Afghanistan (Junbish-i-Milli Islami): The main leader is Abdur Rashid Dostum, Uzbek.
(4) Tanzim-e-Dahwat-e Islami-ye: The main leader is Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, Pashtun.
[Important] Muhammad Ashraf Garni: President, Pashtun. A Pashtun family born in 1949 in the province of Lugar, Afghanistan, received a doctorate from Columbia University. He has taught at the University of California at Berkeley and Johns Hopkins University, has served in the United Nations and the World Bank, and has presided over post-war reconstruction in Afghanistan with World Bank officials. He was the Minister of Finance of the Karzai Transitional Government. He participated in the 2009 Afghan general election and became the President of Afghanistan in September 2014.
Abdullah Abdullah: CEO of the government, Tajik. Born in 1960, MD. Graduated from Kabul University School of Medicine in 1978. Since 1992, he has served as Director of the International Department of the Ministry of Defense of the Rabbani Government, spokesperson, Deputy Foreign Minister and Foreign Minister of the Northern Alliance Government. After the start of the peace reconstruction process in Afghanistan in 2010, he served as foreign minister. In September 2014, he was appointed as CEO.
Hamid Karzai: Former President. Pashtun. Born in 1957, he obtained a master’s degree in political science from the University of Himachal Pradesh, India. Since 1982, he has participated in the struggle against the Soviet Union. In 1997, he moved to Pakistan to carry out political activities in support of the former King Zahir. Returned to Afghanistan at the end of 2001 to assist the US and British forces in fighting the Taliban. In December of the same year, he was elected as the chairman of the interim government by representatives of the Afghan factions. In June 2002, he served as president of the Transitional Government. In October 2004, he was elected the first elected president. Re-elected in August 2009. Retired in September 2014.
Fazal Hadi Muslim Muir: Chairman of the Parliamentary Presbyterian Church, born in 1970, Pashtun in Nangarhar Province. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in law and participated in the war against the Soviet Union. From 2005 to 2009, he served as Chairman of the Nangarhar Provincial Council. In 2010, he was elected as the first vice chairman of the Afghan Parliament. In January 2011, he was elected chairman of the Presbyterian Institute.
Abdul Rauf Ibrahim: Speaker of the Parliamentary People’s Court. The former Uzbek warlords, from the northern province of Kunduz, participated in the war against the Soviet Union. In February 2011, he was elected Speaker of the People’s Court.
[Economy] Afghanistan is the least developed country. After more than 30 years of war, traffic, communications, industry, education and agricultural infrastructure have been severely damaged, and more than 6 million people have become refugees. The international community actively supported the reconstruction and development of peace in Afghanistan and provided nearly 100 billion U.S. dollars in aid to Afghanistan. During the 2016 Brussels International Conference on Afghanistan, the international community pledged to provide A$15.2 billion in aid to Afghanistan within four years. The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $20.2 billion.
Per capita GDP: $681.
Gross domestic product growth rate: 2.9%.
Currency name: Afghani, referred to as “Ani”.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 68 Ani.
Inflation rate: 4.4%.
[Resources] Afghan mineral resources are abundant, but they have not been fully developed. The proven resources are mainly natural gas, coal, salt, chromium, iron, copper, mica and emerald. The Einak copper mine in the southern part of the capital Kabul has a proven total ore of 700 million tons of ore and a total of 11.33 million tons of copper. It is estimated that it may be the third largest copper belt in the world. A may also have the fifth largest iron ore vein in the world with a coal reserve of about 73 million tons.
Most of the rivers in Afghanistan are inland rivers, which are mostly injected into deserts and lakes. The main rivers are the Amu Darya, the Kabul River, the Helmand River and the Hariru River.
[Industry] Due to years of war, the industrial base is very weak. It is mainly based on light industry and handicraft industry, mainly including textiles, fertilizers, cement, leather, carpets, sugar and agricultural products processing. In recent years, due to the prosperity of the construction industry in major cities such as Kabul, the building materials industry such as brick making and wood processing has been relatively developed. In addition, flour processing, hand-woven carpet industry, etc. have also developed.
[Agriculture and animal husbandry] Agriculture and animal husbandry is the main pillar of the Afghan national economy. The agricultural and livestock population accounts for 80% of the country’s total population. The cultivated land is less than 10% of the total land area of the country. The main crops include wheat, cotton, beets, dried fruits and various fruits. The main livestock products are fat tail sheep, cattle, goats and so on. Afghanistan is the center of the “Golden Crescent”, the world’s largest source of poison. Opium production in 2018 is expected to be about 6,400 tons, which seriously affects the peace reconstruction process in Afghanistan and poses threats and challenges to regional peace and security.
[Transportation] Afghanistan is a landlocked country with no seaports. There are railways to Iran and Tajikistan. Transportation mainly depends on roads and aviation. The northern part of the Amu and Kunduz rivers on the border with Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan has navigational capacity.
Highway: A total of about 44,000 kilometers (August 2018), including Kabul to Mazar-i-Sharif, Herat to Kandahar, Kabul Ring Expressway, Tokham to Kabul and other roads.
Air transport: There are currently three airlines. Aliana Airlines is relatively strong and mainly operates international routes. It has been opened to Pakistan, Iran, United Arab Emirates, India, Turkey, Germany, Russia, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Tajikistan. In July 2016, the Kabul-Urumqi route was officially resumed. KAM and SAFI Airlines operate some domestic and international routes. There are 43 airports in the country, of which 4 airports including Kabul Airport are international airports.
[Foreign Trade] Trade with more than 60 countries and regions. The main export commodities are natural gas, carpets, dried and fresh fruits, wool and cotton. The main imported goods are various foods, motor vehicles, petroleum products and textiles. The main export targets are Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, etc. The main importing countries are China, Pakistan, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Turkmenistan, and India.
[Medical Health] Since the establishment of the Afghan government, with the help of the United Nations and the international community, we have vigorously restored basic livelihood facilities and increased training for medical personnel. As of August 2018, there were 531 hospitals and more than 2,400 health centers in China.
[Military Security] In 2002, the Afghan government began to prepare for the establishment of the Afghan National Army with the help of the United States. According to the “NATO Summit Declaration on Afghanistan” adopted by the NATO Chicago Summit in May 2012, at the end of 2014, the United States and North Korea handed over the security responsibility to Afghanistan. At present, there are about 350,000 Afghan security forces, which require the international community to provide substantial financial support for its construction. The 2016 NATO Warsaw Summit decided to continue to provide Afghan national security forces with $1 billion in annual funding support until 2020.
[Education] Implement 12 years of compulsory education. The cause of education in Afghanistan has been severely damaged by the war. With the great assistance of the international community, the education industry in Afghanistan has made great progress in recent years. As of August 2018, there were more than 16,100 primary education schools across the country, with a total of 8.97 million students.
A total of 160 colleges and universities. The University of Kabul is the highest institution in the country and was founded in 1946. The University of Herat is the Western Education Center and re-established in August 2002.
[Press and Publication] There are 1,336 newspapers and magazines in common. The main newspapers include Kabul Times (official newspaper), Kabul Weekly, The Motherland, and Anis. The Afghan Radio Station was founded in 1925 and broadcast in nine languages. Afghan TV was established in 1978 and broadcast in Persian and Pashto.
[Foreign exchanges] Afghanistan’s reconstruction relies mainly on support and assistance from Western countries. The Afghan government’s diplomacy is centered on seeking assistance and actively develops relations with the United States, Germany, Japan and the European Union.
Afghanistan attaches importance to developing relations with neighboring countries and participating in regional cooperation. It hopes to play a geographical advantage and become a regional trade and transportation hub. In 2002, Afghanistan and the six neighboring countries including China signed the “Declaration on Good-Neighborliness and Friendship in Kabul”, “Declaration of the Kabul Good-Neighborly Declaration”, the Declaration of the Government of the Signing Countries on Encouraging Closer Trade, Transit and Investment Cooperation, and the Kabul Neighbourhood Friendly Anti-Drug Declaration.
In October 2005, Afghanistan became a member of the Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation Organization. In November, it established a liaison group with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (“SCO”) and became a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in the same month. In June 2012, he became an observer of the SCO.
中国驻阿富汗大使：刘劲松。馆址：Sardar Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Wat，Kabul，Afghanistan。电话：0093–20–2102548。传真：0093-20-2107248
阿富汗驻华临时代办：赛义德·哈比布拉曼 ·胡森普（S.Habiburahman Husinpur) 。馆址：北京市朝阳区东直门外大街8号。电话：010–65321582（中文秘书）；传真：65322269。
[Relationship with China] Established diplomatic relations on January 20, 1955. The relations between the two countries have been traditionally friendly. Since the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan in 2001, relations between the two countries have maintained a healthy and stable development. In recent years, high-level exchanges between the two countries have been close, economic and trade cooperation has progressed smoothly, and cooperation has been well in the fields of national defense, security, culture, education and health. In 2006, China and Afghanistan signed the “China-Arab Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation.” In 2012, China and Argentina established a strategic partnership. During his tenure as President from 2002 to 2014, Karzai visited China or attended the conference in China. In October 2014, after the inauguration of Ghanaian President Ghani, the two countries maintained frequent contacts. Ghani’s first visit was a state visit to China and attended the opening ceremony of the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting on the Istanbul Process in Afghanistan. In June 2017, President Xi Jinping met with President Ghani during the SCO summit in Astana. In December, Premier Li Keqiang met with Azerbaijani President Abdullah during the Prime Minister’s meeting of the SCO. In March, Azure President Muslim Yayal came to China to attend the Boao Forum, and Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli met with him. In September, Afghan Deputy Chief Executive Mohamed Khan came to China to attend the 2017 China-Arab National Expo, and Zhang Ping, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, met with him. In the same month, Ibrahim, Speaker of the Afghan People’s Court, came to China to attend the 2017 Eurasian Economic Forum, and Vice Premier Wang Yang met with him. In June 2018, President Xi Jinping met in Qingdao with President Ghani, who is here to attend the SCO summit in China. In the same month, A second Deputy Chief Executive Muhazik came to China to attend the 5th South Expo and Vice Premier Hu Chunhua met with him. In August, the chairman of the Afghan Presbyterian Church, Muslim Yayal, came to China to attend the 6th Asia-Europe Expo, and Vice Premier Hu Chunhua met with him. In September, A second Vice President Daniush came to China to attend the 3rd Dunhuang Cultural Fair, and Vice Premier Sun Chunlan met with him. In October, Premier Li Keqiang met with the chief executive of the Abu Dhabi Abdullah during the meeting of the Prime Minister of the SCO.
China’s exports to Afghanistan are mainly electromechanical, hardware, textile, daily necessities, light industry and so on. Since the import of goods, mainly cattle and sheep skin. In November 2011, China announced that it would give zero-tariff treatment to 97% of the products of the 33 least developed countries including Afghanistan. In 2017, the bilateral trade volume between China and Afghanistan was US$544 million, a year-on-year increase of 24.9%, of which China’s exports amounted to US$430 million.
Chinese Ambassador to Afghanistan: Liu Jinsong. Venue: Sardar Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Wat, Kabul, Afghanistan. Phone: 0093–20–2102548. Fax: 0093-20-2107248
Afghan Interim Agency in China: S. Habiburahman Husinpur. Venue: No. 8, Dongzhimenwai Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing. Tel: 010–65321582 (Chinese Secretary); Fax: 65322269.
[Relationship with the United Nations] The United Nations has played an important role in promoting the peace process in Afghanistan. In December 2001, the United Nations hosted the “Bonn Process” and dispatched the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to Afghanistan to help maintain law and order. In March 2002, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established to help the Afghan government maintain stability, protect human rights, and promote social and economic development. The United Nations has also actively promoted the international community to hold a number of international conferences in Afghanistan.
[Relationship with the United States] The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1934. After the “September 11” incident, the United States comprehensively led the Afghan peace process and economic reconstruction, and provided huge economic assistance to Afghanistan. The United States also dispatched a provincial reconstruction team (PRT) to the local government in coordination with NATO. In 2005, Ami established a strategic partnership and signed a joint declaration, including the United States providing assistance to Afghanistan in the areas of democratic governance, economic development, and maintaining security. It continued to use military facilities agreed by both parties and enjoyed the agreement on the basis of consensus. A free exercise of appropriate military operations.
In May 2012, Arama signed the “Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement” to plan for cooperation in the fields of politics, economy and security in the post-2014 period. The United States has given Afghanistan the status of a “non-NATO major ally” and reiterated that it does not seek permanent military facilities in Afghanistan, but will retain a certain military presence in Afghanistan after 2014. On September 30, 2014, after President Ghani took office, the two sides signed the Agreement on Cooperation in Bilateral Security and Defense. In August 2017, the United States announced a new policy on Afghanistan and South Asia, emphasizing that it will no longer set a time limit for withdrawal from Afghanistan.
[Relationship with Pakistan] The two countries have close ties, and Pakistan has accepted a large number of Afghan refugees. However, the two countries have major differences on issues such as borders and anti-terrorism. In recent years, bilateral relations have been vulnerable to unexpected events and have been volatile. Both sides have repeatedly expressed their willingness to actively promote the improvement of bilateral relations. In September 2014, Pakistani President Hussein attended the inauguration ceremony of President Ghani. In November, President Ghani visited Pakistan. In October 2017, Pakistani Army Chief of Staff Bajwa visited Afghanistan and proposed the “Aba Peace and Solidarity Action Plan (APAPPS)” in April 2018, when Pakistani Prime Minister Abbas visited Afghanistan. In May, after four rounds of consultations, Abba reached an agreement on the APAPPS text and agreed to establish and start six working groups on political diplomacy, economics, refugees, military, intelligence and mechanism review as soon as possible, promote bilateral cooperation, and resolve differences through consultation. .
[Relationship with India] The Afghan government attaches importance to developing relations with India and maintains close contacts between the two countries. In October 2011, the two countries established a strategic partnership. India has so far provided Afghanistan with about $3 billion in aid. India has one embassy and four consulates in Afghanistan. From 2006 to 2013, President Karzai visited India eight times. The two sides reached consensus on issues such as India’s aid to Afghanistan, strengthening anti-terrorism cooperation, promoting economic and trade exchanges and regional cooperation. In December 2015 and June 2016, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Afghanistan twice. In September 2016 and October 2017, President Ghani visited India twice. In September 2018, President Ghani and the CEO of Abdullah visited India.
[Relationship with Russia] Russia supports the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan and exempts Afghanistan from debts of $10.38 billion. Russia is concerned about the Arab drug problem and advocates the establishment of an anti-drug “safety belt” around Afghanistan. In December 2016, Russia held a consultation on Russia-China-Pakistan Afghanistan in Moscow. In February and April 2017, Russia held consultations on Afghanistan in Moscow, China, Pakistan, India and Iran. Countries from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan participated.
[Relationship with Iran] Iran is an important neighbor of western Afghanistan. The two countries have profound historical, cultural, religious, ethnic origins and connections. Iran accepts more than 2 million refugees. Iraq actively participated in the reconstruction of Afghanistan and focused on building the Ahrat province of Afghanistan adjacent to it.
[Relationship with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization] Azerbaijan hopes to become a full member of the SCO and actively participate in activities under the framework of the SCO. Since 2009, the SCO has held five consultations at the vice foreign minister level and an international conference on Afghanistan. In June 2012, A-form officially became an observer of the SCO. In October 2017, the first deputy foreign ministerial meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group was held in Moscow. In May 2018, a new round of the “Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group” deputy foreign ministers meeting was held in Beijing.