The Independent State of Samoa 萨摩亚独立国
【国名】 萨摩亚独立国（The Independent State of Samoa）。
【国家元首】 图伊马莱阿利法诺·瓦莱托阿·苏阿劳维二世（Tuimaleali’ifano Va’aletoa Sualauvi II），2017年7月21日就任，任期5年。
【议会】 一院制，称立法议会，通常共有49名议员（本届议会因女性议员未达选举法规定最小比例而多补一名女性，因此共50名议员），分别从全国49个选区产生。其中2个议席专为非纯萨摩亚血统的人（历史上称为“欧洲人”）而设。原规定除独立选区外，仅“马他伊”即酋长才有选举权和被选举权，1991年3月改为普选后，凡年满21岁的萨摩亚公民均有选举权，仍只有“马他伊”享有被选举权。议员任期也由3年改为5年。本届议会于2016年3月产生。目前执政的人权保护党占议会35席，反对党服务萨摩亚党3席，独立议员12席。议长雷奥佩佩·托利富阿·阿普鲁·法菲西（Leaupepe Toleafoa Apulu Faafisi，人权保护党）。
【政府】 内阁由总理、副总理和11名部长组成，任期5年。总理由议会选出并经元首确认。总理从议员中提名组阁。本届政府于2016年3月18日宣誓就职。2016年6月30日内阁小幅改组。现内阁成员共13名：总理兼外交贸易部长图伊拉埃帕·卢佩索里艾·萨伊莱莱·马利埃莱额奥伊（Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi），副总理兼自然资源与环境部长菲娅梅·内奥米·马塔阿法(女)（Fiame Naomi Mata’afa），公共企业和旅游部长拉乌塔菲·菲欧·塞拉菲·珀赛尔（Lautafi Fio Selafi Purcell），卫生部长图伊塔马·塔拉莱莱·图伊塔马（Tuitama Talalelei Tuitama），警察部长萨拉·法塔·皮纳蒂（Sala Fata Pinati），财政部长希利·埃帕·图伊沃蒂（Sili Epa Tuioti）,妇女、社区与社会发展部长法伊马洛托阿·基卡·耶马伊马·斯图尔斯（女）（Faimalotoa Kika Iemaima Stowers），农渔部长洛帕奥·纳塔涅卢·姆阿（Lopaoo Natanielu Mua），通讯与信息技术部长阿法马萨加·勒普伊埃·里科·图派（Afamasaga Lepuiai Rico Tupai），司法与法庭管理部长法奥雷萨·卡托帕奥·埃努乌（Faaolesa Katopau Ainuu），海关与税收部长蒂阿拉维亚·菲欧·雷纽·蒂欧尼西沃·亨特（Tialavea Feo Leniu Tionisio Hunt），工程、交通与基础设施部长帕帕里伊特莱·尼可·李航（Papaliitele Niko Lee Hang），教育、体育与文化部长洛奥·索拉·科尼蒂·西沃（Loau Sola Keneti Sio）。
[Country name] The Independent State of Samoa.
[Area] The land area is 2,934 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of 120,000 square kilometers.
[Population] 19.7 million people (2017). The vast majority are Samoans, belonging to the Polynesian race; there are a few other Pacific Islanders, Europeans and Chinese, and mixed races. There are about 300 Chinese overseas Chinese. The official language is Samoan, General English. Most residents believe in Christianity.
[Head of State] Tuimaleali’ifano Va’aletoa Sualauvi II, took office on July 21, 2017 for a five-year term.
[Important Festival] National Day (also known as Independence Day): June 1.
[profile] Located in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean, west of Samoa, by the two main islands of Upolu, Savaii and nearby Manono, Apolima, Nuutere, Nuulova It consists of eight small islands (Manono, Apolima, Nuutele, Nuulua, Namua, Fanuatapu, Nuusafee, Nuulopa) such as Namuwa, Fanuwa Tap, Nuusafie, Nuupopa. Most of the territory is covered by jungle. Tropical rain forest climate. The dry season is from May to October and the rainy season from November to April. The annual average temperature is 28 °C, and the average annual precipitation is 2000 to 3500 mm.
Samoans have settled here 3,000 years ago. Conquered by the Kingdom of Tonga about 1,000 years ago. In 1250 the Maretoya family ousted the Tonga invaders and Samoa became an independent kingdom. In 1722 the Dutch discovered Samoa. In the middle of the 19th century, Britain, the United States, and Germany invaded. In 1899, the three countries signed the treaty, Western Samoa became the German colony, and East Samoa was ruled by the United States. After the outbreak of the First World War, New Zealand declared war on Germany and occupied Western Samoa. In 1920, the League of Nations handed over Sisal to New Zealand. Between 1920 and 1936, the famous “Mau” (MAU) movement against the colonial rule took place in Sisa, and the slogan of the “Samoya Samoan” was put forward. Internal autonomy began in 1954. On January 1, 1962, Sissa took the lead in independence among the Pacific island countries, and the country was named “Western Samoa Independent State.” In June 1963, June 1 was changed to Independence Day. On 4 July 1997, the independent State of Western Samoa was renamed the Independent State of Samoa.
[Constitution] It was enacted in 1960 and became effective on January 1, 1962. The head of state is elected by the parliament for a term of five years. The first head of state is a tenured position. In addition to the head of state, a representative committee is also established, and the members are the deputy heads of state, no more than three.
[Parliament] The one-chamber system, called the Legislative Assembly, usually has a total of 49 members (the current parliament is due to the fact that female parliamentarians do not meet the minimum percentage of the electoral law and more than one woman, so a total of 50 members), respectively, from 49 constituencies across the country. Two of the seats were designed for people of non-pure Samoan origin (historically known as “European”). In addition to the independent constituency, only the “Matai”, the chieftain, has the right to vote and to be elected. After the general election in March 1991, all Samoan citizens who have reached the age of 21 have the right to vote. “The right to be elected.” The term of office of the members of the parliament has also been changed from three years to five years. The current parliament was produced in March 2016. The current ruling human rights protection party holds 35 seats in the parliament, the opposition party serves 3 seats in the Samoan party, and 12 independent members. Speaker Leaupepe Toleafoa Apulu Faafisi (Human Rights Protection Party).
[Government] The cabinet consists of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister and 11 ministers for a term of five years. The total reason is elected by the Parliament and confirmed by the Head of State. The Prime Minister nominated the cabinet from among the members. The current government was sworn in on March 18, 2016. The cabinet was slightly reorganized on June 30, 2016. There are currently 13 members of the cabinet: Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi, Deputy Prime Minister and Natural Resources and Environment Minister Fiame Naomi Mata’afa, Minister of Public Enterprise and Tourism, Lautafi Fio Selafi Purcell , Minister of Health Tuitama Talalelei Tuitama, Police Minister Sala Fata Pinati, Finance Minister Healy Epa Tui Sili Epa Tuioti, Minister of Women, Community and Social Development Faimalotoa Kika Iemaima Stowers, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Lopao · Lapaoo Natanielu Mua, Minister of Communications and Information Technology, Afamasaga Lepuiai Rico Tupai, Minister of Justice and Court Management, Faore Saa Capacio Enuu (Faaolesa Katopau Ainuu ), Customs and Taxation Minister Tialavea Feo Leniu Tionisio Hunt, Minister of Engineering, Transport and Infrastructure Papari Eli Nikko Papaliitele Niko Lee Hang, Minister of Education, Sports and Culture, Loau Sola Keneti Sio.
【司法机构】 设最高法院、地方法院、上诉法院和土地头衔法院。首席大法官是最高法院、地方法院和上诉法院的院长。地方法院有两名法官，土地头衔法院有13名法官。最高法院和上诉法院审理案件时要从新西兰请法官。首席大法官帕图·蒂阿瓦阿苏伊·法莱法图·萨波鲁（Patu Tiavaasue Faleafatu Sapolu），1992年就职，为终身职务。
（1）人权保护党（The Human Rights Protection Party）：执政党。成立于1979年5月。1982年和1985年大选获胜。1985年党内发生分裂后下台。1988年大选获胜，重新执政。后连选连胜，执政至今。领袖为图伊拉埃帕总理。
（2）服务萨摩亚党（Tautua Samoa Party）：反对党。2008年12月成立，主要为原萨摩亚民主联合党部分议员和议会独立议员。领袖为阿沃·雷阿瓦赛埃塔（Aeau Peniamina Leavaise’eta）。
[Administrative Division] The capital city of Apia is the only city in the country. The country is divided into 11 administrative regions, including 5 in Upolu and 6 in Sawaii. The rest of the islands are classified as Ubolu.
[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Court of Appeal and the Land Title Court. The Chief Justice is the President of the Supreme Court, the District Court and the Court of Appeal. There are two judges in the local court and 13 judges in the land title court. The Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal must ask the judge from New Zealand when hearing the case. Chief Justice Patu Tiavaasue Faleafatu Sapolu, who took office in 1992, is a tenured position.
[Party party] The main political parties are:
(1) The Human Rights Protection Party: The ruling party. Established in May 1979. The 1982 and 1985 general elections won. After the split in the party in 1985, it stepped down. In 1988, the general election won and re-governed. After winning the consecutive winning streak, he has been in power until now. The leader is Prime Minister Tuilaepa.
(2) Serving the Tautua Samoa Party: the opposition party. Established in December 2008, mainly for the former members of the Samoa Democratic United Party and independent members of the parliament. The leader is Aeau Peniamina Leavaise’eta.
[Important figures] Tuymalai Alifano Valletoa Sulawoy II: Head of State. Born on April 29, 1947. Received a bachelor’s degree from the Australian National University, a theology at the Maloa Theological Seminary in Samoa and a Bible Theology. Has worked in teachers, police, lawyers and other occupations. Later, he served in the office of the Attorney General of Sa, the Ministry of Justice and other institutions. From 1993 to 2001, he served as the deputy head of state. In 2004, he served as the deputy head of state. In July 2017, he served as the head of state for a term of five years.
Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi: Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Born on April 14, 1945 in Upolu. Believe in Roman Catholicism. He graduated from the University of Auckland, New Zealand in 1969 with a master’s degree in business. From 1971 to 1973, he served as deputy director of the Economic Affairs Bureau. From 1973 to 1978, he served as deputy secretary general of the Ministry of Finance. From 1978 to 1980, he served in the secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Commission. In 1981, he was elected as a member of the Human Rights Protection Party. From 1982 to 1985, he served as Minister of Economic Affairs, Transportation and Civil Aviation, and concurrently served as Deputy Finance Minister. In 1984, he was the finance minister. In 1988, he served as a board member of the Asian Development Bank. In 1990, he served as Chairman of the ACP Ministerial Council. From 1991 to 1998, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Tourism, Trade, Commerce and Industry. In November 1998, he was elected prime minister. Re-elected in 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016.
[Economy] Sa is an agricultural country with few resources, a small market, and slow economic development. In 2007, the United Nations decided to let Sai “graduate” from the least developed countries and “transition period” for three years. In 2010, at the request of Saskatchewan, the United Nations decided to extend the “transition period” of Sas to the beginning of 2014. On January 1, 2014, Sa graduated from the UN’s least developed countries. The Sa government is currently focusing on the construction of agriculture, tourism, the private economy, infrastructure, education and health care. The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year are as follows:
Gross domestic product: US$ 860 million.
Per capita GDP: $4,376.
Economic growth rate: 3.6%.
Currency name: Tara.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 2.57 Tara (December 2018).
（1）萨摩亚中央银行（Central Bank of Samoa）：1954年成立。资本2687万塔拉。资产1.7亿塔拉。
[Resources] Forest resources are decreasing year by year. At present, forest area accounts for 46.3% of the national area, of which 39.4% (about 110,000 hectares) is unproductive forest, and only 136,000 hectares of forest can be harvested, accounting for only 4.8% of the national area. The remaining 2.1% (about 0.6 million hectares) are state-level protected forests and all traditional forest land in the tribe. The exclusive economic zone has a water area of 120,000 square kilometers and is rich in tuna.
[Industrial] The industrial base is very weak. After independence, Sa initially established a number of consumer industries and agro-processing industries, mainly producing food, tobacco, beer and soft drinks, wood furniture and coconut oil, as well as printing and daily chemical industries.
[Agriculture] The country has more than 60,000 hectares of cultivated land. The agricultural population is 124,000, accounting for 77% of the country’s total population. Mainly grown in coconut, cocoa, coffee, taro, banana, papaya, kava and breadfruit. Due to the weak ability to resist natural disasters such as hurricanes, agricultural production is heavily dependent on climatic conditions.
[Fishery] At present, there are about 2,200 kinds of fishing boats in the country, including 200 motor boats. The Inza exclusive economic zone is smaller than other island countries. The Sa government prohibits foreign fishing vessels from operating alone. Only foreign fishing companies are allowed to cooperate with the Saskatchewan. Foreign capital must not exceed 40%.
[Services] There are mainly hotel catering, transportation and telecommunications, financial services, personal and other services. The number of employees is about 2,000. Sa is one of the world’s leading offshore financial centers.
[Tourism] Tourism is one of Samoa’s main economic pillars and the second largest source of foreign exchange. The Sa government is committed to the development of tourism hardware facilities and other tourism-related industries. Visitors are mainly from American Samoa, New Zealand, Australia, the United States and Europe.
[Transportation] The total length of the national highway is 976 kilometers, including 332 kilometers of asphalt road.
Water transport: Apia Port is the main external port of Sa, and it can be used for 50,000-60,000-ton ships.
Air transport: Faleolo Airport is the only international airport in Saskatchewan. In November 2017, the Virgin Samoa Airlines, a joint venture between the Saskatchewan and Australia’s Virgin Atlantic, was no longer operational. The Sa government established its own Samoa Airlines and successfully maiden voyage. Currently, Air New Zealand operates a daily flight to and from Auckland and Apia, the capital of Samoa. Australia’s Virgin, Samoa Airlines and Fiji Airlines fly about 2 or 3 flights a week to and from Samoa and Sydney, Auckland, and Nadi.
[Financial Finance] In the fiscal year 2017/2018, the fiscal budget revenue was 645.4 million Tara, the expenditure was 643.9 million Tara, and the fiscal surplus was 0.015 billion Tara.
As of October 2018, foreign exchange reserves were approximately $161 million. In 2017, foreign debt totaled approximately US$405 million, accounting for 48.8% of the GDP for the year.
The main banks are:
(1) Central Bank of Samoa: Established in 1954. The capital is 26.87 million Tara. Assets of 170 million Tara.
(2) ANZ Bank (Samoa) LTD: The former Samoan bank owned by the Sa government. In 1997, the government sold it to ANZ Group and became the ANZ Bank Samoa branch. The capital is 31.97 million Tara and the assets are 1.7603 billion tala.
(3) Westpac Bank, formerly Pacific Commercial Bank, was a branch of the Bank of Hawaii and was established in 1977. The Bank of Hawaii and the Westpac Bank of Australia each account for 42.7% of the shares, and the rest are owned by Samoans. The capital is 16.7 million Tara and the assets are 128.7 million Tara. It was acquired by South Pacific Bank (BSP) in 2015.
【新闻出版】 主要报纸：《萨瓦利（Savali）》，政府周报，1904年创刊，分萨语版和萨、英语混合版两种，萨语版主要向农村发行，混合版在首都地区发行，发行量4500至5000份。《萨摩亚观察家报（Samoa Observer）》，私营日报，发行量2000至3000份。另有《新闻（Newsline）》和《萨摩亚（Le Samoa）》等小报，发行量不大。
萨摩亚现有3家电视台（TV1，TV3和STAR TV），均为私营。除播送自制的新闻和教育节目外，主要转播澳、新电视台和BBC节目。此外还有几个宗教台。中央电视台英语新闻频道（CCTV NEWS）、中国国际广播电台已在萨落地。
[Foreign Trade] Mainly export fishery products, brain juice, beer, coconut milk, brain nut, taro and other products. The markets are mainly Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Japan and China. Mainly imported machinery and transportation equipment, food, petroleum, building materials and other products. Sources are mainly New Zealand, Australia, the United States, Japan and China.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid mainly comes from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the European Union, China and international organizations. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the Saskatchewan received 61.1 million Tara foreign aid.
[Military] There are no more than 500 police officers without the army.
[Education] Compulsory education in primary and secondary schools is implemented with an enrollment rate of 85.7%. The illiteracy rate is 4.3%. There are 157 primary schools, 44 middle schools, 4 vocational schools, 36 church schools, and 2 normal schools. The colleges and universities include the National University of Samoa (combined with the Samoa Institute of Technology in 2005) and the Arafu Agricultural College (South Pacific University). About 4,800 high school graduates need employment every year.
[Press and Publication] The main newspaper: “Savali”, the government weekly newspaper, was founded in 1904, divided into the Sa language version and the Sa, English mixed version, the Sa language version is mainly issued to the countryside, the mixed version is issued in the capital region. The circulation is 4500 to 5000 copies. Samoa Observer, a private daily newspaper, has a circulation of 2,000 to 3,000 copies. There are also tabloids such as Newsline and Le Samoa, which are not widely distributed.
There are currently three TV stations in Samoa (TV1, TV3 and STAR TV), all of which are private. In addition to broadcasting homemade news and educational programs, it mainly broadcasts Australian and New TV stations and BBC programs. There are also several religious stations. CCTV News Channel (CCTV NEWS) and China Radio International have already landed in Sa.
[Overseas Chinese] At the end of the 19th century, Chinese people went to Sa. In the 1920s and 1930s, a group of Chinese workers went to Saskatchewan to plant coconuts and bananas, up to thousands of people. After the New Zealand government implemented racial discrimination policy, the number of Chinese began to decrease. In the end, hundreds of people were left and more married to the locals. At present, there are fewer than 100 Chinese people of pure blood, and more than 30,000 Chinese are mixed, and the number is among the highest in foreign blood. Currently there are about 300 overseas Chinese in Sahua.
[Foreign Relations] advocates safeguarding national independence and developing the national economy. It believes that all countries, regardless of size, should be treated equally. Sa’s diplomatic focus is on the South Pacific region. While maintaining friendly relations with New Zealand, we attach importance to developing relations with Asia-Pacific countries. Sa is a member of organizations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Regional Environment Agency. The Pacific Regional Environment Agency Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, UNESCO and the UNDP Pacific Regional Office are located in Apia. It has established diplomatic relations with 97 countries including China, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Japan, Britain and Germany. In November 2011, the United States and the Polynesian countries and regions such as Tonga, Tuvalu and Cook Islands established a sub-regional organization “Polynesian Leaders Group” to protect and promote Polynesian culture, language and traditions, and to achieve economic cooperation through cooperation. Sustainable development and prosperity. In May 2012, Sa became a member of the World Trade Organization. In October 2013, the 23rd Council of Ministers of the South Pacific Tourism Organization was held in Apia, the capital of Samoa. In September 2014, the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States was held in Apia, Samoa.
[Relationship with New Zealand] The new Zeng was the sovereign state of Sa, and the two countries have close ties. Sa has a high-level office in Wellington and a consulate general in Auckland. There is a high-tech office in New Saskatchewan. There is a friendship treaty between the two countries. In 2004, the two sides agreed to hold regular consultations between ministers of the two governments. In recent years, it has provided approximately S$23 million in assistance to Saskatchewan in recent years. It is the third largest aid country for Sas, and Sa is the fourth largest recipient of the South Pacific region. New is the main trade target of Saskatchewan. The new exports to Saskatchewan account for about one-third of Saskatchewan’s total imports, and Sa’s new exports account for about 10% of Saskatchewan’s total exports. The new company is the main contractor for the Sa construction market. According to the Mutual Support Agreement, the new help to train police officers and conduct maritime patrols. In June 2014, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key visited Sta. In July 2014, Samoa’s Prime Minister Tuilaepa went to the new “New Zealand Seasonal Employment Project” meeting. In July 2015, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key visited the country. In June 2017, New Zealand Prime Minister Bill Inglich visited Saskatchewan. In March 2018, New Zealand Prime Minister Adeen visited Saskatchewan.
[Relationship with Australia] Australia has a high-tech office in Saskatchewan. Australia is the largest aid country to Sa, with an average annual aid of about 43.7 million Australian dollars, accounting for one-third of Sassan’s foreign aid. It is mainly used to improve government efficiency, increase employment and investment, strengthen judicial enforcement, and improve education. Improve health care conditions. Australia is Sa’s largest export market and the second largest source of imports. The Samoans living in Australia have between 4 and 50,000. They are the second largest settlement of expatriates in Saskatchewan and the second largest source of remittances. There are more than 200 expatriates in Australia. There is a “defense cooperation plan” between the two countries, and the Australian side helps to patrol the exclusive economic zone of Sa, and trains the police for Sa. In September 2009 and December 2012, after the tsunami and hurricane disaster in Sa, Australia provided a large amount of disaster relief assistance to Sa. In September 2014, Australian Foreign Minister Bi Xiaopu went to Sas to attend the SIDS meeting. In June 2017, Australian Governor Cosgrove visited Saskatchewan.
[Relationship with Japan] Sa attaches importance to relations with Japan. Since 1972, Japan has sent volunteers to Sa, and more than 600 people have served in Sa. In recent years, Japan has become one of the main donors of Sa. In 2013, Japan established an embassy in Saskatchewan and subsequently appointed a permanent ambassador. In May 2015, Samoa Prime Minister Tuilaepa attended the 7th Japan-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In 2017, Prime Minister Tuilaepa went to Japan to attend the Japan-Pacific Island Foreign Ministers Meeting. In May 2018, Prime Minister Tuilaepa went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting.
[Relationship with the United States] Attach importance to relations with the United States. In November 1988, the United States established an embassy in Saskatchewan, and the ambassador was also appointed by the US ambassador to the new ambassador. Sa has an embassy in the United States, and the ambassador is also represented by his permanent representative to the United Nations. The United States has sent peace members to Saskatchewan since 1976. Many people in Saskatchewan work in the American Samoan canned fish factory. Although the United States has a small amount of trade with Saskatchewan, there is more trade between Sa and American Samoa. American Samoa and the United States are the first and second largest export markets for Sa. In February 2016, US Assistant Secretary of State Russell visited Saskatchewan.