The Independent State of Papua New Guinea 巴布亚新几内亚独立国

【国 名】 巴布亚新几内亚独立国(The Independent State of Papua New Guinea)。

【面 积】 46.28万平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积310万平方公里。

【人 口】 约800万。城市人口占15%,农村人口占85%。98%属美拉尼西亚人,其余为密克罗尼西亚人、波利尼西亚人、华人和白人。华人华侨约1万人。官方语言为英语,地方语言820余种。皮金语在全国大部分地区流行,南部的巴布亚地区多讲莫土语。居民中93%为基督教徒,传统拜物教也有一定影响。

【首 都】 莫尔斯比港(Port Moresby)。

【国家元首】英国女王伊丽莎白二世。女王任命总督为其代表,任期6年。鲍勃·达达埃(Bob Dadae)2017年2月就任巴布亚新几内亚第10任总督。

【重要节日】 独立日:9月16日。

【简 况】 位于太平洋西南部。西与印度尼西亚的伊里安查亚省接壤,南隔托雷斯海峡与澳大利亚相望。属美拉尼西亚群岛。全境共有600多个岛屿。主要岛屿包括新不列颠、新爱尔兰、马努斯、布干维尔和布卡等。海岸线全长8300公里。海拔1000米以上属山地气候,其余属热带气候。5-10月为旱季,11-4月为雨季,沿海地区年均气温21.1-32.2℃,山地地区比沿海地区低5-6℃。年平均降水量2500毫米。

新几内亚高地地区早已有人定居。1511年葡萄牙人发现新几内亚岛。18世纪下半叶,荷兰、英国、德国殖民者接踵而至。1906年英属新几内亚交澳大利亚管理,改称澳属巴布亚领地。德属部分在第一次世界大战中被澳军占领,1920年12月17日国际联盟委托澳管理。1942年被日本占领。1945年联合国将其重新交澳托管。1949年澳将原英属和德属两部分合并为一个行政单位,称“巴布亚新几内亚领地”。1973年12月1日实行内部自治。1975年9月16日独立。迈克尔·索马雷(Michael Somare)为首任总理。

【政 治】2017年6月至7月,巴新举行大选,8月组成新一届议会和政府,彼得·奥尼尔(Peter O’Neill)连任总理。

【关于布干维尔和平进程】 巴新布干维尔自治区原系北所罗门省,是巴新最大铜矿潘古纳铜矿所在地。由于巴新中央政府、地方政府、开发公司、矿区土地主相互矛盾不断激化,当地民众于1988年开始诉诸武力,关闭了铜矿,并于1990年宣布独立,布干维尔危机爆发。2001年6月22日,巴新政府与布干维尔各派就全面解决布问题达成协议。8月30日,布干维尔和平协议正式签署,标志着长达12年战争的结束,布开始走上恢复和重建道路。2005年1月,巴新中央政府批准《布干维尔宪法》。5月,布举行自治政府选举。6月,约瑟夫·卡布伊当选自治政府主席,布区自治政府正式成立。自治政府初期集中推动缴械、和平与和解进程。2008年6月,卡布伊因病去世。詹姆斯·塔尼斯(James Tanis)在2008年底举行的补选中当选自治政府主席。2010年6月,新布干维尔党候选人约翰·莫米斯(John Momis)在布区第二届选举中当选自治政府主席。2015年6月,约翰·莫米斯成功连任。2016年5月,巴新中央政府和布干维尔自治区政府决定将2019年6月15日确定为布干维尔自治区独立问题公投“目标日期”。

【宪 法】 1975年8月15日制定,同年9月15日生效。2013年2月,巴新议会通过延长“政治稳定期”的宪法修正案,规定议员在新政府成立30个月内不准对总理提出不信任案。9月,巴新议会通过宪法修正案,规定提出对政府不信任案须由五分之一以上的议员联署并在表决前公示3个月。2015年9月,巴新最高法院裁定上述延长“政治稳定期”的宪法修正案违宪无效。

[Country name] The Independent State of Papua New Guinea.

[Dimensions] 462,800 square kilometers, the exclusive economic zone of the sea covers an area of ​​3.1 million square kilometers.

[People] About 8 million. The urban population accounts for 15% and the rural population accounts for 85%. 98% are Melanesians, and the rest are Micronesians, Polynesians, Chinese and whites. There are about 10,000 Chinese overseas Chinese. The official language is English and there are more than 820 local languages. Pikin is popular in most parts of the country, and the southern Papua region speaks Motuo. 93% of the residents are Christians, and traditional fetishism also has a certain influence.

[The capital] Port Moresby.

[Head of State] Queen Elizabeth II of England. The Queen appointed the Governor as his representative for a term of six years. Bob Dadae became the 10th Governor of Papua New Guinea in February 2017.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: September 16.

[Profile] Located in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. It borders on the province of Irian Jaya in Indonesia and across the Torres Strait in the south. It belongs to the Melanesian Islands. There are more than 600 islands throughout the country. The main islands include New Britain, New Ireland, Manus, Bougainville and Buka. The coastline is 8,300 kilometers long. Above 1000 meters above sea level is a mountain climate, and the rest is tropical. The dry season is from May to October, and the rainy season is from January to April. The average annual temperature in the coastal areas is 21.1-32.2 °C, and the mountain areas are 5-6 °C lower than the coastal areas. The annual average precipitation is 2,500 mm.

New Guinea’s highland areas have long been settled. In 1511 the Portuguese discovered the island of New Guinea. In the second half of the 18th century, Dutch, British, and German colonists followed. In 1906, the British New Guinea was handed over to Australia and was renamed the Australian Papua Territory. The German part was occupied by the Australian army in the First World War. On December 17, 1920, the League of Nations entrusted the Australian administration. It was occupied by Japan in 1942. In 1945, the United Nations returned it to Australia for custody. In 1949, Australia merged the original British and German genus into one administrative unit, called the “Papua New Guinea Territory”. Internal autonomy was implemented on December 1, 1973. Independence on September 16, 1975. Michael Somare is the first prime minister.

[Politics] From June to July 2017, Papua New Guinea was elected. In August, a new parliament and government was formed, and Peter O’Neill was re-elected as Prime Minister.

[About the Bougainville Peace Process] The Pakseung Bougainville Autonomous Region was originally the northern Solomon Province and is the location of the Panganga Copper Mine, the largest copper mine in Papua New Guinea. Due to the intensification of the conflict between the central government of Papua New Guinea, the local government, the development company, and the landowners of the mining area, the local people began to resort to force in 1988, shut down the copper mine, and declared independence in 1990. The Bougainville crisis broke out. On June 22, 2001, the Papua New Guinea government and the Bougainville parties reached an agreement on a comprehensive settlement of the cloth issue. On August 30th, the Bougainville Peace Agreement was officially signed, marking the end of the 12-year war. Bu began to embark on the road of recovery and reconstruction. In January 2005, the Central Government of Papua New Guinea approved the Bougainville Constitution. In May, the cloth held an autonomous government election. In June, Joseph Kabui was elected chairman of the autonomous government and the district self-government government was formally established. The autonomous government initially focused on promoting the process of disarming, peace and reconciliation. In June 2008, Kabui died of illness. James Tanis was elected president of the autonomous government in the by-election in late 2008. In June 2010, New Bougainville party candidate John Momis was elected president of the autonomous government in the second election of the district. In June 2015, John Mamis was successfully re-elected. In May 2016, the Central Government of Papua New Guinea and the government of Bougainville Autonomous Region decided to set June 15, 2019 as the “target date” for the Bougainville Autonomous Region referendum on independence.

[Constitution] It was enacted on August 15, 1975 and became effective on September 15 of the same year. In February 2013, the Papua New Guinea Parliament passed a constitutional amendment to extend the “political stability period”, stipulating that parliamentarians are not allowed to file a case of no confidence in the prime minister within 30 months of the establishment of the new government. In September, the Papua New Guinea Parliament passed a constitutional amendment, stipulating that the case of no-confidence to the government must be signed by more than one-fifth of the members of the House of Representatives and announced for three months before the vote. In September 2015, the Papua Supreme Court ruled that the above-mentioned constitutional amendment to extend the “political stability period” was unconstitutional and invalid.

【议 会】 称“国民议会”,一院制。议员111人,任期5年。本届议会于2017年8月选出。现任议长乔布·庞马特(Job Pomat)。

【政 府】 由议会中占多数的政党或政党联盟组阁。内阁对议会负责。除奥尼尔总理外,现内阁其他主要成员有:副总理兼国库部长查尔斯·埃布尔(Charles Abel)、政府间关系部长凯文·伊斯夫(Kevin Isifu)、财政部长兼农村发展部长詹姆斯·马拉佩(James Marape)、国家计划部长理查德·马鲁(Richard Maru)、公共服务部长伊莱亚斯·卡帕沃(Elias Kapavore)、石油与能源部长费边·波克(Fabian Pok)、土地与城市规划部长贾斯廷·特卡琴科(Justin Tkatchenko)、外交与贸易部长伦宾克·帕托(Rimbink Pato)。

【行政区划】 全国划分为20个省,另设布干维尔自治区及首都行政区(莫尔斯比港市)。

【司法机构】 设有最高法院(又称上诉法院、国家法院)和地方法院。现任首席大法官为吉布斯·萨利卡(Sir Gibbs Salika)。

【政 党】 现执政党为人民全国代表大会党(People’s National Congress Party),1996年成立。总理奥尼尔为该党领袖。其他联合执政党包括:联合资源党(United Resources Party)、人民进步党(People’s Progress Party)、巴新国家党(PNG National Party)、我们的发展党(Our Development Party)、基督民主党(Christian Democratic Party)、联合党(United Party)、社会民主党(Social Democratic Party)。

【重要人物】 鲍勃·达达埃:总督。1961年生于巴新莫罗贝省。获巴新大学商学学士、澳大利亚格里菲斯大学商务管理硕士学位。长期从事财务会计等职业。1999年至2002年任莫罗贝省议会议员,2002年当选巴新国民议会议员并连任至今。2004年6月至2007年8月任巴新国民议会副议长。2007年8月至2011年8月任国防部长。2017年2月1日当选巴新第10任总督,2月28日就任。

彼得·奥尼尔:总理。1965年2月生,获巴新大学商学学士学位。曾在政府部门、私营企业和金融机构任职。2002年6月当选议员,历任劳工与产业关系部长、公共服务部长、财政与国库部长、工程部长等职。2011年8月被议会选举为总理,2012年6月、2017年8月连任。

【经 济】 资源丰富,经济发展不平衡。矿产、石油和农业经济作物是巴新经济的支柱产业。近年来,巴新政府集中精力发展经济,制订了《2010~2030年发展规划》、《2050年远景规划》等发展战略规划,为巴新经济社会发展提供了相对稳定的外部政策环境,使巴新经济实现连续15年正增长。2017年国内生产总值增长率为2.2%。政府加大吸引外资的力度并取得一定成效,液化天然气项目、瑞木镍矿等投资项目均取得重要进展,为推动巴新经济持续增长发挥了重要作用。但近年来随着国际能源市场价格下跌,巴新经济增速有所放缓,政府财政困难增多。同时,许多山区居民仍过着原始部落自给自足的生活。全国人口中近37%生活在国际贫困线(人均1.25美元/天)以下。2016年联合国开发计划署人类发展指数显示,巴新在188个国家中列第154位。人口增长较快,大量农村人口流向城市,失业率居高不下,社会治安有待改善,广大民众生活依旧艰难。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:228.6亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:2829美元。

经济增长率:2.2%。

货币名称:基那。

汇率:1美元≈3.24基那。

外汇储备:17.2亿美元(截至2017年12月)。

[Meetings] It is called the “National Assembly” and is a one-chamber system. 111 members of Parliament, for a term of five years. The current parliament was elected in August 2017. The current Speaker, Job Pomat.

[Government] A group of political parties or coalitions of political parties that are majority in the parliament. The cabinet is responsible to the parliament. In addition to Prime Minister O’Neill, other key members of the current cabinet include: Deputy Prime Minister and Treasury Secretary Charles Abel, Intergovernmental Relations Minister Kevin Isifu, Finance Minister and Minister of Rural Development James Ma. James Marape, National Planning Director Richard Maru, Public Service Minister Elias Kapavore, and Oil and Energy Minister Fabian Pok , Minister of Land and Urban Planning, Justin Tkatchenko, and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Rimbink Pato.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 20 provinces, and the Bougainville Autonomous Region and the Capital Administrative Region (Molsby Port City).

[Judiciary] There are Supreme Courts (also known as Appeals Courts, National Courts) and District Courts. The current Chief Justice is Sir Gibbs Salika.

[Political Party] The current ruling party is the People’s National Congress Party, which was established in 1996. Prime Minister O’Neill is the leader of the party. Other joint ruling parties include the United Resources Party, the People’s Progress Party, the PNG National Party, our Our Development Party, and the Christian Democratic Party. ), United Party, Social Democratic Party.

[important person] Bob Dadae: Governor. Born in 1961 in the province of Morro Bay. Bachelor of Business in PNG University and Master of Business Administration from Griffith University, Australia. Has long been engaged in financial accounting and other occupations. From 1999 to 2002, he was a member of the Moro Bay Provincial Assembly. In 2002, he was elected a member of the PNG National Assembly and re-elected to this day. From June 2004 to August 2007, he served as deputy speaker of the Papua New National Assembly. From August 2007 to August 2011, he served as Secretary of Defense. On February 1, 2017, he was elected as the 10th Governor of Papua New Guinea and took office on February 28.

Peter O’Neill: Prime Minister. Born in February 1965, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in business from PNG University. He has worked in government departments, private companies and financial institutions. In June 2002, he was elected as a member of the Labor and Industrial Relations Minister, the Minister of Public Services, the Minister of Finance and Treasury, and the Minister of Engineering. In August 2011, he was elected as the Prime Minister by the Parliament, and was re-elected in June 2012 and August 2017.

[Economy] Resources are abundant and economic development is uneven. Minerals, oil and agricultural cash crops are the pillar industries of the Papua New Guinea economy. In recent years, the Papua New Guinea government has concentrated on developing the economy and formulated development strategic plans such as the “2010-2030 Development Plan” and the “Vision 2050” to provide a relatively stable external policy environment for the economic and social development of Papua New Guinea. The new economy has achieved positive growth for 15 consecutive years. The GDP growth rate in 2017 was 2.2%. The government has increased its efforts to attract foreign investment and achieved certain results. The LNG project and the Ruimu nickel mine have made important progress and played an important role in promoting the sustainable growth of the Papua New Guinea economy. However, in recent years, as the price of the international energy market has fallen, the economic growth rate of the Papua New Guinea has slowed down and the government’s financial difficulties have increased. At the same time, many mountain residents still live a life of self-sufficiency in the original tribe. Nearly 37% of the country’s population lives below the international poverty line ($1.25/day per capita). The 2016 UNDP Human Development Index shows that Papua New Guinea ranks 154 out of 188 countries. The population is growing rapidly, a large number of rural people are flowing to cities, the unemployment rate is high, social security needs to be improved, and the lives of the general public are still difficult. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: US$22.86 billion.

Per capita GDP: $2,829.

Economic growth rate: 2.2%.

Currency name: Kina.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 3.24 Kina.

Foreign exchange reserves: $1.72 billion (as of December 2017).

【资源能源】 金、铜产量分别列世界第11位和第10位,石油、天然气蕴藏丰富。已探明铜矿储量2000万吨,黄金储量3110吨,原油储量6亿桶,铜金共生矿储量约4亿吨。此外还有富金矿、铬、镍、铝矾土、海底天然气和石油等资源。库土布和弋贝两大油田储量即达4亿桶。南高地省油田储量达1700万桶。天然气探明储量7万亿立方英尺,预测储量15万亿立方英尺。

【林 业】 热带原始森林覆盖面积3600万公顷,约占国土面积的86.4%,林木总蓄积量为12亿立方米,可采蓄积量为3.6亿立方米。主要出口原木,深加工产品包括家具、胶合板及地板等建筑材料。

【农 业】 农业人口占全国人口的85%。主要农产品为椰干、可可豆、咖啡、天然橡胶和棕榈油。

【渔 业】 1978年巴新宣布200海里专属经济区,捕鱼区扩大至240万平方公里,渔业资源丰富,盛产金枪鱼、对虾和龙虾,其中金枪鱼资源占世界储量的20%。

【旅游业】 旅游资源丰富,开发潜力较大。每年接待外国游客约7万人次。

【交通运输】 公路:总长约3万公里。

水运:与澳大利亚、日本、新加坡、其他太平洋岛国等国家和地区及中国台湾和香港等地有海运联系。主要港口有莫尔斯比港、莱城和拉包尔等。

空运:巴新最大航空公司为国营的新几内亚航空公司,设有飞往国内主要城市及澳大利亚、新加坡、日本、菲律宾、香港及所罗门群岛的航线,拥有13架飞机。此外,巴新还有六、七家私营航空公司,多经营直升机等小型飞机运输。共有注册机场500多个,大多数为设在偏远地区的小型机场,只有少数机场可停降大型飞机。其中国际机场有首都杰克逊国际机场、芒特哈根机场、达鲁机场和阿洛陶机场。

【财政金融】 财政收入主要来源是税收和国际援助。2017年财政收入为35.67亿美元,支出41.23亿美元,财政赤字5.56亿美元。2018年,巴新外债为27.4亿美元。

主要银行有:(1)巴布亚新几内亚银行(Bank of Papua New Guinea):即巴新中央银行,成立于1973年,负责制定货币政策、监管其他商业银行并发行货币等职能。

(2)南太银行(BSP):占全国市场的60%,政府拥有其25.3%的股份。

此外,巴新还有澳大利亚的澳新银行、西太银行以及马来西亚的五月银行等商业银行。

【对外贸易】 贸易在巴新经济中占重要地位。2017年进出口总额124亿美元,同比增长22.8%,其中进口额为25.3亿美元,出口额为98.7亿美元,顺差73.4亿美元。

主要出口铜、金、矿砂、原木、原油、椰干、椰油、可可、咖啡、棕榈油等初级产品。主要贸易对象国有澳大利亚、日本、新西兰、中国、新加坡、马来西亚等。

[Resources and Energy] Gold and copper production ranks 11th and 10th respectively in the world, and oil and natural gas are abundant. The proven reserves of copper mines are 20 million tons, the reserves of gold are 3,110 tons, the reserves of crude oil are 600 million barrels, and the reserves of copper and gold symbiotic ores are about 400 million tons. There are also resources such as rich gold mines, chromium, nickel, bauxite, seabed gas and oil. The reserves of the two major oil fields, Kutubu and Mubei, reached 400 million barrels. The reserves of oil fields in the South Highlands Province reached 17 million barrels. The proven reserves of natural gas are 7 trillion cubic feet and the predicted reserves are 15 trillion cubic feet.

[Forest Industry] The tropical virgin forest covers an area of ​​36 million hectares, accounting for 86.4% of the country’s land area. The total forest stock is 1.2 billion cubic meters, and the recoverable volume is 360 million cubic meters. The main export logs, deep processing products include furniture, plywood and flooring and other building materials.

[Agriculture] The agricultural population accounts for 85% of the national population. The main agricultural products are copra, cocoa, coffee, natural rubber and palm oil.

[Fish Industry] In 1978, Papua announced an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles. The fishing area was expanded to 2.4 million square kilometers. It is rich in fishery resources and is rich in tuna, prawns and lobsters, of which tuna resources account for 20% of the world’s reserves.

[Tourism] The tourism resources are abundant and the development potential is large. It receives about 70,000 foreign tourists every year.

[Transportation] Highway: The total length is about 30,000 kilometers.

Water transport: maritime links with countries such as Australia, Japan, Singapore, other Pacific island countries, and Taiwan and Hong Kong. The main ports are Port Moresby, Lae and La Baule.

Air freight: The largest airline in Papua New Guinea is the state-owned New Guinea Airlines, which has 13 flights to major domestic cities and Australia, Singapore, Japan, the Philippines, Hong Kong and the Solomon Islands. In addition, there are six or seven private airlines in PNG, and many small aircraft such as helicopters are transported. There are more than 500 registered airports, most of which are small airports located in remote areas, and only a few airports can stop large aircraft. Among them, the international airport has the capital Jackson International Airport, Mount Hagen Airport, Daru Airport and Alotau Airport.

[Financial Finance] The main sources of fiscal revenue are taxation and international aid. In 2017, the fiscal revenue was $3.567 billion, the expenditure was $4.123 billion, and the fiscal deficit was $556 million. In 2018, Papua New Guinea’s external debt was $2.74 billion.

The main banks are: (1) Bank of Papua New Guinea: the Papua New Central Bank, established in 1973, is responsible for formulating monetary policy, supervising other commercial banks and issuing currency.

(2) South Pacific Bank (BSP): accounting for 60% of the national market, the government owns 25.3% of its shares.

In addition, PNG has commercial banks such as Australia’s ANZ, Westpac and Malaysia’s May Bank.

[Foreign Trade] Trade plays an important role in the PNG economy. In 2017, the total import and export volume was 12.4 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 22.8%, of which imports were 2.53 billion U.S. dollars, and exports were 9.87 billion U.S. dollars, with a surplus of 7.34 billion U.S. dollars.

It mainly exports primary products such as copper, gold, ore, logs, crude oil, copra, coconut oil, cocoa, coffee and palm oil. The main trading countries are Australia, Japan, New Zealand, China, Singapore, Malaysia and so on.

【外国资本】 积极鼓励外国投资。主要投资来源国有澳大利亚(占总额近三分之二)、马来西亚、新西兰、韩国、日本和美国等。巴新工、矿、林、农、渔各行业几乎均为澳、日、英、美等国公司所控制。

【外国援助】 外援主要来自澳大利亚,占全部外援的68%。2017~2018财政年度,澳大利亚对巴新援助为5.46亿澳元。其他援助方包括中国、新西兰、日本、美国、英国、韩国、欧盟、联合国开发计划署、世界银行、国际货币基金组织和亚洲开发银行等。

【著名公司】 (1)新几内亚航空公司(Air Niugini):巴新国营航空公司,成立于1973年,资产总额为1.15亿基那。运营莫尔斯比港至布里斯班、凯恩斯、霍尼亚拉、马尼拉、新加坡、东京、香港等多条国际航线和20多条国内航线。

(2)轮船贸易公司(Steamships Trading Company Ltd.):巴新最大的私营综合性商业公司,创立于1919年。现从事商品批发零售、海运、旅馆、房地产、汽车及配件、肥皂生产和工程施工等业务。

【教 育】 巴新教育体制分中央、省、地三级。国民识字率为57.8%。自从执行免费义务教育制以来,巴新中小学数量和在校生人数急剧增加,全国现有已登记中、小学约1.05万所,在校学生约180万人。现有6所大学,主要有巴新大学和巴新科技大学,学生约8000人。另有21所私营城乡国际学校,在校生6000余人。

【新 闻】 主要通讯社为官方的巴新国际通讯社。主要报刊有:英文报纸《国民报》、《信使邮报》和皮金语报纸《同乡报》。巴新国家广播公司(NBC)成立于1975年,下设3个主要电台。

【军 事】 巴新军队创建于1940年,称巴新国防军,现有编制2000人。巴新与澳大利亚签有防务合作协议,澳每年向其提供约2500万澳元军援,并提供军事培训。

对外关系

对外奉行中立政策,主张各国和平相处,增加经济往来与合作,致力于南太平洋地区的和平与稳定。支持联合国在国际事务中发挥积极作用。积极参与国际和地区事务。近年来,巴新政府在继续与澳大利亚、新西兰等南太平洋国家和欧美国家发展传统关系的同时,对东亚和东南亚各国重视程度不断提高。奥尼尔政府强调 “巴新的未来利益在亚洲”,巴新将进一步拓展与中国等亚洲国家的关系。巴新已同70余个国家建交,是联合国、不结盟运动、亚太经合组织、东盟地区论坛、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、美拉尼西亚先锋集团等组织成员,有18个驻外使团。

近年来,巴新外交表现活跃,日益重视在多边外交中发挥作用。主办了第16届美拉尼西亚先锋集团大会、第5届南太旅游组织(SPTO)大会、SPTO部长理事会会议、第16届非加太——欧盟联合议会大会、2015年太平洋运动会、第46届太平洋岛国论坛会议、第8届非加太集团峰会,并将于2018年11月主办亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十六次领导人非正式会议。

[Foreign Capital] Actively encourage foreign investment. The main sources of investment are Australia (accounting for nearly two-thirds of the total), Malaysia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan and the United States. The industries of Baxin, mining, forestry, agriculture and fishery are almost all controlled by companies in Australia, Japan, Britain and the United States.

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is mainly from Australia, accounting for 68% of all foreign aid. In the 2017~2018 financial year, Australia’s assistance to Papua New Guinea was 546 million Australian dollars. Other donors include China, New Zealand, Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, South Korea, the European Union, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Asian Development Bank.

[Famous company] (1) Air Niugini: Papua New Guinea Airlines, established in 1973, with total assets of 115 million kina. It operates a number of international routes and more than 20 domestic routes from Port Moresby to Brisbane, Cairns, Honiara, Manila, Singapore, Tokyo and Hong Kong.

(2) Steamships Trading Company Ltd.: The largest private integrated commercial company in Papua New Guinea, founded in 1919. Now engaged in wholesale and retail of goods, shipping, hotels, real estate, automobiles and accessories, soap production and engineering construction.

[education] The PNG education system is divided into three levels: central, provincial and local. The national literacy rate is 57.8%. Since the implementation of the free compulsory education system, the number of primary and secondary schools in Papua New Guinea and the number of students in school have increased sharply. There are about 10,500 registered primary and secondary schools in the country, and about 1.8 million students are enrolled. There are currently 6 universities, mainly Baxin University and Papua University of Science and Technology, with about 8,000 students. There are also 21 private urban and rural international schools with more than 6,000 students.

[News] The main news agency is the official Papua New International News Agency. The main newspapers and periodicals include: the English newspaper “National News”, “The Messenger Post” and the Pijin language newspaper “The Hometown Newspaper”. The PNG Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) was established in 1975 and has three main radio stations.

[Military] The Papua New Army was founded in 1940 and is called the Papua New Guinea Army. It currently has 2,000 people. PNG has signed a defense cooperation agreement with Australia, and Australia provides about 25 million Australian dollars in military assistance and military training.

External relations

It pursues a neutral policy and advocates peaceful coexistence, increased economic exchanges and cooperation, and commitment to peace and stability in the South Pacific. Support the United Nations to play an active role in international affairs. Actively participate in international and regional affairs. In recent years, while the Papua New Guinea government continues to develop traditional relations with South Pacific countries and European and American countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the importance of East Asian and Southeast Asian countries continues to increase. The O’Neill government stressed that “Pakistan’s future interests are in Asia” and Papua New Guinea will further expand its relations with Asian countries such as China. Papua New Guinea has established diplomatic relations with more than 70 countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the ASEAN Regional Forum, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, the Melanesian Pioneer Group, and 18 foreign missions.

In recent years, Papua New Guinea has been active in diplomacy and has increasingly attached importance to its role in multilateral diplomacy. Hosted the 16th Melanesian Spears Group Conference, the 5th South Pacific Tourism Organization (SPTO) Conference, the SPTO Council of Ministers, the 16th ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, the 2015 Pacific Games, 46th The Pacific Islands Forum meeting, the 8th ACP Summit, will host the 26th APEC Economic Leaders’ Informal Meeting in November 2018.

【同澳大利亚的关系】 巴新同澳关系密切,两国领导人互访频繁,每年举行部长级磋商。澳是巴新最大援助国、最大贸易与投资伙伴,澳投资占外国在巴新投资的近三分之二。双方还建立国防部长磋商机制。在两国“防务合作计划”下,澳向巴新提供包括培训和技术咨询在内的军事援助,双方定期举行联合军演。澳与巴新建立“警察伙伴关系”,派警察赴巴新协助维持社会治安。2015年3月,澳总理阿博特访问巴新,双方签署《经济合作协议》。5月,澳外长毕晓普访问巴新。

【同新西兰的关系】 两国关系密切。巴新是新西兰最大的援助对象国和在南太地区第三大出口市场。

【同美国的关系】 两国签有防务合作和联合军事演习等协议,巴新允许美军舰停靠其港口。根据与美的《国防安排规划》,巴新派军官赴美进行培训。美向巴新提供大量人道主义援助,为巴新布干维尔重建等提供帮助。2015年6月至7月,美军“仁慈号”医院船访问巴新布干维尔自治区和东新不列颠省,为当地居民提供医疗服务,并开展防灾减灾合作演练与培训。2016年12月,美军太平洋司令部司令哈里斯访问巴新。

【同其他太平洋岛国的关系】 与所罗门群岛、斐济和瓦努阿图同为美拉尼西亚先锋集团成员国。2007年3月,巴新总理索马雷与所罗门群岛总理索加瓦雷、瓦努阿图总理利尼及斐济临时政府外长奈拉蒂考在瓦首都维拉港签署《美拉尼西亚先锋集团宪章》。

【同东盟国家的关系】 加强与东盟国家的关系是巴新对外工作的重点之一。近年来,巴新外长一直以观察员身份出席东盟外长会议。1994年,巴新成为东盟地区论坛成员。马来西亚是巴新第二大投资国。印尼、新加坡、菲律宾也有许多私营企业在巴新投资。2015年3月,印尼外长蕾特诺访问巴新。2015年5月,印尼总统佐科访问巴新。

【同日本的关系】 日本是巴新第二大贸易伙伴和第二大援助国。2014年7月,日本首相安倍晋三访问巴新。2015年5月,巴新总理奥尼尔赴日出席第七届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议,与日首相安倍晋三举行双边会见。2015年10月,奥尼尔总理对日本进行正式访问。2016年5月,奥尼尔赴日出席七国集团扩大会议。2018年5月,巴新总理奥尼尔赴日出席第八届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议,与日首相安倍晋三举行双边会见。

【同欧洲国家的关系】 巴新是英联邦成员,同英国签有防务合作协定,英每年向巴新提供约10万美元的援助。2015年6月,奥尼尔总理赴英、比、法等欧洲三国访问,期间受到英国女王伊丽莎白接见。2015年7月,英国约克公爵安德鲁王子赴巴新出席太平洋运动会开幕式。

[Relationship with Australia] PNG is closely related to Australia. The leaders of the two countries have frequent exchanges of visits and hold ministerial consultations every year. Australia is the largest donor and largest trading and investment partner of PNG, and Australia accounts for nearly two-thirds of foreign investment in PNG. The two sides also established a consultation mechanism for the defense minister. Under the “defense cooperation plan” between the two countries, Australia provides military assistance including training and technical consultation to Papua New Guinea. The two sides hold joint military exercises on a regular basis. Australia and Papua New Guinea established a “police partnership” and sent police to Papua New Guinea to help maintain public order. In March 2015, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited Papua New Guinea and the two sides signed the Economic Cooperation Agreement. In May, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Papua New Guinea.

[Relationship with New Zealand] The two countries have close ties. PNG is New Zealand’s largest aid recipient and the third largest export market in the South Pacific region.

[Relationship with the United States] The two countries signed agreements on defense cooperation and joint military exercises, and PNG allowed US warships to dock at their ports. According to the “Defense Arrangement Plan” with the United States, the Papua New Army officers went to the United States for training. The United States has provided a large amount of humanitarian assistance to Papua New Guinea to help the reconstruction of Papua New Guinea. From June to July 2015, the US Army’s “Renci” hospital ship visited the Baxin Bougainville Autonomous Region and the East New Britain Province to provide medical services to local residents and conduct cooperative drills and training for disaster prevention and mitigation. In December 2016, US Pacific Commander Harris visited Papua New Guinea.

[Relationship with other Pacific island countries] It is a member of the Melanesian Pioneer Group with Solomon Islands, Fiji and Vanuatu. In March 2007, Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Somare and Solomon Islands Prime Minister Sogavale, Vanuatu Prime Minister Lini and Fijian Interim Government Foreign Minister Nyaliti Khao signed the “Merranic Pioneer Group Charter” in the Port of Vail, the capital of the Philippines.

[Relationship with ASEAN Countries] Strengthening relations with ASEAN countries is one of the priorities of PNG’s foreign work. In recent years, the foreign minister of Papua New Guinea has been attending the ASEAN Foreign Ministers’ Meeting as an observer. In 1994, Papua New Guinea became a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum. Malaysia is the second largest investor in PNG. Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines also have many private companies investing in Papua New Guinea. In March 2015, Indonesian Foreign Minister Ratno visited PNG. In May 2015, Indonesian President Zoco visited Papua New Guinea.

[Relationship with Japan] Japan is the second largest trading partner and the second largest aid country of PNG. In July 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited PNG. In May 2015, Papua New Guinea O’Neill went to Japan to attend the 7th Japan-Pacific Island Leaders’ Meeting and held a bilateral meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In October 2015, Prime Minister O’Neill paid an official visit to Japan. In May 2016, O’Neill went to Japan to attend the enlarged meeting of the Group of Seven. In May 2018, Papua New Guinean O’Neill went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan-Pacific Island Leaders’ Meeting and held a bilateral meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.

[Relationship with European Countries] PNG is a member of the Commonwealth and has a defense cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom. The British provides about 100,000 U.S. dollars in assistance to PNG every year. In June 2015, Prime Minister O’Neill visited the three European countries including Britain, Belgium and France, and was received by Queen Elizabeth. In July 2015, Prince Andrew of the United Kingdom, York, went to Papua New Guinea to attend the opening ceremony of the Pacific Games.