The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 约旦哈希姆王国

【国 名】约旦哈希姆王国(The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan)。

【面 积】8.9万平方公里。

【人 口】1001万(含巴勒斯坦、叙利亚、伊拉克难民),98%的人口为阿拉伯人,还有少量切尔克斯人、土库曼人和亚美尼亚人。国教为伊斯兰教,92%的居民属逊尼派,2%的居民属于什叶派和德鲁兹派。信奉基督教的居民约占6%,主要属希腊东正教派。官方语言为阿拉伯语,通用英语。

【首 都】安曼(Amman),面积1700平方公里,人口400万。

【国家元首】国王阿卜杜拉二世·本·侯赛因(Abdullah Ⅱ Bin Al-Hussein),1999年2月7日登基。

【重要节日】国庆日:5月25日。

[Country name] The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

[area] 89,000 square kilometers.

[People] 10,100,000 (including Palestinian, Syrian, Iraqi refugees), 98% of the population is Arab, and a small number of Circassians, Turkmen and Armenians. The state religion is Islam, 92% of the residents are Sunni, and 2% of the residents belong to the Shiite and Druze factions. Christians account for about 6% of the population, mainly Greek Orthodox Christians. The official language is Arabic and General English.

[The capital] Amman, with an area of 1,700 square kilometers and a population of 4 million.

[Head of State] King Abdullah II Bin Al-Hussein, who was enthroned on February 7, 1999.

[Important Festival] National Day: May 25.

位于亚洲西部,阿拉伯半岛西北,西与巴勒斯坦、以色列为邻,北与叙利亚接壤,东北与伊拉克交界,东南和南部与沙特阿拉伯相连,西南一角濒临红海的亚喀巴湾是唯一出海口。西部高地属亚热带地中海型气候,气候温和,平均气温1月为7℃–14℃,7月为26℃–33℃。东部和东南部为沙漠,占全国面积78%。

约旦原是巴勒斯坦的一部分。公元7世纪初属阿拉伯帝国版图。公元1517年归属奥斯曼帝国。第一次世界大战后沦为英国委任统治地。1921年英国以约旦河为界,把巴勒斯坦一分为二,西部仍称巴勒斯坦,东部建立外约旦酋长国。1946年3月22日英承认外约旦独立,5月25日改国名为外约旦哈希姆王国。1948年5月第一次阿以战争中,约占领了约旦河西岸4800平方公里的土地。1950年4月,外约旦同西岸合并,改称约旦哈希姆王国。1967年第三次阿以战争中,以色列占领西岸。1988年7月,侯赛因国王宣布中断同约旦河西岸地区的“法律和行政联系”。1994年10月,约同以色列签署和平条约。1995年2月9日,约收回被以占领的约340平方公里失地。

约旦是世袭君主立宪制国家,国王是国家元首、三军统帅,权力高度集中。议会设参众两院,实行多党制。长期以来,约政局较为稳定,但也存在贫困、失业、巴勒斯坦难民等经济、社会问题。2011年西亚北非局势动荡以来,约推出全国对话、更换内阁、惩治腐败、修改部分法律、提前举行议会选举等一系列举措。目前局势总体平稳。2013年3月,约旦首次以国王同议会协商方式推选首相。现任首相奥马尔·拉扎兹(Omar AL-Razzaz)。

【宪 法】1952年1月1日颁布生效。宪法规定,约旦是一个世袭的阿拉伯君主立宪制国家,立法权属国王和议会。国王是国家元首,有权审批和颁布法律、任命首相、批准和解散议会,统率军队。1960年1月,议会通过宪法修正案,授予国王延长众议院任期的权利。1974年1月、1976年2月和1984年1月,议会3次通过宪法修正案,授予国王无限期推迟选举、并在内阁认为有必要修改宪法时召开议会特别会议的权利。2011年修宪的主要内容为成立宪法法院,负责监督现行法律和体制是否符合宪法规定,并享有宪法解释权。

It is located in western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, neighboring Palestine and Israel in the west, bordering Syria in the north, bordering Iraq in the northeast, Saudi Arabia in the southeast and south, and the Gulf of Aqaba on the southwest corner of the Red Sea. The western highlands are subtropical Mediterranean climates with mild climates, with average temperatures ranging from 7°C to 14°C in January and 26°C–33°C in July. The east and southeast are deserts, accounting for 78% of the country’s total area.

Jordan was originally part of Palestine. At the beginning of the 7th century AD, it was a territory of the Arabian Empire. It belonged to the Ottoman Empire in 1517 AD. After the First World War, it became the British appointed land. In 1921, the United Kingdom divided the Palestinians by the Jordan River. The West is still called Palestine, and the East is the emirate of Jordan. On March 22, 1946, Britain recognized the independence of Jordan and on May 25 changed its name to the Hashemite Kingdom of Outer Jordan. In the first Arab-Israic war of May 1948, about 4,800 square kilometers of land in the West Bank of the Jordan River was occupied. In April 1950, the outer Jordan merged with the West Bank and was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. In the third Arab-Israeli war in 1967, Israel occupied the West Bank. In July 1988, King Hussein announced the suspension of “legal and administrative links” with the West Bank. In October 1994, a peace treaty was signed with Israel. On February 9, 1995, about 340 square kilometers of land occupied by the occupation was lost.

Jordan is a hereditary monarchy constitutional state. The king is the head of state and the commander of the three armed forces. The power is highly concentrated. The parliament has a Senate and a House of Representatives and a multi-party system. For a long time, the political situation has been relatively stable, but there are also economic and social problems such as poverty, unemployment, and Palestine refugees. Since the turmoil in West Asia and North Africa in 2011, a series of initiatives have been launched, including the national dialogue, the replacement of cabinets, the punishment of corruption, the revision of some laws, and the holding of parliamentary elections in advance. The current situation is generally stable. In March 2013, Jordan first elected the Prime Minister in consultation with the Parliament. The current Prime Minister Omar AL-Razzaz.

[Constitution] Enacted on January 1, 1952. According to the Constitution, Jordan is a hereditary Arab constitutional constitutional state with legislative powers of the king and parliament. The king is the head of state and has the power to approve and promulgate laws, appoint prime ministers, approve and dissolve parliaments, and lead the army. In January 1960, the parliament passed a constitutional amendment granting the king the right to extend the term of the House of Representatives. In January 1974, February 1976 and January 1984, the Parliament passed three constitutional amendments, granting the King the right to postpone the election indefinitely and to convene a special parliamentary assembly when the Cabinet considers it necessary to amend the Constitution. The main content of the constitutional amendment in 2011 is the establishment of the Constitutional Court, which is responsible for supervising whether the existing laws and systems are in conformity with the Constitution and the right to constitutional interpretation.

【议 会】称国民议会,由众议院和参议院组成。众议院议员130人,由普选产生,凡年满19岁的男女公民均可参加选举。议长每年由议员秘密选举产生,议员任期4年,均可连任。现任众议长阿提夫·塔拉瓦纳(Atef Tarawneh)。参议院议员全部由国王从年龄40岁以上的知名人士中任命,人数不超过众议院的一半。本届参议院共有参议员65名。现任参议长费萨尔·法耶兹(Faisal AL-Fayez)。

【政 府】本届政府于2018年6月14日成立,现有阁员26名,主要包括首相兼国防大臣奥马尔·拉扎兹(Omar AL-Razzaz)、副首相兼国务大臣拉贾伊·穆阿什尔(Rajai Muasher)、外交与侨务大臣埃伊曼·萨法迪(Ayman Safadi)、高教与科研大臣阿迪尔·图维西(Adel Tweisi)等。

【行政区划】全国共分12个省:首都省、伊尔比德省、马安省、扎尔卡省、拜勒加省、马夫拉克省、卡拉克省、塔菲拉省、马德巴省、杰拉什省、亚喀巴省、阿吉隆省。

【司法机构】包括法院和检察院两部分。宪法规定法官独立行使司法权。法官任免由国王依法批准,同时接受高级司法委员会的监督。法院分三类,即:民事法院、宗教法院、特别法院。民事法院负责审理有关民事和刑事案件。宗教法院主要负责婚姻、继承、收养等事务。特别法院包括国家安全法院、军事法院、警察法院、重大刑事案法院、海关法院。

【政 党】1952年4月9日开始允许建立政党,后均被解散。1991年10月解除党禁。1992年10月颁布政党法,规定约旦实行多党制,各政党重新登记,强调政党必须尊重宪法,不得在军队和安全机构中发展,不得同外国或外部势力有政治、经济联系,各政党须经内政部批准为合法政党后方可开展活动。2008年,约修改政党法,将政党成立的门槛由50名党员提高到500名党员,并要求其党员需来自5个及5个以上省份。约目前有40余个政党,主要是:

(1)伊斯兰行动阵线党(The Islamic Action Front):最大的反对党,1992年12月由穆斯林兄弟会和穆斯林独立人士组成。该党反对阿以和谈,反对约以和约。

(2)宪章爱国党(National Constitutional Party):1997年5月由“誓约党”、“祖国党”、“觉醒党”、“约旦全国联盟党”、“阿拉伯民主统一党”、“进步正义党”、“约旦人民运动党”、“约旦人民统一党”、“约旦阿拉伯群众党”9个政党合并而成。宗旨是“复兴、民主、统一”。

(3)约旦阿拉伯社会复兴党(Jordanian Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party):1993年1月经内政部批准成立。前身为1948年在约成立的“阿拉伯复兴党”,为泛阿拉伯民族主义政党。

(4)约旦共产党(The Jordanian Communist Party):该党始建于1948年,1970年分裂成两派。1993年1月获内政部批准登记。1997年12月约共“二大”后,领导层内部再度分裂。该党主张以马克思主义为指南,基本任务是维护民族独立、发展经济、反对帝国主义和犹太复国主义。

(5)民族阵线党(National Front Party):2009年5月成立。主张实行全面改革,实现社会和谐。由前众议长阿卜杜·哈迪·马贾利(Abdul Hadi Majali)组建。

[Parliament] The National Assembly is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. 130 members of the House of Representatives are elected by universal suffrage. All male and female citizens who are 19 years of age or older can participate in the election. The Speaker is elected by secret members every year. Members of Parliament are elected for a term of four years and are eligible for re-election. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives, Atef Tarawneh. Members of the Senate are all appointed by the King from celebrities over the age of 40, and the number is not more than half of the House of Representatives. There are 65 senators in the Senate. The current Senate is Faisal AL-Fayez.

[Government] The current government was established on June 14, 2018. There are 26 members of the current cabinet, including Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense Omar AL-Razzaz, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State Raja Yi Mu. Rajai Muasher, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Overseas Chinese Affairs Ayman Safadi, and Minister of Higher Education and Research Adel Tweisi.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 12 provinces: Capital Province, Irbid Province, Ma’an Province, Zarqa Province, Bailega Province, Mafraq Province, Karak Province, Tafira Province, Madaba Province, Jerash Province, Aqaba Province, Ajlon Province.

[Judiciary] includes two parts: the court and the procuratorate. The Constitution stipulates that judges exercise judicial power independently. The appointment and dismissal of judges is approved by the King in accordance with the law and is subject to the supervision of the High Judicial Council. The courts are divided into three categories, namely: civil courts, religious courts, special courts. Civil courts are responsible for hearing civil and criminal cases. The religious court is mainly responsible for marriage, inheritance, adoption and other matters. Special courts include national security courts, military courts, police courts, major criminal courts, and customs courts.

[Political Party] On April 9, 1952, the establishment of political parties was allowed, and they were all dissolved. In October 1991, the party ban was lifted. In October 1992, the Political Party Law was enacted, which stipulated that Jordan should adopt a multi-party system. The political parties re-registered, emphasizing that political parties must respect the Constitution, must not develop in the military and security institutions, and must not have political and economic ties with foreign or external forces. Activities can be carried out after approval by the Ministry of the Interior as a legitimate political party. In 2008, the party law was amended to increase the threshold for the establishment of political parties from 50 party members to 500 party members, and required party members to come from 5 or more provinces. There are currently more than 40 political parties, mainly:

(1) The Islamic Action Front: The largest opposition party, composed of the Muslim Brotherhood and Muslim independence in December 1992. The party opposed the Arab-Israeli peace talks and opposed the peace treaty.

(2) National Constitutional Party: In May 1997, the “Vows Party”, “The Motherland Party”, “Awakening Party”, “Jordan National Union Party”, “Arab Democratic Unity Party”, “Progressive Justice Party” “The Jordanian People’s Movement Party”, the “Jordan People’s Unity Party” and the “Jordan Arab Mass Party” were formed by the merger of nine political parties. The purpose is “rejuvenation, democracy, and unity.”

(3) Jordanian Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party: Established in January 1993 with the approval of the Ministry of the Interior. Formerly known as the “Arab Renaissance Party” established in 1948, it was a pan-Arab nationalist party.

(4) The Jordanian Communist Party: The party was founded in 1948 and split into two factions in 1970. In January 1993, it was approved by the Ministry of the Interior for registration. After the “two majors” in December 1997, the leadership split again. The party advocates Marxism as a guide and its basic tasks are to safeguard national independence, develop the economy, oppose imperialism and Zionism.

(5) National Front Party: Established in May 2009. It advocates the implementation of comprehensive reforms to achieve social harmony. It was formed by former Speaker of the House of Representatives Abdul Hadi Majali.

【重要人物】阿卜杜拉二世:国王。系约前国王侯赛因长子。1962年1月30日生于安曼。自幼在英国和美国接受教育,曾在英国牛津大学和美国乔治敦大学深造。20世纪80年代初在英国军队中服役,1985年返回约旦进入军界,曾任装甲兵营长等职,其间先后赴英国桑赫斯特皇家军事学院、英国步兵学校、英国指挥与参谋学院及美国装甲兵学校学习进修军事。1993年起任约特种部队司令,1998年晋升为陆军少将。1999年1月25日被立为王储。同年2月7日继位,6月9日加冕。爱好军体活动,是专业潜水员、飞行员和伞兵;喜爱赛车,曾获约全国汽车拉力赛冠军。阿曾11次访华(1981年7月、1982年12月、1993年12月、1999年12月、2002年1月、2004年7月、2005年12月、2007年10月、2008年9月、2013年9月,2015年9月,前3次作为王子)。已婚,王后拉妮亚,巴勒斯坦血统。育有二子二女,长子侯赛因2009年被立为王储。

奥马尔·拉扎兹,1961年生,曾在世界银行驻非洲、欧洲、中亚、中东等地区机构及总部任职,先后担任约旦社会保障公司总经理、约旦投资审查委员会副主席、约旦阿卜杜拉二世国王发展基金会理事会主席、教育大臣等职。2018年6月14日被任命为首相。

约旦系发展中国家,经济基础薄弱,资源较贫乏,可耕地少,依赖进口。国民经济主要支柱为侨汇、旅游和外援。阿卜杜拉二世国王执政后,大力推行经济改革,改善投资环境,积极寻求外援,扭转了约经济长期负增长或零增长的局面。1999年约加入世界贸易组织。2004–2008年间经济增长率超过8%。

2009年以来,受国际金融危机影响及西亚北非地区局势动荡冲击,约经济增长速度下滑,约政府加大对经济调控力度,并在金融、基建、招商引资、争取外援等方面采取相应措施,取得一定成效。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(GDP):408.5亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:约4540美元。

经济增长率:2.1%。

货币名称:约旦第纳尔。

【资 源】主要有磷酸盐、钾盐、铜、锰、铀、油页岩和少量天然气。磷酸盐储量约20亿吨。死海海水可提炼钾盐,储量达40亿吨。油页岩储量700亿吨,但商业开采价值低。

【工 业】多属轻工业和小型加工工业,主要有采矿、炼油、食品加工、制药、玻璃、纺织、塑料制品、卷烟、皮革、制鞋、造纸等。有磷酸盐、钾盐、炼油、水泥、化肥5个规模较大的工业产业。

[important person] Abdullah II: King. It is the eldest son of the former King Hussein. Born in Amman on January 30, 1962. He has been educated in the United Kingdom and the United States since childhood, and has studied at Oxford University in the United Kingdom and Georgetown University in the United States. In the early 1980s, he served in the British army. In 1985, he returned to Jordan to enter the military. He served as the battalion commander of the armored corps. He went to the Royal Military Academy of England, the British Infantry School, the British Command and Staff College, and the United States. Armored soldiers school to study military. Since 1993, he has been commander of the Special Forces. In 1998, he was promoted to Major General of the Army. On January 25, 1999, he was established as the Crown Prince. On February 7th of the same year, he succeeded to the throne and was crowned on June 9. The hobby military activities are professional divers, pilots and paratroopers; they love racing and have won the national rally championship. Ah Zeng visited China 11 times (July 1981, December 1982, December 1993, December 1999, January 2002, July 2004, December 2005, October 2007, 2008) Month, September 2013, September 2015, the first three times as a prince). Married, Queen Rania, Palestinian descent. With two sons and two daughters, the eldest son Hussein was established as the Crown Prince in 2009.

Omar Lazarz, born in 1961, has served in the World Bank’s offices and headquarters in Africa, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, etc. He has served as General Manager of Jordan Social Security Corporation, Vice Chairman of Jordan Investment Review Committee, Jordan Abdul Chairman of the Board of Directors of the King of Development II Foundation and Minister of Education. Appointed as Prime Minister on June 14, 2018.

Jordan is a developing country with a weak economic base, poor resources, less arable land and dependence on imports. The main pillars of the national economy are remittances, tourism and foreign aid. After King Abdullah II took office, he vigorously promoted economic reforms, improved the investment environment, and actively sought foreign aid, which reversed the long-term negative growth or zero growth of the economy. In 1999, he joined the World Trade Organization. The economic growth rate exceeded 8% between 2004 and 2008.

Since 2009, affected by the international financial crisis and the turbulent impact of the situation in West Asia and North Africa, the economic growth rate has declined. The government has increased its control over the economy and adopted corresponding measures in finance, infrastructure, investment promotion, and foreign aid. Certain results. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): $40.85 billion.

Per capita GDP: about $4,540.

Economic growth rate: 2.1%.

Currency name: Jordanian Dinar.

[Resources] There are mainly phosphate, potassium, copper, manganese, uranium, oil shale and a small amount of natural gas. Phosphate reserves are about 2 billion tons. The Dead Sea water can refine potassium salts with a reserve of 4 billion tons. Oil shale reserves are 70 billion tons, but commercial mining value is low.

[Industrial] Mostly belong to light industry and small processing industry, mainly including mining, oil refining, food processing, pharmaceutical, glass, textile, plastic products, cigarettes, leather, shoes, paper and so on. There are five large-scale industrial industries such as phosphate, potassium salt, oil refining, cement and fertilizer.

【农 业】农业不发达,农业人口11.04万,约占劳动力的12%。可耕地面积仅占国土面积7.8%,已耕地面积约50万公顷,多集中在约旦河谷,全部私人经营。水资源缺乏是约发展农业的主要障碍。目前建有10个主要水坝,总容量3.27亿立方米,其中91%位于干旱地区。主要农作物有小麦、大麦、玉米、蔬菜和橄榄等。农产品不能满足国内需求,粮食和肉类主要依靠进口。

【旅游业】约旦三大经济支柱之一和主要外汇来源之一。主要旅游景区有安曼、死海、杰拉什、佩特拉、阿杰隆古堡、亚喀巴、月亮谷等。

【交通运输】公路总长7299公里,已基本建成沟通全国城乡的公路网,国际公路网与伊拉克、叙利亚、沙特、以色列等国相通。年运输量超1000万吨。注册车辆126.4万辆。

铁路:全长730公里,客运量3.13万人次,货运量378.95万吨。

海运:亚喀巴港是约旦唯一港口和进出口贸易集散中心,拥有集装箱码头和散装码头、23个深水泊位、固定航线29条,通往除西非海岸及南美西部海岸的200多个港口,年货物吞吐量可达2200万吨。

空运:约旦皇家航空公司拥有各种飞机35架,国际航线50条。主要机场有:安曼阿丽娅王后国际机场、安曼民用机场(马尔卡机场)、亚喀巴国际机场。2014年,阿丽娅王后国际机场的客运量达708.9万人次、同比增加9%,飞机起降7.3万架次、同比增长7.6%。

【电信信息业】 近年来,约旦大力发展电信和信息产业。1999年,约启动通讯技术领域发展倡议,该行业投资已达25亿美元。

【财政金融】约旦金融系统比较发达。全国有26家银行,全部是上市私有银行。外国银行可在约设分行,但不得为境外实体融资。

【对外贸易】与世界100多个国家和地区有贸易往来。主要进口原油、机械设备、电子电器、钢材、化学制品、粮食、成衣等,主要进口国为沙特、中国、美国、德国和埃及。主要出口服装、磷酸盐、钾盐、蔬菜、医药制品和化肥等,主要出口国为美国、伊拉克、印度、沙特、叙利亚和阿联酋。2017年,约旦对外贸易总额为305.04亿美元,其中进口额为223.85亿美元,出口额为81.19亿美元。

【外国投资】约旦政府致力于改善投资环境,不断制定和完善投资法规,积极吸引外资,尤其鼓励外商在约旦工业区投资办厂。2016年,外国在约投资15.6亿美元。

[Agriculture] Agriculture is underdeveloped, with an agricultural population of 110,400, accounting for about 12% of the labor force. The arable land area only accounts for 7.8% of the country’s land area, and the cultivated land area is about 500,000 hectares. It is concentrated in the Jordan Valley and is privately operated. The lack of water resources is a major obstacle to the development of agriculture. There are currently 10 major dams with a total capacity of 327 million cubic meters, 91% of which are located in arid areas. The main crops are wheat, barley, corn, vegetables and olives. Agricultural products cannot meet domestic demand, and food and meat mainly depend on imports.

[Tourism] One of Jordan’s three major economic pillars and one of the major sources of foreign exchange. The main tourist attractions are Amman, Dead Sea, Jerash, Petra, Ajron Fort, Aqaba, Moon Valley and so on.

[Transportation] The total length of the road is 7,299 kilometers. The road network has been basically established to communicate with the whole country and the country. The international road network is connected with Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Israel. The annual transportation volume exceeds 10 million tons. There were 1.264 million registered vehicles.

Railway: The total length is 730 kilometers, the passenger volume is 31,300 passengers, and the freight volume is 3.879 million tons.

Shipping: The port of Aqaba is the only port and import and export trade hub in Jordan. It has container terminals and bulk terminals, 23 deep-water berths and 29 fixed routes. It has access to more than 200 ports except the West African coast and the western coast of South America. The cargo throughput can reach 22 million tons.

Air transport: Royal Jordanian Airlines has 35 aircraft of various types and 50 international routes. The main airports are: Queen Amway International Airport, Amman Civil Airport (Marka Airport), and Aqaba International Airport. In 2014, the passenger traffic of Queen Alia International Airport reached 7.789 million passengers, an increase of 9% year-on-year, and the aircraft took off and landed 73,000 flights, an increase of 7.6%.

[Telecom Information Industry] In recent years, Jordan has vigorously developed the telecommunications and information industries. In 1999, about the launch of the communications technology sector development initiative, the industry has invested $ 2.5 billion.

[Financial Finance] Jordan’s financial system is relatively developed. There are 26 banks across the country, all of which are listed private banks. Foreign banks may set up branches at the same time, but may not finance overseas entities.

[Foreign Trade] Trade with more than 100 countries and regions in the world. Mainly imported crude oil, machinery and equipment, electronic appliances, steel, chemicals, food, clothing, etc., the main importing countries are Saudi Arabia, China, the United States, Germany and Egypt. It mainly exports garments, phosphates, potash, vegetables, pharmaceutical products and fertilizers. The main exporting countries are the United States, Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. In 2017, Jordan’s total foreign trade was US$30.504 billion, of which imports were US$22.285 billion and exports were US$8.119 billion.

[Foreign Investment] The Jordanian government is committed to improving the investment environment, continuously formulating and improving investment regulations, and actively attracting foreign investment, especially encouraging foreign investors to invest and set up factories in the Jordan Industrial Zone. In 2016, foreign countries invested about US$1.56 billion.

【外国援助】外援是约经济主要来源之一。海湾战争前,约外援主要来自美等西方国家以及海湾阿拉伯国家。在海湾危机中,约采取同情伊拉克的立场,致使主要援助国中断了对约援助,约经济形势恶化。后约逐渐调整对伊政策,改善与美及海湾阿拉伯国家关系,主要援助国恢复了对约援助。约以媾和后,美对约援助大幅增加。2003年由于伊拉克战争,国际社会向约提供了高达19亿美元的贷、赠款。2012年约获外援4.6亿美元,主要援助方为阿拉伯国家、美国、日本、欧盟及联合国各机构。2013年5月,世界银行决定提供1.5亿美元帮助约接纳叙利亚难民。2014年,世界银行将对约贷款年度上限从3.5亿美元上调至5亿美元,并同意向约发放2亿美元贷款。同年,约从欧盟获得1.8亿美元贷款。2018年,约旦共接受外援31.4亿美元。

约旦卫生事业发展很快,医疗水平在中东地区名列前茅。截止2013年,全国共有103家医院,其中卫生部下属医院31家。全国98%的儿童都接种白喉、破伤风、麻疹、结核病等多种疫苗。约对政府职工和军人及家属实行免费医疗制度,对企业职工实行医疗保险制度。政府工作人员根据职业不同,每月可领取交通、出差、服装、住房、家庭人口、物价等各种补贴。约民众普遍拥有小汽车等。人均寿命73岁。

1916年建军,6月10日为建军节。约旦国王为武装部队最高统帅。约军前身是英国当局协助建立的“阿拉伯军团”,在1973年第三次中东战争中遭以军重创,战后在美、英援助下重建。1976年9月,约开始实行义务兵和志愿兵相结合的兵役制。服役期为两年。1982年7月,侯赛因国王宣布成立人民军,凡在高中和高校就读的男女学生,以及16–55岁的男性公民均应参加。1994年约以和约签署后,约改行志愿兵役制。目前,约正规军总兵力约10.6万人,其中陆军近9万人、空军约1.6万人、海军约850 人。另有预备役6.5万人,准军事部队(包括治安部队、警察和民兵等)约8万人。

【教 育】约旦公民文化素质较高。国家重视教育事业,实行10年免费义务基础教育。高中教育为非义务性专业学习,学制两年。全国共有10所公立大学和19所私立大学,主要有约旦大学、雅尔穆克大学、约旦科技大学、哈希姆大学、穆塔大学、艾勒·贝塔大学、侯赛因大学、拜勒加应用大学等。全国文盲率7%。

【新闻出版】主要报刊:《宪章报》、《言论报》、《明天报》。主要英文报刊是《约旦时报》、《星报》。2006年7月,约内阁通过《媒体和出版法》,不再允许逮捕或监禁犯有与其职业相关罪行的记者。

佩特拉通讯社:官方通讯社,1969年成立。在贝鲁特设有分社,在开罗、大马士革、波恩、巴黎、哥本哈根、纽约有兼职记者。1995年起向除南非、南美以外的世界各地发送阿、英文消息。

约旦广播电台1959年创建,约旦电视台1968年建立,均系官方机构。1985年9月,合并成立广播电视总局。

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is one of the main sources of the economy. Before the Gulf War, foreign aid mainly came from the United States and other Western countries as well as the Gulf Arab countries. In the Gulf crisis, the sympathy of Iraq’s position was adopted, causing major aid countries to interrupt aid to the treaty and the economic situation deteriorated. After the gradual adjustment of the Iraqi policy and the improvement of relations with the United States and the Gulf Arab countries, the major donor countries resumed their aid to the treaty. After the agreement between the United States and the United States, the United States’ aid to the Jordan increased significantly. In 2003, due to the Iraq war, the international community provided loans and grants of up to $1.9 billion. In 2012, it received approximately US$460 million in foreign aid. The main aid parties are Arab countries, the United States, Japan, the European Union and United Nations agencies. In May 2013, the World Bank decided to provide $150 million to help accept Syrian refugees. In 2014, the World Bank raised the annual cap on contracted loans from $350 million to $500 million and agreed to issue about $200 million in loans. In the same year, about 180 million US dollars of loans were obtained from the EU. In 2018, Jordan received a total of 3.14 billion US dollars in foreign aid.

The health industry in Jordan is developing rapidly, and its medical level is among the best in the Middle East. As of 2013, there were 103 hospitals nationwide, including 31 hospitals under the Ministry of Health. 98% of children in the country are vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, measles and tuberculosis. The government implements a free medical system for government employees, military personnel and their families, and implements a medical insurance system for employees of enterprises. According to different occupations, government staff can receive various subsidies such as transportation, business trips, clothing, housing, family population and prices. The general public has a car and so on. The average life expectancy is 73 years.

In 1916, the army was established, and on June 10, it was the Army Day. The King of Jordan is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The predecessor of the army was the “Arab Legion” assisted by the British authorities. He was heavily wounded by the Israeli army in the third Middle East War in 1973 and rebuilt after the war with the assistance of the United States and Britain. In September 1976, the military service system combining compulsory soldiers and volunteers was started. The service period is two years. In July 1982, King Hussein announced the establishment of the People’s Army. All male and female students studying in high schools and colleges, as well as male citizens aged 16–55, should participate. After the signing of the peace treaty in 1994, the voluntary military service system was changed. At present, the total strength of the regular army is about 106,000, including nearly 90,000 in the Army, 16,000 in the Air Force, and 850 in the Navy. There are also 65,000 reservemen and about 80,000 paramilitary units (including security forces, police and militia).

[education] Jordanian citizens have a high cultural quality. The state attaches importance to education and implements 10 years of free and compulsory basic education. High school education is a non-compulsory professional study with a two-year academic system. There are 10 public universities and 19 private universities nationwide, mainly Jordan University, Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Hashem University, Muta University, Elle Beta University, Hussein University, Bailega Applied universities, etc. The national illiteracy rate is 7%.

[Press and Publication] Major newspapers and periodicals: “Charter”, “The Speech”, “Tomorrow”. The main English newspapers are The Jordan Times and The Star. In July 2006, the Cabinet passed the Media and Publishing Act, which no longer allowed the arrest or imprisonment of journalists who had committed crimes related to their profession.

Petra News Agency: The official news agency, established in 1969. There are branches in Beirut and part-time reporters in Cairo, Damascus, Bonn, Paris, Copenhagen and New York. Since 1995, I have sent Arabic and English messages to all parts of the world except South Africa and South America.

Jordan Radio was founded in 1959 and Jordan Television was established in 1968, both of which are official institutions. In September 1985, the General Administration of Radio and Television was merged.

【对外关系】约旦外交活跃,强化与美特殊盟友关系,重视发展与各大国关系,推行睦邻友好政策,在中东问题等地区事务中发挥着独特作用。目前已同131个国家建立外交关系。

同美国的关系:同美国关系密切。约美关系曾因海湾危机约旦支持伊拉克而一度降温,美冻结对约军事、经济援助。海湾战争后,约积极参与美发起的中东和平进程。1994年10月,约旦与以色列签订和约后,美免除约7亿美元的债务,并同意每年向约提供约3亿美元的军事和经济援助。2000年10月,约美签署自由贸易协定。2010年2月,约美签署援助协议,据此美在2010–2013年间每年向约提供3.6亿美元经援和3亿美元军援。2012年1月、7月、9月,阿卜杜拉二世国王3次访美。2012年美对约援助总额达4.77亿美元。2013年3月,美总统奥巴马访约,表示将向约额外提供2亿美元财政援助以应对叙利亚危机,并提供10亿–20亿美元优惠贷款。4月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访美。美向约派遣200名士兵协助应对叙危机。5月,美国务卿克里出席在约举行的世界经济论坛中东及北非会议。2014年2 月、3月、5月、12月和2015年2月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世访美。2018年2月,美国宣布,将每年对约旦的援助从10亿美元提至12亿美元,主要用于帮助约方安置来自伊拉克和叙利亚难民以及打击恐怖主义。2018年4月,美国国务卿蓬佩奥访问约旦。

同欧盟国家的关系:积极发展同欧盟,特别是英、法、德等国的关系,希望欧盟在中东地区事务中发挥积极作用,并寻求其经济援助。约旦与欧盟的贸易额占约对外贸易总额的35%。2010年5月,约与欧盟签署2011–2013年欧盟对约援助协议,欧盟在此期间将向约提供2.23亿欧元援助,用于民主改革、人权、司法、发展贸易和投资等。2011年12月,双方签署2012–2014年援助协议,欧盟据此将向约政府提供1.03亿欧元援助,其中7800万欧元用于支持约财政预算,其余部分用于支持约水利、地方发展和民主改革等。2012年,英国首相卡梅伦、欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐分别访约。阿卜杜拉二世国王访问法、英等国。2013年4月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访问西班牙。2014年5月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访英。6月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访德。2015年5月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访德。2017年11月,英国首相特雷莎·梅访问约旦。2018年6月,德国总理默克尔访问约旦,宣布向约旦提供1亿欧元贷款,支持约经济改革。同月,英国威廉王子访问约旦。2019年2月,英国政府在伦敦举办旨在促进约旦经济发展的国际会议,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世出席。

同俄罗斯的关系:约旦重视前苏联大国地位,侯赛因国王曾先后于1981年、1982年和1987年3次访苏。苏联解体后,约继续发展同俄罗斯关系,希望俄在中东问题上发挥更大作用。20世纪90年代以来,约俄关系续有发展。2009年,约与俄草签一项核能合作协议,双方将在建造核电站、海水淡化、勘探、开采核原料方面展开合作。2010年3月,2013年2月,2014年4月、10 月,2016年2月,2017年1月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访俄。2011年1月,俄总统梅德韦杰夫访约。2012年6月,俄总统普京访约。2015年3月,约俄签署合作建造约旦第一个核电站的协议。2017年2月和2018年2月,阿卜杜拉二世国王两度访俄。

[External Relations] Jordan is active in diplomacy, strengthens relations with special ally of the United States, attaches importance to developing relations with major powers, promotes a policy of good-neighborliness and friendship, and plays a unique role in regional affairs such as the Middle East. At present, diplomatic relations have been established with 131 countries.

Relations with the United States: Close relationship with the United States. The relationship between the United States and the United States was once cooled by the Gulf crisis in Jordan, and the United States has frozen military and economic assistance. After the Gulf War, he actively participated in the Middle East peace process initiated by the United States. In October 1994, after Jordan signed a peace treaty with Israel, the United States exempted about $700 million in debt and agreed to provide about $300 million in military and economic assistance each year. In October 2000, Jordan signed a free trade agreement. In February 2010, the United States signed an aid agreement, according to which the United States provided approximately 360 million U.S. dollars in aid and 300 million U.S. dollars in military assistance each year between 2010 and 2013. In January, July and September 2012, King Abdullah II visited the United States three times. In 2012, US aid to the total amount reached US$477 million. In March 2013, US President Barack Obama visited the agreement, saying that he would provide an additional $200 million in financial assistance to deal with the Syrian crisis and provide $1 billion to $2 billion in concessional loans. In April, King Abdullah II visited the United States. The United States dispatched 200 soldiers to help respond to the Syrian crisis. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry attended the World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Conference. In February, March, May, December and February 2015, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited the United States. In February 2018, the United States announced that it would raise annual aid to Jordan from $1 billion to $1.2 billion, mainly to help the Israelis resettle refugees from Iraq and Syria and fight terrorism. In April 2018, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited Jordan.

Relations with EU countries: Actively develop relations with the EU, especially the United Kingdom, France, Germany and other countries. I hope that the EU will play an active role in Middle East affairs and seek its economic assistance. Jordan’s trade with the EU accounts for about 35% of total foreign trade. In May 2010, the EU-sponsored aid agreement for 2011-2013 was signed with the European Union. During this period, the EU will provide approximately 223 million euros in aid for democratic reform, human rights, justice, development of trade and investment. In December 2011, the two sides signed an aid agreement for 2012–2014, according to which the EU will provide 103 million euros of assistance to the government, of which 78 million will be used to support the budget, and the rest will be used to support water conservancy, local development and democracy. Reform and so on. In 2012, British Prime Minister David Cameron and European Commission President Barroso visited the agreement. King Abdullah II visited France, Britain and other countries. In April 2013, King Abdullah II visited Spain. In May 2014, King Abdullah II visited the UK. In June, King Abdullah II visited Germany. In May 2015, King Abdullah II visited Germany. In November 2017, British Prime Minister Teresa May visited Jordan. In June 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Jordan and announced a loan of 100 million euros to Jordan to support economic reforms. In the same month, Prince William of England visited Jordan. In February 2019, the British government hosted an international conference in London to promote the economic development of Jordan, attended by King Abdullah II of Jordan.

Relations with Russia: Jordan values ​​the status of the great powers of the former Soviet Union. King Hussein visited Su in three times in 1981, 1982 and 1987. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, it continued to develop relations with Russia and hoped that Russia would play a greater role in the Middle East issue. Since the 1990s, relations between Jordan and Russia have continued to develop. In 2009, a nuclear energy cooperation agreement was signed with Russia. The two sides will cooperate in the construction of nuclear power plants, seawater desalination, exploration and mining of nuclear materials. March 2010, February 2013, April 2014, October, February 2016, January 2017, King Abdullah II visited Russia. In January 2011, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited the treaty. In June 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited the treaty. In March 2015, Jordan signed an agreement to cooperate in the construction of Jordan’s first nuclear power plant. In February 2017 and February 2018, King Abdullah II visited Russia twice.

同日本的关系:20世纪70年代以来,约旦同日本的关系不断发展,高层互访频繁。1976年,日本王储明仁夫妇访问约旦。1989年,侯赛因国王出席日本裕仁天皇葬礼。1990年,哈桑王储参加明仁天皇加冕庆典。2009年4月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访问日本。2010年10月,约首相里法伊访日。目前,日本是约最大的债权国,债务总额约18亿美元。约是中东地区人均获日本援助最多的国家,2007–2011年日对约累计援助达3.16亿美元。2012–2014年,日向约提供1.56亿美元贷款。2014年11月阿卜杜拉二世国王访问日本,日本宣布将向约方提供2000万美元援助用于帮助其应对叙利亚难民危机。2015年1月日本首相安倍晋三访问约旦,宣布将向约提供约合1.25亿美元的援助。2016年10月阿卜杜拉二世国王访问日本,日方宣布向约提供300亿日元(约3亿美元)国家政策性优惠贷款,用于减少约公共债务,并为约基础设施建设优先项目提供融资。2018年5月,日本首相安倍晋三访问约旦,承诺向约提供16亿日元(约合人民币9200万元)无偿资金援助,用于完善在约叙利亚难民的相关生活基础设施。

同巴勒斯坦的关系:巴勒斯坦人占约旦总人口60%,约巴之间有着特殊关系。1988年11月巴勒斯坦国宣布成立后,约旦立即予以承认;1989年1月,约同意巴解组织驻约办事处升格为大使馆。在中东和谈问题上,巴以谈判所涉及的巴难民、水资源、边界划分及安全安排攸关约切身利益,约十分关注,认为巴勒斯坦问题仍是当前中东问题的核心,坚持“两国方案”。2012年1月,在约旦方面斡旋下,巴以双方在安曼就重启和谈进行接触。同月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯、哈马斯领导人迈沙阿勒分别两度访约,12月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访问拉马拉。2013年3月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯访约,双方签署了共同保护“圣城”耶路撒冷及阿克萨清真寺等圣迹的协议,确认哈希姆王室对耶城圣迹的监护权。2014年1月、7月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯访约。4月,约旦首相恩苏尔访巴。2015年5月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯出席在约旦举办的2015年世界经济论坛中东北非峰会,会见约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世。2017年8月,约旦国王访问巴勒斯坦,与阿巴斯举行会谈。

同伊拉克的关系:约旦主张维护伊主权、安全、统一,呼吁恢复伊安全与稳定,强烈谴责伊境内针对平民的暴力活动,支持伊各派和解进程。约积极配合伊政治和经济重建进程。2010年1月,里法伊首相访伊。10月,伊过渡政府总理马利基访约。2011年,巴希特首相访伊。2009年2月,约政府就伊拉克人入境作出新规定,将银行存款证明由15万美元降为5万美元。约旦亚喀巴港口决定将给伊转口货物减免40%的转口税,以加强约伊贸易往来。2011年,约伊双方达成协议,将伊对约石油日出口量由1万桶增至1.5万桶。2012年12月,伊拉克总理马利基访约。2014年1月,伊拉克石油部长鲁艾比访约。2014年4月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世会见了到访的伊拉克外长兹巴里。2019年1月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世访问伊拉克。

Relations with Japan: Since the 1970s, Jordan’s relations with Japan have continued to develop and frequent high-level visits have been made. In 1976, the Japanese Crown Prince Akihito visited Jordan. In 1989, King Hussein attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito of Japan. In 1990, the Crown Prince Hassan participated in the crowning ceremony of Emperor Akihito. In April 2009, King Abdullah II visited Japan. In October 2010, Prime Minister Rifay visited Japan. At present, Japan is the largest creditor country with a total debt of about 1.8 billion US dollars. It is the country with the most aid from Japan in the Middle East. The cumulative aid for the 2007-2011 date reached US$316 million. In 2012–2014, the company provided approximately $156 million in loans. In November 2014, King Abdullah II visited Japan, and Japan announced that it would provide 20 million U.S. dollars in aid to help the Syrian refugee crisis. In January 2015, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Jordan and announced that he would provide approximately $125 million in assistance to the treaty. In October 2016, King Abdullah II visited Japan, and Japan announced that it would provide 30 billion yen (about 300 million U.S. dollars) of national policy concessional loans to reduce the amount of public debt and give priority to infrastructure construction. The project provides financing. In May 2018, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Jordan and promised to provide 1.6 billion yen (about 92 million yuan) of unpaid financial assistance to improve the relevant living infrastructure of Syrian refugees.

Relations with Palestine: Palestinians make up 60% of Jordan’s total population and there is a special relationship between Yorba. After the announcement of the establishment of the State of Palestine in November 1988, Jordan immediately recognized it; in January 1989, it agreed to upgrade the PLO’s office to the embassy. On the issue of peace talks in the Middle East, the Palestinian-Israeli refugees, water resources, border demarcation and security arrangements involved in the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations are of vital interest. They are concerned that the Palestinian issue remains the core of the current Middle East issue and adheres to the “two-state plan.” . In January 2012, under the mediation of Jordan, the Palestinians and Israelis resumed peace talks in Amman. In the same month, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Hamas leader Meshaal visited the two countries respectively. In December, King Abdullah II visited Ramallah. In March 2013, Palestinian President Abbas visited the agreement and the two sides signed an agreement to jointly protect the holy sites of Jerusalem and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, confirming the custody of the Hashemite royal family on the holy sites of the city. In January and July 2014, Palestinian President Abbas visited the country. In April, Jordan’s Prime Minister Ensul visited Pakistan. In May 2015, Palestinian President Abbas attended the 2015 World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Summit in Jordan and met with King Abdullah II of Jordan. In August 2017, the King of Jordan visited Palestine and held talks with Abbas.

Relations with Iraq: Jordan advocates safeguarding Iraq’s sovereignty, security, and unity, calling for the restoration of Iraq’s security and stability, strongly condemning violence against civilians in Iraq, and supporting the Iraqi reconciliation process. About actively cooperate with Iraq’s political and economic reconstruction process. In January 2010, Prime Minister Rifay visited Iraq. In October, Prime Minister of the Transitional Government of Iraq, Maliki, visited the treaty. In 2011, Prime Minister Bakhit visited Iraq. In February 2009, the government imposed new regulations on the entry of Iraqis, reducing the bank deposit certificate from $150,000 to $50,000. The port of Aqaba, Jordan, decided to reduce the trans-shipment tax by 40% for Iraqi trans-shipment goods to strengthen trade in York. In 2011, the two sides reached an agreement to increase the export volume of Iraqi oil to Japan from 10,000 barrels to 15,000 barrels. In December 2012, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki visited the treaty. In January 2014, Iraqi Oil Minister Lu Aibi visited the agreement. In April 2014, King Abdullah II of Jordan met with visiting Iraqi Foreign Minister Zebari. In January 2019, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Iraq.

同其他阿拉伯国家的关系:约旦重视发展同阿拉伯各国的关系。

海湾危机发生后,由于约支持伊拉克,与埃及、叙利亚、沙特及科威特等国立场相悖,同这些国家的关系一度趋冷。海湾战争后,约主动改善同这些国家的关系。阿卜杜拉二世国王继位后,约与海湾国家关系逐步恢复并续有发展。近年来,约从海湾国家获得大量援助和投资。伊拉克战争后,约获得半年的海湾优惠供油,并提出加入“海湾合作委员会”。目前,沙特是约第一大援助国,科威特是约第一大投资伙伴,在约投资总额超过80亿美元。2011年5月,海湾合作委员会峰会决定,欢迎约旦申请加入海合会,双方将进一步商谈正式加入的相关问题。12月,海合会峰会决定成立海湾基金,未来5年内分别向约旦和摩洛哥提供25亿美元的发展援助。2012年,沙特、科威特、阿联酋承诺向约提供援助7.5亿美元。2012年,阿卜杜拉二世国王访问科威特、卡塔尔等阿拉伯国家。巴林国王哈马德、摩洛哥国王穆罕默德六世、埃及总理甘迪勒等阿拉伯领导人访约。2013年1月,阿卜杜拉二世国王访问巴林,并出席在科威特举行的“叙利亚人道主义问题高级别国际认捐会议”和在沙特举行的“第三届阿拉伯经济社会发展峰会”。2014年2月,约旦首相恩苏尔访问埃及。3月,摩洛哥首相基兰、卡塔尔埃米尔塔米姆访约。6月,阿卜杜拉二世国王出席埃及新总统塞西的就职典礼。2015年5月,埃及总统塞西出席在约旦举办的2015年世界经济论坛中东北非峰会,会见约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世。

同叙利亚的关系:呼吁政治解决叙利亚危机,维护叙主权和领土完整,反对外来军事干涉,协助美西方在其境内培训叙温和反对派武装,参与国际反恐联盟在叙利亚、伊拉克打击“伊斯兰国”的军事行动。目前,根据联合国难民署统计,约旦安置叙利亚难民约67万人。

同以色列的关系:1994年7月25日,约旦以色列在华盛顿签署《华盛顿宣言》,宣布结束敌对状态。10月,约以正式签署和约。11月,两国建立外交关系。1995年2月9日,约收回以占领的340平方公里失地。2001年,由于以巴冲突持续不止,约召回驻以大使,双边高层往来冻结。2004年以来,约以双边交往逐渐恢复。2005年1月,约恢复向以派驻大使。2010年7月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访约。8月,以国防部长巴拉克访约。2013年5月,以总统佩雷斯出席在约举行的世界经济论坛中东及北非会议。2014年1月,以总理内塔尼亚胡访约。同年11月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世、美国务卿克里和以色列总理内塔尼亚胡在安曼举行三方会晤,主要就巴以局势、重启巴以和谈等交换看法。

Relations with other Arab countries: Jordan attaches importance to developing relations with Arab countries.

After the Gulf crisis, relations with Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were inconsistent with the support of Iraq, and relations with these countries were once cold. After the Gulf War, the initiative to improve relations with these countries. After King Abdullah II succeeded, the relationship with the Gulf States gradually recovered and continued to develop. In recent years, a large amount of assistance and investment has been obtained from the Gulf countries. After the Iraq war, about half a year of preferential oil supply to the Gulf, and proposed to join the “Gulf Cooperation Council.” At present, Saudi Arabia is the largest aid donor, and Kuwait is the largest investment partner, with a total investment of more than 8 billion US dollars. In May 2011, the GCC summit decided to welcome Jordan to apply to join the GCC, and the two sides will further discuss related issues of formal participation. In December, the GCC summit decided to set up a Gulf fund to provide $2.5 billion in development assistance to Jordan and Morocco in the next five years. In 2012, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates pledged to provide assistance to the US$750 million. In 2012, King Abdullah II visited Arab countries such as Kuwait and Qatar. Arab leaders such as King Hamad of Bahrain, King Mohammed VI of Morocco, and Prime Minister Gandil of Egypt visited the country. In January 2013, King Abdullah II visited Bahrain and attended the “High-level International Pledging Conference on Humanitarian Issues in Syria” held in Kuwait and the “3rd Arab Summit on Economic and Social Development” held in Saudi Arabia. In February 2014, Jordanian Prime Minister Ensul visited Egypt. In March, Moroccan Prime Minister Kieran and Qatar Emir Tamim visited the country. In June, King Abdullah II attended the inauguration of the new Egyptian President Seyce. In May 2015, Egyptian President Sessi attended the 2015 World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Summit in Jordan and met with King Abdullah II of Jordan.

Relations with Syria: Call for a political solution to the Syrian crisis, safeguard Syria’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, oppose foreign military intervention, assist the US and the West to train Syrian and opposition armed forces in their territory, and participate in the international anti-terrorist coalition to fight against the “Islamic State” in Syria and Iraq. Military action. Currently, according to UNHCR statistics, Jordan has about 670,000 Syrian refugees.

Relations with Israel: On July 25, 1994, Jordan and Israel signed the Washington Declaration in Washington, announcing the end of hostilities. In October, the contract was formally signed. In November, the two countries established diplomatic relations. On February 9, 1995, about 340 square kilometers of land was lost. In 2001, due to the continuation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the ambassadors were recalled and bilateral high-level exchanges were frozen. Since 2004, bilateral exchanges have gradually recovered. In January 2005, the ambassador was reinstated. In July 2010, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the country. In August, Secretary of Defense Barak visited the agreement. In May 2013, President Peres attended the Middle East and North Africa Conference of the World Economic Forum held in Jordan. In January 2014, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the treaty. In November of the same year, King Abdullah II of Jordan, US Secretary of State Kerry and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu held a tripartite meeting in Amman, mainly in exchanges on the situation in Palestine and Israel and the resumption of the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks.