The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 约旦哈希姆王国
【国 名】约旦哈希姆王国（The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan）。
【国家元首】国王阿卜杜拉二世·本·侯赛因（Abdullah Ⅱ Bin Al-Hussein），1999年2月7日登基。
[Country name] The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
[area] 89,000 square kilometers.
[People] 10,100,000 (including Palestinian, Syrian, Iraqi refugees), 98% of the population is Arab, and a small number of Circassians, Turkmen and Armenians. The state religion is Islam, 92% of the residents are Sunni, and 2% of the residents belong to the Shiite and Druze factions. Christians account for about 6% of the population, mainly Greek Orthodox Christians. The official language is Arabic and General English.
[The capital] Amman, with an area of 1,700 square kilometers and a population of 4 million.
[Head of State] King Abdullah II Bin Al-Hussein, who was enthroned on February 7, 1999.
[Important Festival] National Day: May 25.
It is located in western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, neighboring Palestine and Israel in the west, bordering Syria in the north, bordering Iraq in the northeast, Saudi Arabia in the southeast and south, and the Gulf of Aqaba on the southwest corner of the Red Sea. The western highlands are subtropical Mediterranean climates with mild climates, with average temperatures ranging from 7°C to 14°C in January and 26°C–33°C in July. The east and southeast are deserts, accounting for 78% of the country’s total area.
Jordan was originally part of Palestine. At the beginning of the 7th century AD, it was a territory of the Arabian Empire. It belonged to the Ottoman Empire in 1517 AD. After the First World War, it became the British appointed land. In 1921, the United Kingdom divided the Palestinians by the Jordan River. The West is still called Palestine, and the East is the emirate of Jordan. On March 22, 1946, Britain recognized the independence of Jordan and on May 25 changed its name to the Hashemite Kingdom of Outer Jordan. In the first Arab-Israic war of May 1948, about 4,800 square kilometers of land in the West Bank of the Jordan River was occupied. In April 1950, the outer Jordan merged with the West Bank and was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. In the third Arab-Israeli war in 1967, Israel occupied the West Bank. In July 1988, King Hussein announced the suspension of “legal and administrative links” with the West Bank. In October 1994, a peace treaty was signed with Israel. On February 9, 1995, about 340 square kilometers of land occupied by the occupation was lost.
Jordan is a hereditary monarchy constitutional state. The king is the head of state and the commander of the three armed forces. The power is highly concentrated. The parliament has a Senate and a House of Representatives and a multi-party system. For a long time, the political situation has been relatively stable, but there are also economic and social problems such as poverty, unemployment, and Palestine refugees. Since the turmoil in West Asia and North Africa in 2011, a series of initiatives have been launched, including the national dialogue, the replacement of cabinets, the punishment of corruption, the revision of some laws, and the holding of parliamentary elections in advance. The current situation is generally stable. In March 2013, Jordan first elected the Prime Minister in consultation with the Parliament. The current Prime Minister Omar AL-Razzaz.
[Constitution] Enacted on January 1, 1952. According to the Constitution, Jordan is a hereditary Arab constitutional constitutional state with legislative powers of the king and parliament. The king is the head of state and has the power to approve and promulgate laws, appoint prime ministers, approve and dissolve parliaments, and lead the army. In January 1960, the parliament passed a constitutional amendment granting the king the right to extend the term of the House of Representatives. In January 1974, February 1976 and January 1984, the Parliament passed three constitutional amendments, granting the King the right to postpone the election indefinitely and to convene a special parliamentary assembly when the Cabinet considers it necessary to amend the Constitution. The main content of the constitutional amendment in 2011 is the establishment of the Constitutional Court, which is responsible for supervising whether the existing laws and systems are in conformity with the Constitution and the right to constitutional interpretation.
【议 会】称国民议会，由众议院和参议院组成。众议院议员130人，由普选产生，凡年满19岁的男女公民均可参加选举。议长每年由议员秘密选举产生，议员任期4年，均可连任。现任众议长阿提夫·塔拉瓦纳（Atef Tarawneh）。参议院议员全部由国王从年龄40岁以上的知名人士中任命，人数不超过众议院的一半。本届参议院共有参议员65名。现任参议长费萨尔·法耶兹（Faisal AL-Fayez）。
【政 府】本届政府于2018年6月14日成立，现有阁员26名，主要包括首相兼国防大臣奥马尔·拉扎兹（Omar AL-Razzaz）、副首相兼国务大臣拉贾伊·穆阿什尔（Rajai Muasher）、外交与侨务大臣埃伊曼·萨法迪（Ayman Safadi)、高教与科研大臣阿迪尔·图维西（Adel Tweisi）等。
（1）伊斯兰行动阵线党（The Islamic Action Front）：最大的反对党，1992年12月由穆斯林兄弟会和穆斯林独立人士组成。该党反对阿以和谈，反对约以和约。
（2）宪章爱国党（National Constitutional Party）：1997年5月由“誓约党”、“祖国党”、“觉醒党”、“约旦全国联盟党”、“阿拉伯民主统一党”、“进步正义党”、“约旦人民运动党”、“约旦人民统一党”、“约旦阿拉伯群众党”9个政党合并而成。宗旨是“复兴、民主、统一”。
（3）约旦阿拉伯社会复兴党（Jordanian Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party）：1993年1月经内政部批准成立。前身为1948年在约成立的“阿拉伯复兴党”，为泛阿拉伯民族主义政党。
（4）约旦共产党（The Jordanian Communist Party）：该党始建于1948年，1970年分裂成两派。1993年1月获内政部批准登记。1997年12月约共“二大”后，领导层内部再度分裂。该党主张以马克思主义为指南，基本任务是维护民族独立、发展经济、反对帝国主义和犹太复国主义。
（5）民族阵线党（National Front Party）：2009年5月成立。主张实行全面改革，实现社会和谐。由前众议长阿卜杜·哈迪·马贾利（Abdul Hadi Majali）组建。
[Parliament] The National Assembly is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. 130 members of the House of Representatives are elected by universal suffrage. All male and female citizens who are 19 years of age or older can participate in the election. The Speaker is elected by secret members every year. Members of Parliament are elected for a term of four years and are eligible for re-election. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives, Atef Tarawneh. Members of the Senate are all appointed by the King from celebrities over the age of 40, and the number is not more than half of the House of Representatives. There are 65 senators in the Senate. The current Senate is Faisal AL-Fayez.
[Government] The current government was established on June 14, 2018. There are 26 members of the current cabinet, including Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense Omar AL-Razzaz, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State Raja Yi Mu. Rajai Muasher, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Overseas Chinese Affairs Ayman Safadi, and Minister of Higher Education and Research Adel Tweisi.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 12 provinces: Capital Province, Irbid Province, Ma’an Province, Zarqa Province, Bailega Province, Mafraq Province, Karak Province, Tafira Province, Madaba Province, Jerash Province, Aqaba Province, Ajlon Province.
[Judiciary] includes two parts: the court and the procuratorate. The Constitution stipulates that judges exercise judicial power independently. The appointment and dismissal of judges is approved by the King in accordance with the law and is subject to the supervision of the High Judicial Council. The courts are divided into three categories, namely: civil courts, religious courts, special courts. Civil courts are responsible for hearing civil and criminal cases. The religious court is mainly responsible for marriage, inheritance, adoption and other matters. Special courts include national security courts, military courts, police courts, major criminal courts, and customs courts.
[Political Party] On April 9, 1952, the establishment of political parties was allowed, and they were all dissolved. In October 1991, the party ban was lifted. In October 1992, the Political Party Law was enacted, which stipulated that Jordan should adopt a multi-party system. The political parties re-registered, emphasizing that political parties must respect the Constitution, must not develop in the military and security institutions, and must not have political and economic ties with foreign or external forces. Activities can be carried out after approval by the Ministry of the Interior as a legitimate political party. In 2008, the party law was amended to increase the threshold for the establishment of political parties from 50 party members to 500 party members, and required party members to come from 5 or more provinces. There are currently more than 40 political parties, mainly:
(1) The Islamic Action Front: The largest opposition party, composed of the Muslim Brotherhood and Muslim independence in December 1992. The party opposed the Arab-Israeli peace talks and opposed the peace treaty.
(2) National Constitutional Party: In May 1997, the “Vows Party”, “The Motherland Party”, “Awakening Party”, “Jordan National Union Party”, “Arab Democratic Unity Party”, “Progressive Justice Party” “The Jordanian People’s Movement Party”, the “Jordan People’s Unity Party” and the “Jordan Arab Mass Party” were formed by the merger of nine political parties. The purpose is “rejuvenation, democracy, and unity.”
(3) Jordanian Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party: Established in January 1993 with the approval of the Ministry of the Interior. Formerly known as the “Arab Renaissance Party” established in 1948, it was a pan-Arab nationalist party.
(4) The Jordanian Communist Party: The party was founded in 1948 and split into two factions in 1970. In January 1993, it was approved by the Ministry of the Interior for registration. After the “two majors” in December 1997, the leadership split again. The party advocates Marxism as a guide and its basic tasks are to safeguard national independence, develop the economy, oppose imperialism and Zionism.
(5) National Front Party: Established in May 2009. It advocates the implementation of comprehensive reforms to achieve social harmony. It was formed by former Speaker of the House of Representatives Abdul Hadi Majali.
[important person] Abdullah II: King. It is the eldest son of the former King Hussein. Born in Amman on January 30, 1962. He has been educated in the United Kingdom and the United States since childhood, and has studied at Oxford University in the United Kingdom and Georgetown University in the United States. In the early 1980s, he served in the British army. In 1985, he returned to Jordan to enter the military. He served as the battalion commander of the armored corps. He went to the Royal Military Academy of England, the British Infantry School, the British Command and Staff College, and the United States. Armored soldiers school to study military. Since 1993, he has been commander of the Special Forces. In 1998, he was promoted to Major General of the Army. On January 25, 1999, he was established as the Crown Prince. On February 7th of the same year, he succeeded to the throne and was crowned on June 9. The hobby military activities are professional divers, pilots and paratroopers; they love racing and have won the national rally championship. Ah Zeng visited China 11 times (July 1981, December 1982, December 1993, December 1999, January 2002, July 2004, December 2005, October 2007, 2008) Month, September 2013, September 2015, the first three times as a prince). Married, Queen Rania, Palestinian descent. With two sons and two daughters, the eldest son Hussein was established as the Crown Prince in 2009.
Omar Lazarz, born in 1961, has served in the World Bank’s offices and headquarters in Africa, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, etc. He has served as General Manager of Jordan Social Security Corporation, Vice Chairman of Jordan Investment Review Committee, Jordan Abdul Chairman of the Board of Directors of the King of Development II Foundation and Minister of Education. Appointed as Prime Minister on June 14, 2018.
Jordan is a developing country with a weak economic base, poor resources, less arable land and dependence on imports. The main pillars of the national economy are remittances, tourism and foreign aid. After King Abdullah II took office, he vigorously promoted economic reforms, improved the investment environment, and actively sought foreign aid, which reversed the long-term negative growth or zero growth of the economy. In 1999, he joined the World Trade Organization. The economic growth rate exceeded 8% between 2004 and 2008.
Since 2009, affected by the international financial crisis and the turbulent impact of the situation in West Asia and North Africa, the economic growth rate has declined. The government has increased its control over the economy and adopted corresponding measures in finance, infrastructure, investment promotion, and foreign aid. Certain results. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): $40.85 billion.
Per capita GDP: about $4,540.
Economic growth rate: 2.1%.
Currency name: Jordanian Dinar.
[Resources] There are mainly phosphate, potassium, copper, manganese, uranium, oil shale and a small amount of natural gas. Phosphate reserves are about 2 billion tons. The Dead Sea water can refine potassium salts with a reserve of 4 billion tons. Oil shale reserves are 70 billion tons, but commercial mining value is low.
[Industrial] Mostly belong to light industry and small processing industry, mainly including mining, oil refining, food processing, pharmaceutical, glass, textile, plastic products, cigarettes, leather, shoes, paper and so on. There are five large-scale industrial industries such as phosphate, potassium salt, oil refining, cement and fertilizer.
[Agriculture] Agriculture is underdeveloped, with an agricultural population of 110,400, accounting for about 12% of the labor force. The arable land area only accounts for 7.8% of the country’s land area, and the cultivated land area is about 500,000 hectares. It is concentrated in the Jordan Valley and is privately operated. The lack of water resources is a major obstacle to the development of agriculture. There are currently 10 major dams with a total capacity of 327 million cubic meters, 91% of which are located in arid areas. The main crops are wheat, barley, corn, vegetables and olives. Agricultural products cannot meet domestic demand, and food and meat mainly depend on imports.
[Tourism] One of Jordan’s three major economic pillars and one of the major sources of foreign exchange. The main tourist attractions are Amman, Dead Sea, Jerash, Petra, Ajron Fort, Aqaba, Moon Valley and so on.
[Transportation] The total length of the road is 7,299 kilometers. The road network has been basically established to communicate with the whole country and the country. The international road network is connected with Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Israel. The annual transportation volume exceeds 10 million tons. There were 1.264 million registered vehicles.
Railway: The total length is 730 kilometers, the passenger volume is 31,300 passengers, and the freight volume is 3.879 million tons.
Shipping: The port of Aqaba is the only port and import and export trade hub in Jordan. It has container terminals and bulk terminals, 23 deep-water berths and 29 fixed routes. It has access to more than 200 ports except the West African coast and the western coast of South America. The cargo throughput can reach 22 million tons.
Air transport: Royal Jordanian Airlines has 35 aircraft of various types and 50 international routes. The main airports are: Queen Amway International Airport, Amman Civil Airport (Marka Airport), and Aqaba International Airport. In 2014, the passenger traffic of Queen Alia International Airport reached 7.789 million passengers, an increase of 9% year-on-year, and the aircraft took off and landed 73,000 flights, an increase of 7.6%.
[Telecom Information Industry] In recent years, Jordan has vigorously developed the telecommunications and information industries. In 1999, about the launch of the communications technology sector development initiative, the industry has invested $ 2.5 billion.
[Financial Finance] Jordan’s financial system is relatively developed. There are 26 banks across the country, all of which are listed private banks. Foreign banks may set up branches at the same time, but may not finance overseas entities.
[Foreign Trade] Trade with more than 100 countries and regions in the world. Mainly imported crude oil, machinery and equipment, electronic appliances, steel, chemicals, food, clothing, etc., the main importing countries are Saudi Arabia, China, the United States, Germany and Egypt. It mainly exports garments, phosphates, potash, vegetables, pharmaceutical products and fertilizers. The main exporting countries are the United States, Iraq, India, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. In 2017, Jordan’s total foreign trade was US$30.504 billion, of which imports were US$22.285 billion and exports were US$8.119 billion.
[Foreign Investment] The Jordanian government is committed to improving the investment environment, continuously formulating and improving investment regulations, and actively attracting foreign investment, especially encouraging foreign investors to invest and set up factories in the Jordan Industrial Zone. In 2016, foreign countries invested about US$1.56 billion.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is one of the main sources of the economy. Before the Gulf War, foreign aid mainly came from the United States and other Western countries as well as the Gulf Arab countries. In the Gulf crisis, the sympathy of Iraq’s position was adopted, causing major aid countries to interrupt aid to the treaty and the economic situation deteriorated. After the gradual adjustment of the Iraqi policy and the improvement of relations with the United States and the Gulf Arab countries, the major donor countries resumed their aid to the treaty. After the agreement between the United States and the United States, the United States’ aid to the Jordan increased significantly. In 2003, due to the Iraq war, the international community provided loans and grants of up to $1.9 billion. In 2012, it received approximately US$460 million in foreign aid. The main aid parties are Arab countries, the United States, Japan, the European Union and United Nations agencies. In May 2013, the World Bank decided to provide $150 million to help accept Syrian refugees. In 2014, the World Bank raised the annual cap on contracted loans from $350 million to $500 million and agreed to issue about $200 million in loans. In the same year, about 180 million US dollars of loans were obtained from the EU. In 2018, Jordan received a total of 3.14 billion US dollars in foreign aid.
The health industry in Jordan is developing rapidly, and its medical level is among the best in the Middle East. As of 2013, there were 103 hospitals nationwide, including 31 hospitals under the Ministry of Health. 98% of children in the country are vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus, measles and tuberculosis. The government implements a free medical system for government employees, military personnel and their families, and implements a medical insurance system for employees of enterprises. According to different occupations, government staff can receive various subsidies such as transportation, business trips, clothing, housing, family population and prices. The general public has a car and so on. The average life expectancy is 73 years.
In 1916, the army was established, and on June 10, it was the Army Day. The King of Jordan is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The predecessor of the army was the “Arab Legion” assisted by the British authorities. He was heavily wounded by the Israeli army in the third Middle East War in 1973 and rebuilt after the war with the assistance of the United States and Britain. In September 1976, the military service system combining compulsory soldiers and volunteers was started. The service period is two years. In July 1982, King Hussein announced the establishment of the People’s Army. All male and female students studying in high schools and colleges, as well as male citizens aged 16–55, should participate. After the signing of the peace treaty in 1994, the voluntary military service system was changed. At present, the total strength of the regular army is about 106,000, including nearly 90,000 in the Army, 16,000 in the Air Force, and 850 in the Navy. There are also 65,000 reservemen and about 80,000 paramilitary units (including security forces, police and militia).
[education] Jordanian citizens have a high cultural quality. The state attaches importance to education and implements 10 years of free and compulsory basic education. High school education is a non-compulsory professional study with a two-year academic system. There are 10 public universities and 19 private universities nationwide, mainly Jordan University, Yarmouk University, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Hashem University, Muta University, Elle Beta University, Hussein University, Bailega Applied universities, etc. The national illiteracy rate is 7%.
[Press and Publication] Major newspapers and periodicals: “Charter”, “The Speech”, “Tomorrow”. The main English newspapers are The Jordan Times and The Star. In July 2006, the Cabinet passed the Media and Publishing Act, which no longer allowed the arrest or imprisonment of journalists who had committed crimes related to their profession.
Petra News Agency: The official news agency, established in 1969. There are branches in Beirut and part-time reporters in Cairo, Damascus, Bonn, Paris, Copenhagen and New York. Since 1995, I have sent Arabic and English messages to all parts of the world except South Africa and South America.
Jordan Radio was founded in 1959 and Jordan Television was established in 1968, both of which are official institutions. In September 1985, the General Administration of Radio and Television was merged.
[External Relations] Jordan is active in diplomacy, strengthens relations with special ally of the United States, attaches importance to developing relations with major powers, promotes a policy of good-neighborliness and friendship, and plays a unique role in regional affairs such as the Middle East. At present, diplomatic relations have been established with 131 countries.
Relations with the United States: Close relationship with the United States. The relationship between the United States and the United States was once cooled by the Gulf crisis in Jordan, and the United States has frozen military and economic assistance. After the Gulf War, he actively participated in the Middle East peace process initiated by the United States. In October 1994, after Jordan signed a peace treaty with Israel, the United States exempted about $700 million in debt and agreed to provide about $300 million in military and economic assistance each year. In October 2000, Jordan signed a free trade agreement. In February 2010, the United States signed an aid agreement, according to which the United States provided approximately 360 million U.S. dollars in aid and 300 million U.S. dollars in military assistance each year between 2010 and 2013. In January, July and September 2012, King Abdullah II visited the United States three times. In 2012, US aid to the total amount reached US$477 million. In March 2013, US President Barack Obama visited the agreement, saying that he would provide an additional $200 million in financial assistance to deal with the Syrian crisis and provide $1 billion to $2 billion in concessional loans. In April, King Abdullah II visited the United States. The United States dispatched 200 soldiers to help respond to the Syrian crisis. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry attended the World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Conference. In February, March, May, December and February 2015, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited the United States. In February 2018, the United States announced that it would raise annual aid to Jordan from $1 billion to $1.2 billion, mainly to help the Israelis resettle refugees from Iraq and Syria and fight terrorism. In April 2018, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited Jordan.
Relations with EU countries: Actively develop relations with the EU, especially the United Kingdom, France, Germany and other countries. I hope that the EU will play an active role in Middle East affairs and seek its economic assistance. Jordan’s trade with the EU accounts for about 35% of total foreign trade. In May 2010, the EU-sponsored aid agreement for 2011-2013 was signed with the European Union. During this period, the EU will provide approximately 223 million euros in aid for democratic reform, human rights, justice, development of trade and investment. In December 2011, the two sides signed an aid agreement for 2012–2014, according to which the EU will provide 103 million euros of assistance to the government, of which 78 million will be used to support the budget, and the rest will be used to support water conservancy, local development and democracy. Reform and so on. In 2012, British Prime Minister David Cameron and European Commission President Barroso visited the agreement. King Abdullah II visited France, Britain and other countries. In April 2013, King Abdullah II visited Spain. In May 2014, King Abdullah II visited the UK. In June, King Abdullah II visited Germany. In May 2015, King Abdullah II visited Germany. In November 2017, British Prime Minister Teresa May visited Jordan. In June 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Jordan and announced a loan of 100 million euros to Jordan to support economic reforms. In the same month, Prince William of England visited Jordan. In February 2019, the British government hosted an international conference in London to promote the economic development of Jordan, attended by King Abdullah II of Jordan.
Relations with Russia: Jordan values the status of the great powers of the former Soviet Union. King Hussein visited Su in three times in 1981, 1982 and 1987. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, it continued to develop relations with Russia and hoped that Russia would play a greater role in the Middle East issue. Since the 1990s, relations between Jordan and Russia have continued to develop. In 2009, a nuclear energy cooperation agreement was signed with Russia. The two sides will cooperate in the construction of nuclear power plants, seawater desalination, exploration and mining of nuclear materials. March 2010, February 2013, April 2014, October, February 2016, January 2017, King Abdullah II visited Russia. In January 2011, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited the treaty. In June 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited the treaty. In March 2015, Jordan signed an agreement to cooperate in the construction of Jordan’s first nuclear power plant. In February 2017 and February 2018, King Abdullah II visited Russia twice.
Relations with Japan: Since the 1970s, Jordan’s relations with Japan have continued to develop and frequent high-level visits have been made. In 1976, the Japanese Crown Prince Akihito visited Jordan. In 1989, King Hussein attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito of Japan. In 1990, the Crown Prince Hassan participated in the crowning ceremony of Emperor Akihito. In April 2009, King Abdullah II visited Japan. In October 2010, Prime Minister Rifay visited Japan. At present, Japan is the largest creditor country with a total debt of about 1.8 billion US dollars. It is the country with the most aid from Japan in the Middle East. The cumulative aid for the 2007-2011 date reached US$316 million. In 2012–2014, the company provided approximately $156 million in loans. In November 2014, King Abdullah II visited Japan, and Japan announced that it would provide 20 million U.S. dollars in aid to help the Syrian refugee crisis. In January 2015, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Jordan and announced that he would provide approximately $125 million in assistance to the treaty. In October 2016, King Abdullah II visited Japan, and Japan announced that it would provide 30 billion yen (about 300 million U.S. dollars) of national policy concessional loans to reduce the amount of public debt and give priority to infrastructure construction. The project provides financing. In May 2018, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Jordan and promised to provide 1.6 billion yen (about 92 million yuan) of unpaid financial assistance to improve the relevant living infrastructure of Syrian refugees.
Relations with Palestine: Palestinians make up 60% of Jordan’s total population and there is a special relationship between Yorba. After the announcement of the establishment of the State of Palestine in November 1988, Jordan immediately recognized it; in January 1989, it agreed to upgrade the PLO’s office to the embassy. On the issue of peace talks in the Middle East, the Palestinian-Israeli refugees, water resources, border demarcation and security arrangements involved in the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations are of vital interest. They are concerned that the Palestinian issue remains the core of the current Middle East issue and adheres to the “two-state plan.” . In January 2012, under the mediation of Jordan, the Palestinians and Israelis resumed peace talks in Amman. In the same month, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Hamas leader Meshaal visited the two countries respectively. In December, King Abdullah II visited Ramallah. In March 2013, Palestinian President Abbas visited the agreement and the two sides signed an agreement to jointly protect the holy sites of Jerusalem and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, confirming the custody of the Hashemite royal family on the holy sites of the city. In January and July 2014, Palestinian President Abbas visited the country. In April, Jordan’s Prime Minister Ensul visited Pakistan. In May 2015, Palestinian President Abbas attended the 2015 World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Summit in Jordan and met with King Abdullah II of Jordan. In August 2017, the King of Jordan visited Palestine and held talks with Abbas.
Relations with Iraq: Jordan advocates safeguarding Iraq’s sovereignty, security, and unity, calling for the restoration of Iraq’s security and stability, strongly condemning violence against civilians in Iraq, and supporting the Iraqi reconciliation process. About actively cooperate with Iraq’s political and economic reconstruction process. In January 2010, Prime Minister Rifay visited Iraq. In October, Prime Minister of the Transitional Government of Iraq, Maliki, visited the treaty. In 2011, Prime Minister Bakhit visited Iraq. In February 2009, the government imposed new regulations on the entry of Iraqis, reducing the bank deposit certificate from $150,000 to $50,000. The port of Aqaba, Jordan, decided to reduce the trans-shipment tax by 40% for Iraqi trans-shipment goods to strengthen trade in York. In 2011, the two sides reached an agreement to increase the export volume of Iraqi oil to Japan from 10,000 barrels to 15,000 barrels. In December 2012, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki visited the treaty. In January 2014, Iraqi Oil Minister Lu Aibi visited the agreement. In April 2014, King Abdullah II of Jordan met with visiting Iraqi Foreign Minister Zebari. In January 2019, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Iraq.
Relations with other Arab countries: Jordan attaches importance to developing relations with Arab countries.
After the Gulf crisis, relations with Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were inconsistent with the support of Iraq, and relations with these countries were once cold. After the Gulf War, the initiative to improve relations with these countries. After King Abdullah II succeeded, the relationship with the Gulf States gradually recovered and continued to develop. In recent years, a large amount of assistance and investment has been obtained from the Gulf countries. After the Iraq war, about half a year of preferential oil supply to the Gulf, and proposed to join the “Gulf Cooperation Council.” At present, Saudi Arabia is the largest aid donor, and Kuwait is the largest investment partner, with a total investment of more than 8 billion US dollars. In May 2011, the GCC summit decided to welcome Jordan to apply to join the GCC, and the two sides will further discuss related issues of formal participation. In December, the GCC summit decided to set up a Gulf fund to provide $2.5 billion in development assistance to Jordan and Morocco in the next five years. In 2012, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates pledged to provide assistance to the US$750 million. In 2012, King Abdullah II visited Arab countries such as Kuwait and Qatar. Arab leaders such as King Hamad of Bahrain, King Mohammed VI of Morocco, and Prime Minister Gandil of Egypt visited the country. In January 2013, King Abdullah II visited Bahrain and attended the “High-level International Pledging Conference on Humanitarian Issues in Syria” held in Kuwait and the “3rd Arab Summit on Economic and Social Development” held in Saudi Arabia. In February 2014, Jordanian Prime Minister Ensul visited Egypt. In March, Moroccan Prime Minister Kieran and Qatar Emir Tamim visited the country. In June, King Abdullah II attended the inauguration of the new Egyptian President Seyce. In May 2015, Egyptian President Sessi attended the 2015 World Economic Forum Middle East and North Africa Summit in Jordan and met with King Abdullah II of Jordan.
Relations with Syria: Call for a political solution to the Syrian crisis, safeguard Syria’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, oppose foreign military intervention, assist the US and the West to train Syrian and opposition armed forces in their territory, and participate in the international anti-terrorist coalition to fight against the “Islamic State” in Syria and Iraq. Military action. Currently, according to UNHCR statistics, Jordan has about 670,000 Syrian refugees.
Relations with Israel: On July 25, 1994, Jordan and Israel signed the Washington Declaration in Washington, announcing the end of hostilities. In October, the contract was formally signed. In November, the two countries established diplomatic relations. On February 9, 1995, about 340 square kilometers of land was lost. In 2001, due to the continuation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the ambassadors were recalled and bilateral high-level exchanges were frozen. Since 2004, bilateral exchanges have gradually recovered. In January 2005, the ambassador was reinstated. In July 2010, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the country. In August, Secretary of Defense Barak visited the agreement. In May 2013, President Peres attended the Middle East and North Africa Conference of the World Economic Forum held in Jordan. In January 2014, Prime Minister Netanyahu visited the treaty. In November of the same year, King Abdullah II of Jordan, US Secretary of State Kerry and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu held a tripartite meeting in Amman, mainly in exchanges on the situation in Palestine and Israel and the resumption of the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks.