The Gabonese Republic 加蓬共和国
【国 名】 加蓬共和国（The Gabonese Republic，La République Gabonaise）。
【面 积】 26.8万平方公里。
【人 口】 203万（2017年）。有40多个民族，主要有芳族（占全国人口40%）、巴普努族（占22%）等。官方语言为法语。民族语言有芳语、米耶内语和巴太凯语。居民50%信奉天主教；20%信奉基督教新教；10%信奉伊斯兰教；其余信奉原始宗教。
【首 都】 利伯维尔（Libreville），人口约79.9万（2015年），全国政治、经济、文化中心和主要港口。最高气温31℃（1月），最低气温20℃（7月）。
【国家元首】 阿里·邦戈·翁丁巴（Ali Bongo Ondimba）。
【简 况】 位于非洲中部，跨越赤道，西濒大西洋，东、南与刚果（布）为邻，北与喀麦隆、赤道几内亚交界。海岸线长800 公里。属典型的热带雨林气候，全年高温多雨，年平均气温26℃。
[Country name] The Gabonese Republic (La République Gabonaise).
[area] 268,000 square kilometers.
[People] 2.03 million (2017). There are more than 40 ethnic groups, mainly aromatic (accounting for 40% of the national population) and Bapunu (22%). The official language is French. The national languages are Fang, Miele and Bathai. 50% of the residents believe in Catholicism; 20% believe in Protestantism; 10% believe in Islam; the rest believe in primitive religion.
[Capital] Libreville, with a population of about 799,000 (2015), a national political, economic, cultural center and major port. The highest temperature is 31 ° C (January) and the lowest temperature is 20 ° C (July).
[Head of State] Ali Bongo Ondimba.
[Important Festival] Independence Day (National Day): August 17.
[Brief] Located in central Africa, across the equator, west to the Atlantic Ocean, east and south to Congo (Brazzaville), north to Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The coastline is 800 kilometers long. It is a typical tropical rainforest climate with high temperatures and rains throughout the year, with an average annual temperature of 26 °C.
In the 12th century, Bantu moved from eastern Africa and established tribal kingdoms on both sides of the Ogowe River. In the 15th century, Portuguese voyagers arrived in the area. In the 18th century, it became a French colony. Transferred to Germany in 1911. Returned to France after the First World War. In 1958, he became an autonomous republic within the “French Community”. On August 17, 1960, it declared independence. Leon Mba is the first president. In 1967, Vice President Omar Bongo succeeded Mba as president. After Omar Bongo took office, he pursued the “democratic, negotiated progressive” politics and the “leadership, planned liberalism” economic policy, implemented a one-party system, and the political situation was stable for a long time. In March 1990, the multi-party system was changed, and the political situation was once turbulent, but Omar Bongo and the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party still maintained control over the regime. In 1998 Omar Bongo reelected the President. In 2003, the joint meeting of the Senate and the House of Representatives passed a constitutional amendment to lift the restrictions on the number of re-elections. In 2005, Gabon held a presidential election, and Omar Bongo won the president with a vote of 79.18%.
【政 治】 2009年6月，奥马尔·邦戈总统在西班牙病逝。8月，加蓬举行新一届总统选举，奥马尔·邦戈总统之子阿里·邦戈当选总统，10月就职。反对派质疑选举结果，在少数城市发动骚乱和暴力示威活动，被当局平息。2011年底，加蓬举行立法选举，阿里·邦戈领导的加蓬民主党获得国民议会95%的席位，2013年12月又以较大优势赢得地方选举。2014年6月，阿里·邦戈总统同加反对党、总统多数派政党领导人以及3名独立人士签署了《社会契约宪章》，致力于改善民生、消除贫困和社会不平等。2016年8月，加蓬举行总统大选，邦戈总统胜选，反对派候选人、前非盟委员会主席让·平不服，首都等地暴发骚乱，让·平并将选举结果上诉至宪法法院。9月24日，宪法法院确认邦戈胜选。27日，邦戈宣誓就职。2017年3月至5月，加蓬举行“全国包容性政治对话”，形成多项政治对话成果，包括总统大选和议会选举改为两轮多数制、修改选举法等重要内容。2018年10月，加蓬立法选举顺利举行，执政党加蓬民主党以绝对优势胜选。10月下旬，邦戈总统在沙特阿拉伯出访时因病紧急就医，随后赴摩洛哥拉巴特休养。2019年3月，邦戈总统正式返加。
【宪 法】 现行宪法为第三部宪法，于1991年3月26日颁布。1994、1995、1997、2000、2003、2011和2018年进行过七次修订。宪法规定加蓬实行三权分立和多党制；总统为国家元首，任期7年，由直接普选产生，可连选连任；总统职位空缺时，由参议院议长或第一副议长代行总统职权，并在30至45天内组织总统选举；总理为政府首脑，由总统任命。
【议 会】 由国民议会和参议院组成，二者共同行使立法权。其主要职能是制订法律，监督政府工作，批准对外宣战和21天以上的戒严令。每年举行两次例会。两院议员分别由直接普选和间接选举产生，任期分别为5年和6年。上届国民议会于2011年12月选举产生，任期原本应于2016年12月结束，但相关选举多次被推迟。2018年4月，加蓬宪法法院决定解散国民议会，由参议院代行国民议会功能。新一届国民议会于2019年1月选举产生，共143个席位，其中加蓬民主党98席。国民议会议长：福斯坦·布库比（Faustin BOUKOUBI）。本届参议院于2014年12月选举产生，共102个席位，其中加蓬民主党82席。参议长：吕西·米勒布·奥比苏（Lucie MILEBOU-AUBUSSON，女）。
[Politics] In June 2009, President Omar Bongo died in Spain. In August, Gabon held a new presidential election, and Ali Bongo, the son of President Omar Bongo, was elected president and took office in October. The opposition challenged the election results and launched riots and violent demonstrations in a few cities, which were settled by the authorities. At the end of 2011, Gabon held a legislative election. The Democratic Party of Gabon led by Ali Bongo received 95% of the seats in the National Assembly. In December 2013, it won a local election with a big advantage. In June 2014, President Ali Bongo signed the Social Contract Charter with the opposition party, the presidential majority political party leader and three independent individuals, working to improve people’s livelihood, poverty eradication and social inequality. In August 2016, Gabon held a presidential election, President Bongo won the election, opposition candidate, former AU committee chairman Jean Ping was dissatisfied, and the capital and other places rioted, and Jean Ping appealed the election results to the Constitutional Court. On September 24, the Constitutional Court confirmed Bongo’s victory. On the 27th, Bongo was sworn in. From March to May 2017, Gabon held a “National Inclusive Political Dialogue”, which resulted in a number of political dialogues, including the presidential election and the parliamentary elections changed to two-round majority system and the revision of the election law. In October 2018, Gabon’s legislative elections were successfully held, and the ruling party, the Gabonese Democratic Party, won the election with absolute advantage. In late October, President Bongo visited the country in Saudi Arabia for emergency medical treatment and then went to Rabat, Morocco to recuperate. In March 2019, President Bongo officially returned.
[Constitution] The current Constitution is the third constitution, which was promulgated on March 26, 1991. Seven revisions were made in 1994, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2011 and 2018. The Constitution stipulates that Gabon has a separation of powers and a multi-party system; the President is the head of state for a term of seven years and is elected by direct universal suffrage and can be re-elected; when the presidential position is vacant, the President of the Senate or the first deputy speaker will act as the president. The presidential election is organized within 30 to 45 days; the prime minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president.
[Parliament] It is composed of the National Assembly and the Senate, and the two jointly exercise legislative power. Its main functions are to formulate laws, supervise government work, and approve foreign declarations of war and martial law orders for more than 21 days. Two regular meetings are held each year. Members of the two houses are elected by direct universal suffrage and indirect elections for a term of five years and six years respectively. The last National Assembly was elected in December 2011, and the term of office should have ended in December 2016, but the relevant elections have been postponed several times. In April 2018, the Gabonese Constitutional Court decided to dissolve the National Assembly and the Senate acted as a National Assembly. The new National Assembly was elected in January 2019 with a total of 143 seats, including 98 in the Democratic Party of Gabon. Speaker of the National Assembly: Faustin BOUKOUBI. The current Senate was elected in December 2014 with a total of 102 seats, including 82 seats in the Democratic Party of Gabon. Senate President: Lucie MILEBOU-AUBUSSON (female).
【政 府】 本届政府于2019年1月12日组成，1月30日部分改组，包括总理1名、国务部长11名、部长16名和部长级代表8名。主要成员有：总理、政府首脑朱利安·恩科格·贝卡莱（Julien NKOGHE BEKALE），国务部长兼人居、城市规划和住房部长雷吉斯·伊蒙戈·塔唐加尼（Régis IMMONGAULT TATANGANI），国务部长兼森林、环境和气候计划部长居伊·贝特朗·马潘古（Guy-Bertrand MAPANGOU），国务部长兼卫生、社会保障和国家团结部长丹尼丝·梅卡姆内·埃齐齐耶·塔蒂（Denise MEKAM’NE EDZIDZIE TATY），国务部长兼体育、娱乐、文化和手工业部长阿兰-克劳德·比利·比·恩泽（Alain-Claude BILIE-BY-NZE），国务部长兼国民教育和培训部长米歇尔·芒加·梅索内（Michel MENGA M’ESSONE），国务部长兼宪法机构和独立行政机关关系部长弗朗西斯·恩凯亚·恩齐盖（Francis NKEA NZIGUE），国务部长兼国防与国土安全部长罗丝·克里斯蒂亚娜·奥苏卡·拉蓬达（Rose Christiane OSSOUKA RAPONDA），国务部长兼内政、国土治理、地方行政区域、分权与公民身份、移民部长朗贝尔·诺埃尔·马塔（Lambert Noël MATHA），国务部长兼预算和公共财政部长让-费德勒·奥坦多（Jean-Fidele OTANDAULT），国务部长兼司法、人权和掌玺部长埃德加尔·阿尼塞·姆本布·米亚库（Edgard Anicet MBOUMBOU MIYAKOU），国务部长兼高等教育、科研和技术转让部长让·德迪厄·穆卡尼·伊旺古（Jean de Dieu MOUKAGNI IWANGOU），经济、展望和发展规划与促进公私投资部长让-马里·奥甘达加（Jean-Marie OGANDAGA），公职、创新、公共服务和劳动部长玛德莱娜·贝尔（Madeleine BERRE），农业、畜牧业、食品和“种子计划”部长比安迪·马甘加·穆萨武（Biendi MAGANGA MOUSSAVOU），经济改革后续行动和发展计划部长亚力克西·布坦巴·姆比纳（Alexis BOUTAMBA MBINA），装备、基础设施和公共工程部长阿尔诺·卡利斯特·恩冈吉·阿朗吉（Arnauld Calixte ENGANDJI ALANDJI），石油、天然气和烃能源部长帕斯卡尔·乌昂尼·安布鲁埃（Pascal HOUAGNI AMBOUROUE），外交、国际合作、地区一体化、法语国家事务和海外侨民部长阿卜杜·拉扎克·居伊·坎博戈（Abdu Razzaq Guy KAMBOGO），水资源和能源和矿产增值与工业化部长埃马纽埃尔·诺尔贝·托尼·翁多·姆巴（Emmanuel Norbert Tony ONDO MBA），就业、青年、职业培训、安置与再安置部长兼政府发言人娜内特·隆加（Nanette LONGA），交通与物流部长朱斯坦·恩敦丹戈耶（Justin NDOUNDANGOYE），新闻、数字经济和邮政部长居伊·迈克桑·马米亚卡（Guy-Maixent MAMIAKA），家庭、妇女和机会均等部长埃丝特勒·翁多（Estelle ONDO），贸易和中小企业、中小工业部长大卫·姆巴丁加（David MBADINGA），渔业和海洋部长普丽斯卡·科霍·恩伦德（Prisca KOHO NLEND），旅游部长玛丽·罗西娜·伊察纳（Marie Rosine ITSANA），工业和国家企业发展部长卡芒·恩达奥特（Carmen NDAOT）等。
[Government] The current government was formed on January 12, 2019, and was partially reorganized on January 30, including one prime minister, 11 ministers of state, 16 ministers and 8 ministerial representatives. The main members are: Prime Minister, Head of Government Julien NKOGHE BEKALE, Minister of State and Habitat, Urban Planning and Housing, Régis IMMONGAULT TATANGANI), Minister of State and Minister of Forests, Environment and Climate, Guy-Bertrand MAPANGOU, Minister of State and Minister of Health, Social Security and National Solidarity, Denise Mecamne Denise MEKAM’NE EDZIDZIE TATY, Minister of State and Minister of Sport, Entertainment, Culture and Handicrafts, Alain-Claude BILIE-BY-NZE, Minister of State and Minister of National Education and Training Michel MENGA M’ESSONE, Minister of State and Minister of Constitutional Institutions and Independent Administration Relations Francis NKEA NZIGUE ), Minister of State for National Defense and Homeland Security, Rose Christiane OSSOUKA RAPONDA, Minister of State and Internal Affairs, Land Management, and Local Political Region, Decentralization and Citizenship, Immigration Minister Lambert Noël MATHA, Minister of State and Budget and Public Finance Jean-Fidele OTANDAULT, Minister of State Edgard Anicet MBOUMBOU MIYAKOU, Minister of Justice, Human Rights and Liberation, Minister of State for Higher Education, Research and Technology Transfer Jean Dedee Mukani · Jean de Dieu MOUKAGNI IWANGOU, Minister of Economics, Prospects and Development Planning and Promotion of Public and Private Investment Jean-Marie OGANDAGA, Minister of Public Service, Innovation, Public Service and Labour Madeleine Madeleine BERRE, Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, Food and Seeds, Biendi MAGANGA MOUSSAVOU, Minister of Economic Reform Follow-up and Development Program, Alexis B. Alexa BOUTAMBA MBINA, Arnauld Calixte ENGANDJI, Minister of Equipment, Infrastructure and Public Works ALANDJI), Minister of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon Energy Pascal HOUAGNI AMBOUROUE, Diplomatic, International Cooperation, Regional Integration, Francophone Affairs and Overseas Chinese Minister Abdul Razak · Abdu Razzaq Guy KAMBOGO, Emmanuel Norbert Tony ONDO MBA, Minister of Water Resources and Energy and Minerals and Industrialization, employment, Minister of Youth, Vocational Training, Resettlement and Resettlement and Government Spokesman Nanette LONGA, Minister of Transport and Logistics Justin NDOUNDANGOYE, Minister of Journalism, Digital Economy and Posts Guy-Maixent MAMIAKA, Minister of Family, Women and Equal Opportunity Estelle ONDO, David Mbadinga, Minister of Trade and SMEs, Small and Medium Industries (David MBADINGA), Fisheries and Oceans Minister Prisca KOHO NLEND, Tourism Minister Marie Rosine ITSANA Industry and Enterprise Development Minister Enda card Mans · Ott (Carmen NDAOT) and so on.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 9 provinces, with 48 states, 27 special zones, 150 districts, 737 towns, and 2,423 natural villages.
[Judiciary] There are constitutional courts, judicial courts, administrative courts, audit courts, court of first instance, court of appeal, supreme court, etc. The courts at all levels independently exercise judicial power according to law. The courts at all levels have procurator-generals and exercise procuratorial power. The Supreme Judicial Conference is the highest judicial administrative organ of the country, which determines the appointment, dispatch, promotion and punishment of judges. The President is the chairman and the Minister of Justice is the vice chairman.
The Constitutional Court is the supreme legal body responsible for determining the constitutionality of constitutional law, general law and national institutional rules and regulations, supervising elections and referendums, and announcing results. The current president, Marie-Madeleine MBORANTSUO (female).
【政 党】 现有合法政党40多个，主要政党情况如下：
（1）加蓬民主党（Parti Démocratique Gabonais，PDG）：执政党，1968年3月成立。党员约30万人。党的宗旨是“对话、宽容、和平”，目标为“巩固民族独立，加强民族团结，发扬民主，促进经济发展和社会正义，维护和平”。全国代表大会为党的最高机构，中央政治局及其常务委员会为党的领导机构，负责执行党的代表大会和中央委员会的决议。已故奥马尔·邦戈总统为该党主席兼创始人。总书记埃里克·多多·本根扎（Eric Dodo Bounguendza）。2010年3月，阿里·邦戈总统当选该党主席。该党在现参议院中占82席，在现国民议会中占98席。
（2）反对派民主联盟（Coalition Démocratique de l’Opposition）：前身为民主人士党（Les Démocrates）。民主人士党成立于2017年3月，党主席兼创始人为国民议会前议长恩祖巴·恩达马（Nzouba Ndama）。2019年3月反对派民主联盟成立，恩达马担任党主席。党的目标为建立公正、民主、自由的国家。该党在现国民议会中占11席。
（3）保卫加蓬联盟（Rassemblement pour le Gabon，RPG）：参政党。前身为伐木者全国联盟（Rassemblement National des Bûcherons），于1991年获得合法地位。建党初期，曾主张用暴力夺取政权，经济上主张自由竞争，反对国家干预。主席为保罗·姆巴·阿贝索勒（Paul Mba ABESSOLE）。1998年，阿贝索勒与第一书记孔比拉决裂，将“伐木者全国联盟”更名为“保卫加蓬联盟”。2002年加入总统多数派阵营。2009年7月，阿贝索勒宣布退出总统多数派，参加总统选举。8月放弃参选，转而支持另一名反对派候选人安德烈·姆巴·奥巴姆（André Mba OBAME），败选后再次加入总统多数派。该党在现参议院中占6席。
（4）加蓬民主与发展联盟（Union Gabonaise pour la Démocratie et le Développment，UGDD）：反对党。2005年，原加蓬民主党行政书记扎沙里·米博托（Zacharie MYBOTO）退党后创建，2006年内政部批准其为合法政党。该党在现参议院中占3席。
（5）加蓬人民联盟（Union du Peuple Gabonais，UPG）：反对党。1989年7月成立，1991年9月获合法地位。原主席皮埃尔·芒邦杜（Pierre MAMBOUNDOU）于2011年10月病逝，曾于1998年、2005年和2009年3次参加总统选举，均居第二位。2014年6月，该党召开第一次大会，选举姆克卡尼·伊万古（Mouckagni IWANGOU）为新任主席，任期三年。但该党执行书记拒绝承认选举结果，并将争议提交利伯维尔法院初审法院。8月，利伯维尔法院初审法院判定伊万古组织的党内选举非法，其当选该党主席无效。该党在现参议院中占2席。
此外，其他政党还有：价值复兴联盟（Restauration des Valeurs Républicaines）、加蓬社会民主人党（Sociaux-Démocrates du Gabon）、继承与现代联盟（Rassemblement héritage et modernité）、社会民主党（Parti Social Démocrate）、自由改革者中间党（Centre des Libéraux Réformateurs）、新共和国联盟（Union pour la Nouvelle République）等。
[Political Party] There are more than 40 legitimate political parties. The main political parties are as follows:
(1) Parti Démocratique Gabonais (PDG): The ruling party, established in March 1968. There are about 300,000 party members. The party’s aim is “dialogue, tolerance, peace” with the goal of “consolidating national independence, strengthening national unity, promoting democracy, promoting economic development and social justice, and maintaining peace.” The National Congress is the highest body of the party. The Political Bureau of the Central Committee and its Standing Committee are the leading bodies of the Party and are responsible for implementing the resolutions of the Party Congress and the Central Committee. The late President Omar Bongo was the chairman and founder of the party. General Secretary Eric Dodo Bounguendza. In March 2010, President Ali Bongo was elected chairman of the party. The party has 82 seats in the current Senate and 98 seats in the current National Assembly.
(2) Coalition Démocratique de l’Opposition: Formerly known as the Democratic Party (Les Démocrates). The Democrats Party was established in March 2017. The party chairman and founder is Nzouba Ndama, former speaker of the National Assembly. In March 2019, the opposition Democratic Alliance was established and Ndama served as the party chairman. The party’s goal is to establish a just, democratic, and free country. The party has 11 seats in the current National Assembly.
(3) Rassemblement pour le Gabon (RPG): Participating parties. Formerly known as the Rassemblement National des Bûcherons, it gained legal status in 1991. In the early days of the founding of the Party, he advocated the use of violence to seize political power. He advocated free competition in the economy and opposed state intervention. The chairman is Paul Mba ABESSOLE. In 1998, Abesole broke with the first secretary, Conbila, and renamed the “National Union of Loggers” as “Defending the Gabonese Union.” In 2002, he joined the presidential majority camp. In July 2009, Abesole announced his withdrawal from the presidential majority and participated in the presidential election. In August, he gave up his election and turned to another opposition candidate, André Mba OBAME. After losing the election, he joined the presidential majority again. The party has six seats in the current Senate.
(4) Union Gabonaise pour la Démocratie et le Développment (UGDD): Opposition party. In 2005, the original Gabonese Democratic Party secretary, Zacharie MYBOTO, was founded after the withdrawal of the party. In 2006, the Ministry of the Interior approved it as a legitimate political party. The party has three seats in the current Senate.
(5) Union du Peuple Gabonais (UPG): Opposition party. It was established in July 1989 and was legally held in September 1991. The former President, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU, died in October 2011 and participated in the presidential elections three times in 1998, 2005 and 2009, both ranking second. In June 2014, the party held its first conference, electing Mouckagni IWANGOU as the new chairman for a three-year term. However, the party’s executive secretary refused to recognize the election results and submitted the dispute to the court of first instance in Libreville. In August, the court of first instance of the Libreville Court ruled that Ivan’s party election was illegal and that its election as the party’s chairman was invalid. The party has two seats in the current Senate.
In addition, other political parties include the Restauration des Valeurs Républicaines, the Sociaux-Démocrates du Gabon, the Rassemblement héritage et modernité, the Parti Social Démocrate, and the Freedom. Centre of Libéraux Réformateurs, Union pour la Nouvelle République, etc.
【经 济】 因盛产石油，独立后经济一度发展迅速。以石油为主的采掘业发展较快，加工业和农业基础薄弱。石油、锰、铀和木材曾为经济四大支柱。1985年人均国内生产总值达到3177美元，被列为法语非洲唯一“中等收入”国家。80年代后期因油价疲软经济陷入困境，被迫同国际货币基金组织签署协议，实施结构调整计划。1995年后经济缓慢复苏，外贸增长，国际收支状况改善。但90年代末受亚洲金融危机和国际油价下跌的打击，经济再度恶化，1998至2001年出现负增长。近年来，加政府积极实施经济多元化战略，着力发展农、林、渔和旅游业，积极开发铁、锰、木材等非石油资源，鼓励发展中小企业，收到一定成效。阿里·邦戈总统上台后，制定了以“绿色加蓬、服务业加蓬、工业加蓬”为发展方向、2025年成为新兴国家为目标的整体发展战略，出台了增加基础设施投资，提高能源、资源产品就地加工比例，逐步禁止原木出口政策等措施。2018年主要经济指标估算如下：
【资 源】 资源丰富，主要有石油、木材、锰矿等。已探明石油储量约22亿桶。锰矿蕴藏量2亿吨，占全球已探明储量四分之一。铌矿储量约40万吨，占世界总储量5%。铁矿储量8至10亿吨，品位在60%以上。其它矿藏有磷酸盐、黄金、重晶石、镍、铬、锌等。加蓬森林资源十分丰富，森林覆盖率高达85%，森林面积约2200万公顷，可开采林地面积1900万公顷，原木储量4亿立方米，产值占GDP4%，出口收入占对外贸易9%。全国有400余种商业树木，主要有奥库梅木和奥齐戈木，其中奥库梅木的蓄积量为1.3亿立方米，居世界第一位。水产资源81.7万吨，其中渔业资源约23.4万吨（海水鱼21万吨，淡水鱼2.4万吨）。
[important figures] Ali Bongo Ondimba: President. Born in Brazzaville in 1959. The son of the late President Omar Bongo Ondumba of Gabon. He studied at the University of Paris and received his JD degree. In 1984, he was the personal representative of the president. He became a foreign minister from 1989 to 1991. He became the leader of the Democratic Party of Gabon in 1990 and was elected to the National Assembly in the first multi-party legislative election. From 1999 to 2009, he served as Secretary of Defense. In October 2009, he became president. In March 2010, he was elected President of the Democratic Party of Gabon. In the August 2016 presidential election, he was re-elected.
[Economy] Because of the abundance of oil, the economy developed rapidly after independence. The oil-based extractive industry has developed rapidly, and the processing industry and agricultural base are weak. Oil, manganese, uranium and wood have been the four pillars of the economy. In 1985, the per capita GDP reached US$3,177, ranking it as the only “middle income” country in French Africa. In the late 1980s, due to the weak oil price, the economy was in trouble and was forced to sign an agreement with the International Monetary Fund to implement a structural adjustment plan. After 1995, the economy recovered slowly, foreign trade grew, and the international balance of payments improved. However, in the late 1990s, hit by the Asian financial crisis and the fall in international oil prices, the economy deteriorated again, with negative growth from 1998 to 2001. In recent years, the Canadian government has actively implemented the economic diversification strategy, focused on the development of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism, actively developed non-oil resources such as iron, manganese and wood, encouraged the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, and received certain results. After President Ali Bongo came to power, he formulated an overall development strategy with the goal of “green Gabon, service industry Gabon, industrial Gabon” and becoming an emerging country in 2025, and introduced infrastructure investment and energy and resource products. Local processing ratio, and gradually banned logs export policies and other measures. The main economic indicators for 2018 are estimated as follows:
Gross domestic product: $16.575 billion
Per capita GDP: $8,165
Economic growth rate: 1.9%
Currency Name: China-Africa Financial Cooperation Franc (FCFA)
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is about 582 CFA francs
Inflation rate: 4.5%
(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)
[Resources] Rich in resources, mainly oil, wood, manganese ore. The proven oil reserves are about 2.2 billion barrels. Manganese ore reserves of 200 million tons, accounting for a quarter of the world’s proven reserves. The reserves of antimony ore are about 400,000 tons, accounting for 5% of the world’s total reserves. The iron ore reserves are 8 to 1 billion tons and the grade is above 60%. Other mineral deposits include phosphate, gold, barite, nickel, chromium, and zinc. Gabon’s forest resources are very rich, with a forest coverage rate of 85%, a forest area of about 22 million hectares, a recoverable forest area of 19 million hectares, a log reserve of 400 million cubic meters, an output value of 4% of GDP, and an export revenue of 9% of foreign trade. There are more than 400 kinds of commercial trees in the country, mainly Okumamu and Otchigo. Among them, Okumemu has a volume of 130 million cubic meters, ranking first in the world. The aquatic resources are 817,000 tons, including about 234,000 tons of fishery resources (210,000 tons of marine fish and 24,000 tons of freshwater fish).
[Industrial Mining and Manufacturing] Extractive industries, mining, metallurgical industries, forestry, and agricultural and sideline products processing industries are the main pillar industries of Gabon.
The oil-based extractive industry is an important economic pillar. Oil development began in the early 1960s. In 2017, oil production was 10.5 million tons, oil exports were 9.44 million tons, and fiscal oil revenue was about 1.01 billion US dollars, accounting for 37.9% of all fiscal revenue.
The mining and metallurgical industry accounted for 11% of the total value of exports, 4% of GDP, 1.3% of non-oil revenue, and created 1,500 jobs. Canada is an important manganese ore producer in the world. Manganese ore production is second only to South Africa, ranking second in the world. In 2017, manganese ore production reached 4.9 million tons.
The timber industry is the third largest export industry after oil, industrial and mining, and one of the most job-creating industries, creating 11,000 jobs. After the export of logs was banned in Gabon in May 2010, the export volume of wood products plummeted by 71.6%, and a large number of timber companies were operating difficult. In 2011, the timber industry accounted for 0.6% of Gabon’s non-oil revenue and 1.8% of GDP. After a period of adjustment and adaptation, timber companies in Gabon gradually stepped out of the predicament and achieved good development in 2012. To accelerate the development of the wood processing industry, the Canadian government established the Encock Special Economic Zone in the north of Libreville, covering an area of 1,126 hectares, 40% of which is used to build wood processing plants. In 2017, the processed wood output was 844,000 cubic meters.
In addition to refineries and wood processing plants, there are also tobacco industry, wine industry, sugar industry, beverage factory, flour and coffee processing plants, but the manufacturing industry is generally weak.
[Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] With 5 million hectares of arable land, the precipitation is sufficient, the annual rainfall is 1800 to 4000 mm, and the agricultural production conditions such as water heat and soil are good. However, the development of agriculture and animal husbandry is slow. The area of cultivated land is less than 2% of the national land area. Food, meat, vegetables, eggs and fruits cannot be self-sufficient. At present, 60% of Gabon’s food needs to be imported from abroad, and the total value of imported food is 250 billion francs (about 500 million US dollars) per year. The agricultural product processing industry accounts for less than 5% of GDP, accounting for only 2% of the total value of exports. The main agricultural products are cassava, plantain, corn, yam, taro, cocoa, coffee, vegetables, rubber, palm oil and so on. Fishery resources are abundant.
Gabon Tropical Crops Investment Corporation (SIAT GABON) was established in 2004 by the Gabonese government and the Belgian SIAT Group to jointly establish 70 billion francs, mainly engaged in the processing of agricultural products, including the cultivation and processing of bananas and oil palms. At present, the company is basically in a monopoly position in the sub-market of Canada.
In recent years, Canada has gained a large amount of foreign investment in the agricultural sector, especially in the rubber and palm oil fields. Singapore OLAM has invested 140 million euros. Since 2013, it has planted 28,000 hectares of rubber in Batu Dam in northern Canada. It is expected to be harvested in 2020, with an initial production of 62,000 tons of natural rubber pulp. Palm oil is mainly produced by SIAT and Singapore OLAM.
[Service Industry] In the early 1980s, there were developments, and the number of employees accounted for 17.7% of the employed population.
加蓬信托局（Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations，简称CDC）于2010年8月成立，属工商性质的公共金融机构，启动资金100亿非郎，旨在振兴国家经济和金融。2011年12月信托局与ROUGIER集团达成伙伴协议，获得ROUGIER非洲国际子公司约35%的股权，合2400万欧元。
[Financial Finance] In 2018, foreign exchange reserves were about 1.135 billion US dollars, and foreign debt was about 6.9 billion US dollars.
Gabon has six banks including Gabonese International Bank (BGFIBANK), Gabon International Industrial and Commercial Bank (BICIG), Gabon United Bank (UGB), Citibank, FINANCIAL BANK and Gabon Development Bank (BDG). The first five are commercial banks and the BDG is a national policy bank.
The Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations (CDC) was established in August 2010. It is an industrial and commercial public financial institution with a start-up of 10 billion francs to revitalize the country’s economy and finance. In December 2011, the Trust Bureau and the ROUGIER Group reached a partnership agreement to acquire approximately 35% of the equity of ROUGIER Africa International, with a total of 24 million euros.
[Foreign Trade] Implementing a free trade policy and establishing trade relations with more than 140 countries and regions. Foreign trade has maintained a favorable balance over the years, mainly exporting petroleum, wood and manganese; imported food, light industrial products, machinery and equipment. In 2017, the main export destination countries were China, Teto, and Australia; the main import countries were France, Belgium, and China.
[Foreign Investment] From 2009 to 2012, Canada received more than $4 billion in foreign direct investment. The share of foreign direct investment in Canada’s gross domestic product rose from 4% in 2010 to 7% in 2013, mainly in the oil sector.
[Foreign Aid] In 2015, Gabon received a total of US$98.80 million in official development assistance. The top four funders were France, the United States, the European Union, and Japan, with a total of 94.09 million, 7.79 million, 6.97 million, and 3.85 million. (Unit: US dollar, aid amount is the average for 2014-2015; data source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
【交通运输】 陆路运输不发达，主要靠水运和空运，进出口物资90% 靠海运。2013年，加政府计划成立一家管理交通运输业的国家控股公司——“加蓬交通运输控股公司”（Gabon transport holding），管理加蓬全国境内的交通运输业，协调该行业各个分支的关系，促进交通运输业的发展。
【电信业】 通信基础设施建设较先进，主要移动通信运营商有Libertis、Celtel Gabon和Moov，其中Celtel Gabon市场占有率超过50%。1997年开始提供互联网接入服务，发展较快。截至2014年第一季度，加网民总数657928人，同比增长14%。2012-2016年，加政府计划投入3800亿非郎（约合5.8亿欧元），用于全国省会城市间光纤网项目、政府行政网项目和移动电话网优化项目。2017年电信业营业额3.6亿美元。
[Tourism] Sunlight, sandy beaches and diverse animal and plant ecological structures have laid a good foundation for the development of tourism. However, due to the lack of special incentive policies, the tourism industry has been in a tepid state in the emerging plan of Gabon. Now there are more than 3,000 employees, and there are 5 large-scale travel agencies and nearly 100 hotels across the country.
[Transportation] Land transportation is underdeveloped, mainly relying on water transportation and air transportation. 90% of import and export materials rely on shipping. In 2013, the Canadian government plans to set up a national holding company that manages the transportation industry, Gabon transport holding, to manage the transportation industry in Gabon, coordinate the relationship between the various branches of the industry, and promote transportation. The development of the transportation industry.
Railway: Only one route, built in 1986, connects Owendo Harbour and the city of Franceville with a total length of 814 kilometers. The Canadian government plans to invest 2.7 trillion francs (about 4.19 billion euros) by the 2025 billion francs (about 4.19 billion euros) to build the Port-Germain railway (300 km in length), the Ma Yongba-Mbi valley railway (300 km in length) and Behring. Three new railways with a total length of 920 km, including the Ka-Buwei Railway (320 km in length).
Highway: The total length is 9,170 kilometers, of which asphalt roads account for 10%. The Canadian government plans to build a modern road network throughout the country by 2025, connecting major provinces, cities and industrial areas to promote the development of tourism and raw material export logistics. Among them, in 2012-2016, 300 billion francs (about 4.57 billion euros) will be built, and 3,320 kilometers of roads will be built; in 2017-2025, 3,300 billion francs (about 5,030 million euros) will be invested and 2,500 kilometers of roads will be built.
Water transport: The water transport route is 1600 kilometers long and is divided into two categories: sea transport and river transport. The main seaports are Port Tir, Port Owendo and Ma Yongba, with a total annual throughput of 25 million tons. Let Tiel Port mainly transport oil; Owendo Port mainly transports logs and ore. In October 2017, the new terminal in Owendo Port was opened and its throughput capacity was further enhanced.
Air transport: There are many airlines such as Gabon Airlines (referred to as Air Canada), Aviex Airlines, Gabon Express, and aviation services. Air Canada undertakes domestic and international shipping business, has Boeing 747 large passenger aircraft, and has more than 20 international routes to Africa and Europe. Foreign airlines mainly include Air France and Moroccan Airlines. There are 61 large and small airports such as Faberville, Jean-Tilles and Franceville.
[Telecommunications Industry] The communication infrastructure construction is relatively advanced. The main mobile communication operators are Libertis, Celtel Gabon and Moov, of which Celtel Gabon has a market share of more than 50%. Internet access services began to be provided in 1997 and developed rapidly. As of the first quarter of 2014, the total number of netizens was 657,928, a year-on-year increase of 14%. In 2012-2016, the Canadian government plans to invest 380 billion francs (about 580 million euros) for the national provincial inter-city optical fiber project, government administrative network project and mobile phone network optimization project. In 2017, the telecommunications industry had a turnover of 360 million US dollars.
[External Relations] Pursue open, non-aligned, international cooperation and good-neighborly friendship policies. Emphasize that diplomacy serves the domestic economy. Call for African unity and promote regional cooperation. It advocates the resolution of world and regional conflicts through dialogue, reconciliation and consultation. To date, Canada has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries. It is currently the rotating presidency of the Economic Community of Central African States.
[Relationship with France] Maintaining traditional relations with France. The two heads of state exchanged visits frequently. The late President Omar Bongo and the current President Ali Bongo visited France many times. President Sarkozy visited Canada three times. In July 2012, President Bongo paid a working visit to France and held talks with French President Hollande. The two sides expressed their common will to strengthen cooperation. As of the end of 2011, the stock of direct investment in France was 510 billion non-francs (776 million euros), accounting for 39.5% of the total foreign direct investment in Canada. French investment in Canada is mainly concentrated in the oil, timber and minerals sectors. The law is the largest source of imports, accounting for 35% of the market share. The law mainly exports mechanical equipment, industrial and agricultural by-products, mainly from imported raw materials and primary products. The law is adding 12,000 expatriates, and there are more than 120 companies in Canada. It is involved in all economic sectors and controls 50% of exports. Of the top 10 companies in the world, six are French-owned companies. The law has a military base in Libreville, with approximately 450 permanent officers and men. In 2010, the two countries signed a new defense agreement. In January 2014, President Bongo met with the French Minister of Defence. In April, President Bongo visited France and met with French President Hollande. In January 2015, President Bongo went to France to participate in the anti-terrorism parade and met with French President Hollande. In November, President Bongo went to France to attend the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. In December 2017, President Bongo attended the “One Planet” Climate Action Financing Summit in Paris, France. In November 2018, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Imongo represented President Bongo at the 100th anniversary of the Armistice Armistice in Paris, France, and attended the opening ceremony of the Paris Peace Forum.
[Relationship with the United States] Canada and the United States established diplomatic relations in 1960. In 1962, an investment protection agreement was signed. Canada mainly exports oil to the United States. In early 2010, the US African Command held a joint military exercise with 30 African countries. In June 2011, President Bongo visited the United States and met with President Obama. In March 2012, the two countries held joint military exercises in Canada. In August 2014, President Bongo went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit and met with the US Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Energy. In September 2014, President Bongo went to the United States to attend the New York Forum.
[Relationship with neighboring countries and other African countries] Maintain good neighborly relations with neighboring countries and actively promote regional peace. After the political turmoil in China and Africa from the end of 2012 to the beginning of 2013, President Bongo actively used his good offices to organize or participate in the summit of the CPC member states. After the political crisis in Burundi in 2015, President Bongo participated in the mediation as the rotating chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. In March 2016, Ivorian President Vatara visited Canada. In April, President Bongo went to the Congo (Brazzaville) to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Sassou. In July, Equatorial Guinean President Obiang visited Canada. In October, Rwandan President Kagame and Chad President Deby visited Canada. In November, King Mohammed VI of Morocco visited Canada. In January 2017, President Bongo went to Ghana to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Akufu-Addo. In July, I went to visit Togo. In September, he went to Angola to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Lorenzo. In January 2018, President Bongo went to Liberia to attend the inauguration of the new President George Vijay. In February, President Bongo visited Rwanda, Angola, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Equatorial Guinea and Chad. In March, Central African President Tuvadra visited Gabon; President Bongo visited Sao Tome and Principe. In April, President Bongo paid a working visit to Burundi. In May, Togo’s President Foley paid a working visit to Gabon. In June, Central African President Tuvadra visited Gabon again. In August, President Bongo paid a working visit to Equatorial Guinea. In October, President Bongo went to Conakry to attend the celebration of the 60th anniversary of Guinea’s independence; to attend the Future Investment Initiative Conference in Saudi Arabia. In January 2019, Prime Minister Enkog represented President Bongo to the Congo (Kinshasa) to attend the inauguration of President Kisekdi.
[Relationship with regional organizations and international organizations] Actively participate in regional and international affairs and promote the process of African integration. Actively participate in the security and defense work in the Gulf of Guinea through the “Central African Peace and Security Council” and the “Guinea Bay Commission” to combat piracy, organized crime, drug trafficking, armed illegal exploitation of resources, and the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in the Gulf of Guinea. In May 2016, President Bongo went to Rwanda to attend the World Economic Forum Africa Summit; went to Nigeria to attend the Lake Chad Regional Security Summit. In July, he went to Kigali, Rwanda, to attend the AU summit. In January 2017, he went to Mali to attend the 27th French-French Summit. In January 2018, attended the 30th AU Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In February, he attended a high-level political consultation at the Chad International Conference in Abuja, Nigeria. In March, he attended the special summit of heads of state and government of the African Union in Kigali, Rwanda. In April, attending the first Heads of State and Government of the Congo Basin and the Blue Fund Summit of the Congo Basin held in Brazzaville. In July, attended the AU summit in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. In August, he went to Luanda, the capital of Angola, to attend the Peace and Security Summit of Central and Southern Africa. In November, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Imongo represented President Bongo at the AU summit in Addis Ababa. In March 2019, Prime Minister Enkog represented President Bongo at the thirteenth summit meeting of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community in Ndjamena, Chad.
In March 2016, President Bongo went to Washington, DC to attend the Fourth Nuclear Security Summit. In April, he went to New York to attend the high-level thematic debate on the UN Sustainable Development Goals. In November, attending the 22nd UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco; attending the 4th African-Arab Summit in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea; attending the 16th Francophone Organization Summit in Antananarivo, Madagascar . In May 2017, he went to Saudi Arabia to attend the Arab Islamic State-US Summit. In June, he went to New York to attend the UN Ocean Conference; he went to Uganda to attend the Solidarity Summit on Refugees. In October, I went to London to attend the Climate Change and Sustainable Development Conference. In March 2018, President Bongo attended the first summit of the International Solar Energy Alliance in New Delhi, India. In June, he attended the “BRIC+” Leaders Dialogue in Johannesburg, South Africa; attended the CCP and ECOWAS Joint Summit in Lomé, the capital of Togo. In October, he went to Armenia to attend the closing ceremony of the 17th Summit of the French-speaking Organization.