The Federated States of Micronesia 密克罗尼西亚联邦

【国 名】 密克罗尼西亚联邦(The Federated States of Micronesia)。

【面 积】 陆地面积702平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积298万平方公里。

【人 口】 10.55万(2017年)。其中密克罗尼西亚人占97%,亚洲人占2.5%,其他人占0.5%。华人华侨数十人。官方语言为英语。天主教徒占50%,新教徒占47%,其他教派和不信教者占3%。

【首 都】 帕利基尔(Palikir),位于波纳佩州(Pohnpei)。

【国家元首】 彼得·克里斯琴(Peter M. Christian),为密联邦第八任总统(2015年5月11日当选)。

【重要节日】 独立日(国庆日):11月3日;宪法日:5月10日。

【简 况】 位于中部太平洋地区,属加罗林群岛,东西延伸2500公里。海岸线长6112公里。岛屿为火山型和珊瑚礁型,多山地。由607个大小岛屿组成,其中4个主要大岛为:波纳佩(Pohnpei)、丘克(Chuuk)、雅浦(Yap)和科斯雷(Kosrae)。属热带海洋性气候。12月至翌年3月为旱季,4月至11月为雨季。年均气温27℃,年降水量约2000毫米,其中波纳佩年降水量超过7000毫米,是世界上降水量最多的地方之一。

4000年前就有人居住。16世纪被西方航海者发现。19世纪中期英、美、德国先后在此设立贸易点,1885年遭西班牙占领,1899年被转让给德国。第一次世界大战后(1914~1945年)被日本占领,第二次世界大战后被美国占领。1947年,联合国将密交美国托管,后与马绍尔群岛、北马里亚纳群岛和帕劳构成太平洋岛屿托管地的四个政治实体。1965年1月成立议会,此后密不断要求自治。1969年,密开始就未来政治地位同美国谈判。1979年5月10日通过宪法,密克罗尼西亚联邦成立。1982年与美国正式签订《自由联系条约》,1986年11月3日该条约生效,密联邦正式独立。根据《自由联系条约》,密获得内政、外交自主权,安全防务15年内由美国负责。1990年12月,联合国安理会召开会议,结束密联邦的托管地位,并于1991年9月17日接纳其为联合国正式会员国。2003年密美双方就《密美自由联系条约》续约事达成协议,将该条约延长20年,2004年5月起生效至2023年。

政 治

【宪 法】 1979年5月10日通过并生效。根据宪法规定,总统为国家元首,也是政府首脑,由国会议员从国会4位4年期议员中选举产生。

【议 会】 称联邦国会,一院制,由14名议员组成,其中每州1名任期四年的“全任期”议员,其余10名议员任期两年,按人口比例在各州分配。第20届国会于2017年5月12日正式就职。现任议长为韦斯利·西米纳(Wesley W. Simina),副议长为埃斯蒙德·摩西斯(Esmond B. Moses)。

【政 府】 内阁部长由总统提名,国会批准后组成联邦内阁。现内阁成员主要有:副总统尤斯沃·乔治(Yosio P. George),外交部长洛林·罗伯特(Lorin S. Robert),资源与发展部长马里恩·亨利(Marion Henry),卫生与社会事务部长玛格达莱娜·沃尔特(Magdalena A. Walter),交通、通讯及基础设施部长卢克诺·威尔巴克(Lukner Weilbacher),财政与行政事务部长辛娜·劳伦斯(Sihna N. Lawrence),司法部长约瑟·盖伦(Joses R. Gallen),教育部长卡尔文·凯法斯(Kalwin Kephas),环境、气变及突发事件管理部长安德鲁·亚提曼(Adrew Yatilman)等。

[Country name] The Federated States of Micronesia.

[Dimensions] The land area is 702 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​2.98 million square kilometers.

[People] 10.55 million (2017). Among them, Micronesia accounted for 97%, Asians accounted for 2.5%, and others accounted for 0.5%. There are dozens of Chinese overseas Chinese. Official Language is English. Catholics account for 50%, Protestants account for 47%, and other sects and non-believers account for 3%.

[Capital] Palikir, located in Pohnpei.

[Head of State] Peter M. Christian, the eighth president of the Commonwealth (elected on May 11, 2015).

[Important Festival] Independence Day (National Day): November 3rd; Constitution Day: May 10.

[Profile] Located in the Central Pacific region, it belongs to the Caroline Islands and extends 2,500 kilometers from east to west. The coastline is 6,112 kilometers long. The island is volcanic and coral reef type, mountainous. It consists of 607 large and small islands, of which 4 major islands are: Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap and Kosrae. It has a tropical maritime climate. The dry season is from December to March, and the rainy season is from April to November. The annual average temperature is 27 °C, and the annual precipitation is about 2000 mm. Among them, Pompei’s annual precipitation is more than 7000 mm, which is one of the most precipitation areas in the world.

Someone lived 4000 years ago. The 16th century was discovered by Western voyagers. In the mid-19th century, Britain, the United States, and Germany set up trade points here. They were occupied by Spain in 1885 and transferred to Germany in 1899. After the First World War (1914 ~ 1945), it was occupied by Japan and was occupied by the United States after the Second World War. In 1947, the United Nations will be handed over to the United States for custody, and later with the Marshall Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau constitute the four political entities of the Pacific Islands Trust. The parliament was established in January 1965, and since then, secrets have been demanding autonomy. In 1969, Mi began to negotiate with the United States on future political status. The Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia was established on May 10, 1979. In 1982, the United States formally signed the “Freedom of Association Treaty”. On November 3, 1986, the Treaty entered into force and the United States was formally independent. According to the “Freedom of Association Treaty,” secretly obtained internal affairs and diplomatic autonomy, and the United States was responsible for security and defense within 15 years. In December 1990, the UN Security Council convened a meeting to end the custodial status of the Secretwealth and accepted it as a full member of the UN on September 17, 1991. In 2003, the two sides reached an agreement on the renewal of the Treaty on Freedom of Freedom, and extended the treaty for 20 years. It will take effect from May 2004 to 2023.

Politics

[Constitution] Passed and entered into force on May 10, 1979. According to the constitution, the president is the head of state and the head of government. It is elected by members of parliament from four four-year members of parliament.

[Parliament] The Federal Parliament, a one-chamber system, consists of 14 members, including one “per-term” member of each state for four years, and the remaining 10 members for a two-year term, distributed in each state according to the proportion of the population. The 20th Congress officially took office on May 12, 2017. The current speaker is Wesley W. Simina and the deputy speaker is Esmond B. Moses.

[Government] The cabinet minister is nominated by the president and approved by the parliament to form the federal cabinet. The current cabinet members include: Vice President Yosio P. George, Foreign Minister Lorin S. Robert, Resource and Development Minister Marion Henry, Health and Social Affairs Minister Magdalena A. Walter, Minister of Transport, Communications and Infrastructure Lukner Weilbacher, Minister of Finance and Administration, Sihna N. Lawrence, Justice Minister Joses R. Gallen, Education Minister Kalwin Kephas, Minister of Environment, Gas and Emergency Management, Adrew Yatilman, etc.

【行政区划】 全国共分为4个州:从西往东依次为雅浦、丘克、波纳佩和科斯雷。

【司法机构】 设最高法院和州法院。联邦首席大法官为终身制,现任大法官丹尼斯·雅马斯(Dennis K. Yamase),于2015年7月被任命。

【重要人物】 彼得·克里斯琴:总统。1947年10月16日生于波纳佩州。毕业于美国夏威夷大学。1975年任密联邦波纳佩州议员。1979年当选密联邦第一届国会议员,后连任至2007年。2003年担任议长。2009年再次当选波纳佩州四年期国会议员,并连任至今。2015年5月当选密联邦第8任总统。

经 济

经济落后,绝大多数人的经济生活以村落为单位。产椰子、胡椒、芋头、面包果等农产品。渔业资源丰富,尤以金枪鱼著名。粮食及生活日用品均靠进口。严重依赖外援,国内缺乏有效的市场机制和良好的投资环境,经济发展缓慢。密将农业、渔业、旅游业作为经济的“三大支柱”。2017财年主要经济指标如下:

国内生产总值:3.47亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:3400美元。

国内生产总值增长率:2%。

货币名称:美元。

通货膨胀率:0.91%。

【资 源】 密海域是世界著名的金枪鱼产地。蟹、贝类、龙虾以及淡水鳗、虾等资源待开发。

【工 业】 工业落后,只有少量加工工业,如渔产品加工厂、制皂厂、椰油加工厂和成衣加工厂。建筑和机械修理行业部分由外国人经营。

【农 业】 农业落后。无粮食种植,靠自然生长。椰子、香蕉、面包果、木瓜、木薯等热带果木到处可见。出产优质胡椒,出口国外。

【旅游业】 密旅游资源较为丰富,不仅热带风光秀丽,且保存着独特的民族传统文化和风俗,以及纳马杜古城堡、“石币银行”等古迹。2015年入境外国游客近1.2万人次,主要来自美国(37%)、日本(19%)、欧洲(13%)、澳大利亚和菲律宾等。2016年,纳马杜遗址被列入世界历史文化遗址。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into four states: from the west to the east, Yap, Chuuk, Pompei and Kosra.

[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court and the State Court. The Federal Chief Justice is a lifelong system, and the current Chief Justice, Dennis K. Yamase, was appointed in July 2015.

[Important] Peter Christian: President. Born on October 16, 1947 in Bonape. Graduated from the University of Hawaii. In 1975, he served as a member of the Federal Federation of Pompei. In 1979, he was elected as the first member of the Federal Parliament, and was re-elected until 2007. In 2003, he served as the speaker. In 2009, he was re-elected as a member of the four-year congressional state of Pohnpei and re-elected to this day. In May 2015, he was elected the 8th President of the United States.

Economy

The economy is backward, and the economic life of the vast majority of people is based on villages. Produce coconut, pepper, taro, breadfruit and other agricultural products. Rich in fishery resources, especially tuna. Food and daily necessities are imported. Relying heavily on foreign aid, the country lacks effective market mechanisms and a good investment environment, and economic development is slow. Agriculture, agriculture, fisheries and tourism are the “three pillars” of the economy. The main economic indicators for FY2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $347 million.

Per capita GDP: $3,400.

GDP growth rate: 2%.

Currency name: US dollar.

Inflation rate: 0.91%.

[Resources] The Mihai area is the world famous tuna origin. Crabs, shellfish, lobsters, and freshwater clams and shrimps are waiting to be developed.

[Industrial] Industry is backward, with only a small number of processing industries, such as fishery processing plants, soap making plants, coconut oil processing plants and garment processing plants. The construction and machinery repair industry is partly operated by foreigners.

[Agriculture] Agriculture is backward. No food is grown, it grows naturally. Tropical fruit trees such as coconut, banana, breadfruit, papaya and cassava are everywhere. Produce high quality pepper and export it abroad.

[Tourism] The dense tourism resources are rich, not only the tropical scenery, but also preserve the unique national traditional culture and customs, as well as the ancient castles of Naamadou Castle and “Shi Bank”. In 2015, there were nearly 12,000 foreign tourists, mainly from the United States (37%), Japan (19%), Europe (13%), Australia and the Philippines. In 2016, the Naamadou site was included in the world’s historical and cultural sites.

【通 讯】 设有电话、电报、互联网、邮政和地面卫星设施。2010年3月关岛与波纳佩州间海底光缆已接通。2014年,波纳佩州开通3G网络服务。目前密联邦政府正在积极配合世界银行开展密联邦各州和帕劳之间的海底光缆互通工程。

【交通运输】 岛屿之间交通主要有空运和海运。境内机场可供波音737飞机起降。公路运输较为落后。无铁路。

公路:全国公路长约240公里。

水运:联邦政府拥有3艘800吨级以上轮船定期来往于各州(岛),其中两艘为日本赠送。各州政府共有4艘600吨左右的客货两用轮。中国政府分别于2004年10月和2007年2月向密丘克州和雅浦州各提供一艘客货两用船。各州的港口均可停靠远洋级货轮。主要港口:波纳佩港(Pohnpei Port),科洛尼亚(Colonia),莱莱(Lele),莫恩(Moen)。

空运:各州均有小型国际机场。美国联合航空公司、巴布亚新几内亚航空公司、瑙鲁航空公司每周有数次航班来往于关岛、夏威夷、马绍尔、布里斯班、莫尔斯比港、波纳佩、丘克、雅浦和科斯雷。

【对外贸易】 贸易逆差严重。主要进口产品为食品(约占40%)、燃油、日用品、机械、汽车等。主要进口市场为美国、韩国、日本、菲律宾、中国。主要出口产品为离岸捕鱼(约占87%)、槟榔、黑胡椒、黑珍珠、熟食和萨考酒。主要出口市场为泰国(48%)、中国、日本、韩国、菲律宾。密产品可优惠向美出口。(2013)

【外国援助】 密接受的外援主要来自美国。根据《密美自由联系条约》,美国在1986至2001年间,共向密提供13.4亿美元的援助。根据2003年续签后的《密美自由联系条约》,美将在20年内向密提供总额约18.5亿美元的援款,其中部分用于设立信托基金。2023年后,美将停止援助,密靠信托基金自力更生。密同时也积极寻求外部援助。

【军 事】 根据《密美自由联系条约》,密国防由美国负责。密无军队,只有少量警察。

[Communication] There are telephone, telegraph, internet, postal and terrestrial satellite facilities. In March 2010, the submarine cable between Guam and Pohnpei was connected. In 2014, Pohnpei opened 3G network services. At present, the Federal Federal Government is actively cooperating with the World Bank to carry out submarine cable interconnection projects between the federal states and Palau.

[Transportation] There are mainly air and sea transportation between islands. The domestic airport can take off and land for Boeing 737 aircraft. Road transport is relatively backward. No railway.

Highway: The national highway is about 240 kilometers long.

Water transport: The federal government has three ships of 800 tons or more regularly traveling to and from the states (islands), two of which are donated by Japan. The state governments have a total of four passenger and cargo wheels of about 600 tons. The Chinese government provided a passenger and cargo ship to each of the cities of 密丘克 and Yap in October 2004 and February 2007, respectively. The ports of each state can dock ocean-class freighters. Main ports: Pohnpei Port, Colonia, Lele, Moen.

Air transport: Each state has a small international airport. United Airlines, Papua New Guinea Airlines, and Nauru Airlines have several weekly flights to and from Guam, Hawaii, Marshall, Brisbane, Port Moresby, Pompei, Chuuk, Yap and Kosra.

[Foreign Trade] The trade deficit is serious. The main imported products are food (about 40%), fuel, daily necessities, machinery, automobiles and so on. The main import markets are the United States, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and China. The main export products are offshore fishing (about 87%), betel nut, black pepper, black pearl, cooked food and saco. The main export markets are Thailand (48%), China, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines. Secret products can be exported to the US. (2013)

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid received by the United States is mainly from the United States. According to the Treaty on Freedom of Freedom, the United States provided a total of $1.34 billion in assistance from 1986 to 2001. According to the 2003 Treaty on Freedom of Freedom, the United States will provide a total of about $1.85 billion in aid to the United States within 20 years, some of which will be used to set up trust funds. After 2023, the United States will stop aid and rely on trust funds to become self-reliant. At the same time, it is also actively seeking external assistance.

[Military] According to the Treaty on Freedom of Freedom, the United States is responsible for the defense. There is no army, only a small number of police.

文化教育

【教 育】 密政府重视发展教育事业,宪法规定对5-14岁儿童实行强制性义务教育,政府每年在教育上投入经费占密年度预算的20%左右。密有一所联邦专科学院COM-FSM,在密4个州各有一所分校,在校学生2400多名,教师约100名,雇用部分外籍教师。密有公立学校218所,私立学校25所,在校学生约3万人。文盲率11%。

【新闻出版】 波纳佩州现有一份私人出版在全国4个州销售的双周刊报纸《你好通讯》(The Kaselehlie Press)。科斯雷、丘克和雅浦州政府分别定期发行时事通讯。雅浦州政府设有网站。密各州均设有广播电台,政府电台每天广播16-18小时。有一家联邦电信公司控股的有线电视台,转播美国有线新闻网(CNN)、英国广播公司(BBC)、日本广播协会(NHK)、澳大利亚广播公司(ABC)、半岛电视台等频道的电视节目。

对外关系

密以“和平、友谊与合作”作为其发展对外关系的指导原则,政治上积极争取国际社会的广泛承认,树立独立自主形象;经济上谋求国际经济技术援助,促进经济自立的进程。目前,密已同86个国家建交。

密是联合国、世界卫生组织、国际奥委会、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、亚太经社理事会、亚洲开发银行、国际民航组织等19个国际和地区组织成员。1991年7月和1998年8月,密成功举办了第22届和第29届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。1997年9月,密主办了太平洋区域环境署(SPREP)第六次会议。《中西部太平洋高度洄游鱼类养护和管理公约》委员会总部设在密波纳佩州。2016年9月,密主办了第47届太平洋岛国论坛系列会议。2017年8月主办第17届密克罗尼西亚地区领导人会议。

【同美国的关系】 密受美托管多年,同美有特殊关系。根据1986年生效的密美《自由联系条约》,密享有内政、外交自主权,但防务15年内由美负责,密不得允许其他国家利用密领土和海域从事军事目的的活动。密公民可自由出入美国。2003年5月,密美续签该条约,美承诺将在20年内继续向密提供经济援助,同时逐步为密建立信托基金。

密在华盛顿设有使馆,在夏威夷和关岛设领事馆。美在密也设有使馆。美国是密最大进口来源国,占密进口总额的2/3。密产品可优惠向美出口。

【同日本的关系】 1988年8月5日建交。2008年,日本向密派驻首任常驻大使。日本是密第二大援助国和最大出口市场和主要援助国之一。2015年5月密总统克里斯琴出席第七届日本-太平洋岛国领导人会议。2015年11月,密总统克里斯琴访问日本。2017年10月,密总统克里斯琴对日本进行工作访问。2015年、2016年,密联邦国会议长西米纳赴日本出席长崎原子弹爆炸及东日本大地震纪念活动。2018年5月,密总统克里斯琴赴日参加第8届日本与太平洋岛国领导人会议(PALM8)。

【同澳大利亚的关系】 1987年7月建交,澳是最早向密派出常驻大使的国家,是继美国和日本之后的密主要援助国。澳系密主要援助国之一。2018年6月,澳外长毕晓普访密。

Cultural education

[Education] The secret government attaches great importance to the development of education. The Constitution stipulates mandatory compulsory education for children aged 5-14. The government invests about 20% of the annual budget for education. There is a federal college COM-FSM, which has a branch school in each of the four states. It has more than 2,400 students and about 100 teachers, and employs some foreign teachers. There are 218 public schools and 25 private schools with about 30,000 students. The illiteracy rate is 11%.

[Publishing] The Pohnpei State has a privately-published bi-weekly newspaper, The Kaselehlie Press, which is sold in four states. The Kosley, Chuuk and Yap state governments regularly issue newsletters. The Yap State Government has a website. There are radio stations in Michigan, and government radio stations broadcast 16-18 hours a day. There is a cable television station controlled by a federal telecommunications company that broadcasts television programs on CNN, BBC, NHK, ABC, Al Jazeera and other channels.

External relations

“Peace, friendship and cooperation” is the guiding principle for the development of foreign relations. Politically, it actively strives for the wide recognition of the international community and establishes an independent and independent image. It seeks economic and technical assistance from the international economy and promotes the process of economic self-reliance. At present, Mi has established diplomatic relations with 86 countries.

Mi is a member of 19 international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the International Olympic Committee, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, the Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific, the Asian Development Bank, and the International Civil Aviation Organization. In July 1991 and August 1998, the success of the 22nd and 29th Pacific Islands Forum Summit was successfully held. In September 1997, Miho hosted the sixth meeting of the Pacific Regional Environment Agency (SPREP). The Commission for the Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish in the Mid-Atlantic Ocean is headquartered in the state of Mibonape. In September 2016, Secret hosted the 47th Pacific Islands Forum series. Hosted the 17th Micronesia Regional Leaders Meeting in August 2017.

[Relationship with the United States] It has been under the trust of the United States for many years and has a special relationship with the United States. According to the Miriam Freedom of Association Treaty, which came into force in 1986, it enjoys internal and diplomatic autonomy. However, it is under the responsibility of the United States within 15 years of its defense. It must not allow other countries to use secret territories and sea areas for military purposes. Secret citizens are free to enter and leave the United States. In May 2003, Mimei renewed the treaty, and the United States promised to continue to provide economic assistance to the United States within 20 years, while gradually establishing a trust fund for the secret.

He has an embassy in Washington and a consulate in Hawaii and Guam. There is also an embassy in the United States. The United States is the largest import source of the United States, accounting for two-thirds of the total imports. Secret products can be exported to the US.

[Relationship with Japan] Established diplomatic relations on August 5, 1988. In 2008, Japan hosted the first permanent ambassador to Mi. Japan is the second largest donor and the largest export market and one of the major donors. In May 2015, President Michelle Christian attended the 7th Japan-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In November 2015, President Michelle visited Japan. In October 2017, President Michelle Christian paid a working visit to Japan. In 2015 and 2016, the President of the Federal Republic of Congo, Simona, went to Japan to attend the commemoration of the Nagasaki atomic bombing and the Great East Japan Earthquake. In May 2018, President Michelle went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan and Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting (PALM8).

[Relationship with Australia] Established diplomatic relations in July 1987. Australia was the first country to send permanent ambassadors to the United States. It is a major donor after the United States and Japan. One of the main donor countries in Australia. In June 2018, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the secret.