The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 埃塞俄比亚联邦民主共和国
【国 名】 埃塞俄比亚联邦民主共和国（The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia）。
【面 积】 面积110.36万平方公里。
【人 口】 1.05亿。全国约有80多个民族，主要有奥罗莫族（40%）、阿姆哈拉族（30%）、提格雷族（8%）、索马里族（6%）、锡达莫族（4%）等。居民中45%信奉埃塞正教，40-45%信奉伊斯兰教，5%信奉新教，其余信奉原始宗教。阿姆哈拉语为联邦工作语言，通用英语，主要民族语言有奥罗莫语、提格雷语等。
【首 都】 亚的斯亚贝巴（Addis Ababa），人口逾400万（2016年）。年平均气温16℃，年均降雨量1237毫米。
【国家元首】 总统萨赫勒-沃克·祖德（Sahle-Work Zewde）,2018年10月25日当选。。2001年10月埃塞人民代表院通过的“总统法案”规定：总统由无党派人士担任，不得有任何政治组织背景，卸任后亦不得参与政党活动；总统因死亡或疾病不能履行职责时，由议会任命代总统。
【重要节日】 阿杜瓦大捷纪念日（Victory of Adwa Day）：3月2日；埃塞俄比亚人民革命民主阵线执政纪念日（Downfall of the Derg）：5月28日；埃历新年：9月11日（New Year）。
[Country name] The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
[Area] The area is 1,013,600 square kilometers.
[People] 105 million. There are more than 80 ethnic groups in the country, mainly Oromo (40%), Amhara (30%), Tigray (8%), Somali (6%), and Cedar (4 %)Wait. 45% of the residents believe in Ethiopian Orthodoxy, 40-45% believe in Islam, 5% believe in Protestantism, and the rest believe in primitive religion. Amharic is the federal working language, general English, and the main national languages are Oromo, Tigray and so on.
[Capital] Addis Ababa, with a population of over 4 million (2016). The annual average temperature is 16 ° C, and the average annual rainfall is 1237 mm.
[Head of State] President Sahle-Work Zewde was elected on October 25, 2018. . The “Presidential Act” passed by the Ethiopian People’s Congress in October 2001 stipulates that the president shall be a non-party person, shall not have any political organization background, and shall not participate in political party activities after leaving office; when the president is unable to perform his duties due to death or illness, The parliament appointed the acting president.
[Important Festival] Victory of Adwa Day: March 2nd; Downfall of the Derg: May 28th; New Year’s Era: September 11th (New Year).
【简 况】 非洲东北部内陆国。东与吉布提、索马里毗邻，西同苏丹、南苏丹交界，南与肯尼亚接壤，北接厄立特里亚。高原占全国面积的2/3，平均海拔近3000米，素有“非洲屋脊”之称。
具有3000年文明史。公元前8世纪建立努比亚王国。公元前后建立阿克苏姆王国，10世纪末被扎格王朝取代。13世纪，阿比西尼亚王国兴起，19世纪初分裂成若干公国。1889年，绍阿国王孟尼利克二世称帝，统一全国，建都亚的斯亚贝巴，奠定现代埃塞俄比亚疆域。1890年，意大利入侵，强迫埃塞接受其“保护”。1896年，孟尼利克二世在阿杜瓦大败意军，意被迫承认埃塞独立。1928年海尔·塞拉西登基，1930年11月2日加冕称帝。1936年，意大利再次入侵，占领埃塞全境，塞拉西流亡英国。1941年，盟军击败意大利，塞拉西于5月5日归国复位。1974年9月12日，一批少壮军官发动政变推翻塞拉西政权，废黜帝制，成立临时军事行政委员会。1977年2月，门格斯图·海尔·马里亚姆中校发动政变上台，自任国家元首。1979年成立以军人为主的“埃塞俄比亚劳动人民党组织委员会”，推行一党制。1987年9月，门格斯图宣布结束军事统治，成立埃塞俄比亚人民民主共和国。1988年3月，埃塞爆发内战。1991年5月28日，埃塞俄比亚人民革命民主阵线（埃革阵）推翻门格斯图政权，7月成立过渡政府，埃革阵主席梅莱斯·泽纳维（Meles Zenawi）任总统。1994年12月制宪会议通过新宪法。1995年5月举行首次多党选举。8月22日，埃塞俄比亚联邦民主共和国成立，梅莱斯以人民代表院多数党主席身份就任总理。在2000、2005、2010年三次大选中，梅莱斯均蝉联。2012年8月，梅莱斯病逝。9月，原副总理兼外长海尔马里亚姆·德萨莱尼（Hailemariam Dessalegn）出任埃革阵党主席和总理。2015年10月，海尔马里亚姆连任总理。
【政 治】 埃革阵执政以来，创建以民族区域自治为基础的联邦政体，以发展经济为重点，注重协调稳定、发展和民族团结三者间关系。2001年埃革阵“四大”通过新党章、党纲，确立了各民族平等参与国家事务的“革命民主”和“资本主义自由市场经济”的政治经济发展方向。2005年5月第三次议会选举中，埃革阵虽继续赢得政府组阁权，但议会席位流失近1/3。反对党以大选存在舞弊为由拒不承认选举结果，在首都等主要城市煽动暴力活动，被政府平息。此后埃革阵努力推动政治与社会和谐，促进内部稳定，积极同反对党开展对话，大赦反对党领导人，巩固和加强农村地区的群众基础，基本实现政党和解；深化各项改革，加强能力和良治建设，并实施第二个五年发展计划，执政地位得到巩固。2008年4月，埃塞举行联邦议会、地方各州议会及行政机关的补选和选举，埃革阵赢得绝大多数席位。2010年5月和2015年5月，埃塞分别举行第四次、第五次多党议会选举，埃革阵均以绝对优势获胜。2015年11月起，埃塞部分州示威游行和骚乱延宕起伏，造成重大人员伤亡和财产损失。2016年10月至2017年8月，埃塞进入国家紧急状态，政府采取多项措施维稳，2017年9月起，埃塞多地爆发冲突和骚乱。11月，埃塞政府决定实施“国家安全规划”，禁止非法抗议集会。2018年2月中旬，埃塞奥罗米亚州多地爆发民众游行、罢工罢市。15日，海尔马里亚姆宣布辞去执政党埃革阵党主席和政府总理职务。16日，埃塞部长理事会宣布自即日起国家进入紧急状态。3月27日，阿比·艾哈迈德·阿里（Abiy Ahmed Ali）当选埃革阵主席。4月2日，阿比就任联邦政府总理。6月5日，埃塞宣布解除国家紧急状态。10月，阿比在埃革阵第十一次全国代表大会上连任党主席。
[profile] Landlocked countries in northeastern Africa. It borders Djibouti in the east, Somalia in the west, Sudan and South Sudan in the west, Kenya in the south, and Eritrea in the north. The plateau accounts for 2/3 of the national area and has an average elevation of nearly 3,000 meters. It is known as the “African Roof”.
Has a history of 3,000 years of civilization. The Kingdom of Nubia was established in the 8th century BC. The kingdom of Axum was established around the BC, and was replaced by the Zag Dynasty at the end of the 10th century. In the 13th century, the kingdom of Abyssinian rose and split into several duchys in the early 19th century. In 1889, the king of Shah, Monnilik II, became the emperor, unified the country, and built the Addis Ababa, to lay the modern Ethiopian territory. In 1890, the Italian invasion forced Ethiopia to accept its “protection.” In 1896, Menelik II defeated the Italian army in Adwa, and was forced to admit Ethiopia’s independence. In 1928, Haile Selassie became the king, and on November 2, 1930, he was crowned the emperor. In 1936, Italy invaded again and occupied the whole territory of Ethiopia. Selassie was exiled to the United Kingdom. In 1941, the Allies defeated Italy, and Selassie returned to the country on May 5. On September 12, 1974, a group of young and powerful military officers launched a coup to overthrow the Selassian regime, dethrone the monarchy, and set up a temporary military administrative committee. In February 1977, Lieutenant Colonel Mengustu Haier Mariam took the coup and took office as the head of state. In 1979, the “Ethiopian Workers’ Party Organization Committee”, which is dominated by military personnel, was established to promote a one-party system. In September 1987, Mengustu announced the end of military rule and the establishment of the Ethiopian People’s Democratic Republic. In March 1988, Ethiopia broke out in the civil war. On May 28, 1991, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (Egyptian Front) overthrew the Mengistu regime, and in July the Transitional Government was established. Eleks President Meles Zenawi was president. The Constitution was passed in December 1994 to adopt a new constitution. The first multiparty election was held in May 1995. On August 22, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was established, and Meles took office as the Prime Minister of the majority party of the People’s Congress. In the three general elections in 2000, 2005 and 2010, Meles was reelected. In August 2012, Meles died of illness. In September, former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn served as Chairman and Prime Minister of the Eplen Party. In October 2015, Haier Mariam was re-elected as prime minister.
[Politics] Since the establishment of the Egyptian dynasty, the creation of a federal government based on regional ethnic autonomy has focused on the development of the economy and focused on the relationship between stability, development and national unity. In 2001, the “Four Great” of the Egea Array established the political and economic development direction of “revolutionary democracy” and “capitalist free market economy” in which all ethnic groups participate in state affairs on an equal footing through the new party constitution and party program. In the third parliamentary election in May 2005, although Egnik continued to win the government’s right to form a cabinet, the parliamentary seat lost nearly one-third. The opposition party refused to recognize the election results on the grounds of fraud in the general election. It incited violence in major cities such as the capital and was quelled by the government. After that, Epji strived to promote political and social harmony, promote internal stability, actively engage in dialogue with the opposition party, slam the opposition party leaders, consolidate and strengthen the mass base in rural areas, basically realize political party reconciliation, deepen various reforms, strengthen capacity and build good governance. And the implementation of the second five-year development plan, the ruling status has been consolidated. In April 2008, Ethiopia held a by-election and election of the federal parliament, local state legislatures and administrative agencies, and Egnik won the majority of seats. In May 2010 and May 2015, Ethiopia held the fourth and fifth multi-party parliamentary elections respectively, and Epfield won with absolute advantage. Since November 2015, demonstrations and riots in some states of Ethiopia have been delayed, causing heavy casualties and property losses. From October 2016 to August 2017, Ethiopia entered a state of emergency and the government took various measures to maintain stability. From September 2017, conflicts and riots broke out in Ethiopia. In November, the Ethiopian government decided to implement a “national security plan” to ban illegal protest gatherings. In mid-February 2018, a large number of people marched in strikes and strikes in the Ethiopian state. On the 15th, Haier Mariam announced his resignation as the chairman of the ruling party and the prime minister. On the 16th, the Council of Ministers of Ethiopia announced that the country has entered a state of emergency since now. On March 27th, Abiy Ahmed Ali was elected president of Epfield. On April 2, Abi became the prime minister of the federal government. On June 5, Ethiopia announced the lifting of the state of emergency. In October, Abi was reelected as the party chairman at the 11th National Congress of the Epson.
【宪 法】 1994年12月8日，埃塞制宪会议通过第四部宪法—《埃塞俄比亚联邦民主共和国宪法》，次年8月22日生效。新宪法共11章106条，规定埃塞为联邦制国家，实行三权分立和议会制。总统为国家元首，任期6年。总理和内阁拥有最高执行权，由多数党或政治联盟联合组阁，集体向人民代表院负责。各民族平等自治，享有民族自决和分离权，任何一个民族的立法机构以2/3多数通过分离要求后，联邦政府应在3年内组织该族进行公决，多数赞成即可脱离联邦。各州可以本族语言为州工作语言。保障私有财产，但国家有权进行有偿征用。城乡土地和自然资源归国家所有，不得买卖或转让。组建多民族的国家军队和警察部队，军队不得干政。保障公民的民主自由和基本权利。
【议 会】 联邦议会由人民代表院和联邦院组成，系国家最高立法机构。人民代表院系联邦立法和最高权力机构，负责宪法和联邦法律的制定与修订，由全国普选产生，每5年改选一次。一般不超过550个议席。本届人民代表院有547个议席，现任议长塔格塞·恰福（Tagese Chafo），2018年10月就职。联邦院拥有宪法解释权，有权决定民族自决与分离，解决民族之间纠纷。任期5年，由各州议会推选或人民直选产生，每个民族至少可有1名代表，每百万人口可增选1名代表。本届联邦院有163名议员，议长克里娅·易卜拉欣（Keira Ibrahim），2018年4月就职。
【政 府】 本届政府于2018年10月组成。除阿比总理外，还有21名内阁成员，主要有：副总理德梅克•梅孔嫩（Demeke Mekonnen），国防部长艾莎·穆罕默德（Aisha Mohammed），，总检察长贝尔哈努·策加耶（Berhanu Tsegaye），劳工与社会事务部长埃尔戈格·特斯法耶（Ergoge Tsefaye）,外交部长沃尔基内•格贝耶胡（Workneh Gebeyehu）财长艾哈迈德·希德（Ahmed Shide），贸易与工业部长费特莱沃克·加布雷-埃格泽亚贝赫（Fetlework Gebre-Egzeiabeher)，农业部长奥马尔·侯赛因（Omer Hussien），交通部长达格玛维特·莫格斯（Dagmawit Mogess），城市发展与建设部长安詹蒂拉尔·阿拜（Jantirar Abay），，水、灌溉和电力部长西莱希•贝克莱（Sileshi Bekele)，矿业与油气部长塞缪尔·胡尔卡（Samuel Hurka），教育部长蒂拉耶•格特（Tilaye Gete），卫生部长阿米尔·阿曼（Amir Aman)，文化与旅游部长希鲁特·卡索（Hirut Kassaw），妇女、儿童与青年部长亚莱姆-策盖·阿塞法（Yalem-Tsegay Assefa）,税务部长阿达妮彻·阿贝贝（Adanech Abebe），和平部长穆菲丽哈特·卡米勒（Muferihat Kamil），创新与技术部长格塔洪·梅库里亚（Getahun Mekuria），科学与高等教育部长希鲁特·沃尔德马里亚姆（Hirut Woldemarian），计划与发展委员会部长菲祖姆·阿塞法（Fitsum Assefa）。
【司法机构】 联邦最高法院为联邦最高司法机构，院长梅阿扎·阿什娜菲（Meaza Ashenafi），下辖联邦高级法院和初审法院。总检察长格塔丘.安巴耶(Getachew Ambaye)。
[Constitution] On December 8, 1994, the Ethiopian Constitutional Convention adopted the fourth constitution, the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, which entered into force on August 22 of the following year. The new constitution has a total of 11 chapters and 106 articles, which stipulates that Ethiopia is a federal state and has a separation of powers and a parliamentary system. The president is the head of state for a term of six years. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet have the highest executive power, and the majority party or political alliance jointly organizes the cabinet and is collectively responsible to the People’s Representative Office. All ethnic groups have equal autonomy and enjoy the right of national self-determination and separation. After the legislative body of any nationality has passed the separation requirement by a two-thirds majority, the federal government should organize the tribe to conduct a referendum within three years, and most of them agree to leave the federation. Each state can be the working language of the state. Private property is guaranteed, but the state has the right to a paid expropriation. Urban and rural land and natural resources are owned by the state and may not be traded or transferred. The formation of a multi-ethnic national army and police force, the army is not allowed to do politics. Guarantee the democratic freedom and basic rights of citizens.
[Parliament] The Federal Parliament is composed of the People’s Representative Office and the Federal Council, and is the highest legislative body of the country. The People’s Representative Office is the federal legislation and the highest authority. It is responsible for the formulation and revision of the Constitution and federal laws. It is elected by universal suffrage and is reelected every five years. Generally no more than 550 seats. The current People’s Congress has 547 seats. The current Speaker, Tagese Chafo, took office in October 2018. The Federal Institute has the power to interpret the constitution and has the power to determine national self-determination and separation and resolve disputes between ethnic groups. The term of office is 5 years and is elected by the state legislatures or directly elected by the people. Each ethnic group may have at least one representative and one representative may be elected for each million people. The current Federal Court has 163 members, Speaker Keira Ibrahim, who took office in April 2018.
[Government] The current government was formed in October 2018. In addition to Prime Minister Abbey, there are 21 cabinet members, mainly including: Deputy Prime Minister Demeke Mekonnen, Defense Minister Aisha Mohammed, and Attorney General Belhanu Zece Berhanu Tsegaye, Minister of Labour and Social Affairs Ergoge Tsefaye, Minister of Foreign Affairs Workneh Gebeyehu Finance Minister Ahmed Sid (Ahmed Shide), Minister of Trade and Industry, Feetwork Gebre-Egzeiabeher, Minister of Agriculture Omer Hussien, Minister of Transport Dagmarwitt Dagmawit Mogess, Minister of Urban Development and Construction Janirar Abay, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity Sileshi Bekele, Minister of Mines and Oils Samuel Hurka, Minister of Education Tilaye Gete, Minister of Health Amir Aman, Minister of Culture and Tourism Hirut Kassaw, Women ,child With the Minister of Youth Yalem-Tsegay Assefa, the Minister of Taxation Adanech Abebe, and the Minister of Peace Muferihat Kamil, Minister of Innovation and Technology, Getahun Mekuria, Minister of Science and Higher Education, Hirut Woldemarian, Minister of Planning and Development, Fizum Asefa ( Fitsum Assefa).
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into two autonomous administrative regions including the capital city of Addis Ababa and the commercial city of Di Rada, as well as nine ethnic states.
[Judiciary] The Federal Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the United States. Dean Meaza Ashenafi has a federal high court and a court of first instance. Attorney General Getachew Ambaye.
【政 党】 全国现有约70多个注册政党。主要有：
（1）埃塞俄比亚人民革命民主阵线（The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front，EPRDF ）：简称埃革阵，执政党。于1989年以提格雷人民解放阵线（提人阵）为核心组建，成员党包括阿姆哈拉民族民主运动、奥罗莫人民民主组织和南埃塞俄比亚人民民主阵线，代表24个主要民族。决策机构是由36名成员组成的执行委员会。对内积极推行多党议会制民主和市场经济政策，尊重各民族自决权；对外主张在平等、相互尊重和不干涉内政基础上发展同世界各国的合作，推行地区大国战略。在1995年、2000年、2005年、2010年、2015年的多党选举中均获胜。在本届人民院占501席。
（2）团结民主联盟党（Coalition for Unity and Democracy Party）：主要反对党。由原反对党联盟团结民主联盟的4个成员党于2005年9月合并而成，在本届人民院中没有席位。反对现行联邦制度，主张土地私有化，反对政府在埃厄边界问题上的立场。
[Political Party] There are about 70 registered political parties in the country. There are:
(1) The Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF): referred to as the Ege, the ruling party. In 1989, the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TAI) was formed. The member parties included the Amhara National Democratic Movement, the Oromo People’s Democratic Organization and the South Ethiopian People’s Democratic Front, representing 24 major ethnic groups. The decision-making body is an executive committee of 36 members. We will actively promote multi-party parliamentary democracy and market economy policies and respect the right of all peoples to self-determination; we advocate the development of cooperation with countries around the world on the basis of equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, and the implementation of regional powers. In the multi-party elections of 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, they all won. In this session of the People’s Court accounted for 501 seats.
(2) Coalition for Unity and Democracy Party: The main opposition party. The four member parties of the former opposition coalition Solidarity and Democracy Coalition merged in September 2005, and there is no seat in this People’s Court. Oppose the current federal system, advocate the privatization of the land, and oppose the government’s position on the border issue of Egypt.
[Important] Sahel-Walker Zude: President, born in 1950. Graduated from the University of Montpellier, France, with a Ph.D. He has nearly 30 years of working experience abroad and has served as an ambassador of Ethiopia and a number of positions in the United Nations. From 1989 to 1993, he served as the Ethiopian ambassador to Senegal in Mali, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia and Guinea. From 1993 to 2002, he served as the ambassador of Ethiopia and Djibouti and representative to IGAD, from 2002 to 2006. He is the ambassador of France and the representative of UNESCO, and oversees Tunisia and Morocco. From 2006 to 2009, he served as the representative of Ethiopian AU and the UN Economic Commission for Africa and the Director of the Africa Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Since 2009, he has been working in the United Nations system. From 2009 to 2011, he was the Special Representative and Director of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic. From 2011 to 2018, he served as Director-General of the United Nations Office at Nairobi (Under-Secretary-General level). In June 2018, he served as Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for the African Union and Director of the UN AU Office. In October 2018, he was elected president.
Abi Ahmed Ali: Prime Minister, born in 1976. He received a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering from Ethiopian University of Information Technology in 2001, a master’s degree in cryptography in South Africa in 2005, and a master’s degree in transformational leadership from the University of Greenwich and the Ethiopian International Leadership Institute in 2011. Master of Business Administration, University of Ashland, USA, Ph.D., Institute of Peace and Security, University of Addis Ababa, 2017. He has participated in the armed struggle to overthrow the Mengistu regime. Since 2010, he has served as a member of the Central Committee of the Oromo People’s Democratic Organization (Aomin Group) and a member of the Ethiopian People’s Congress. He founded the Ethiopian Science and Technology Information Center and served as the director from 2014 to 2016. Since 2015, he has served as the Executive Committee of the Aomin Group and the Executive Committee of the Epqu, and served as Minister of Science and Technology from 2016 to 2017. In 2017, Director of the Urban Development and Planning Bureau of Oromia, November 2017 to February 2018 Secretary of the Secretariat of the Aomin Group. In February 2018, he was elected as the chairman of the Austrian People’s Group. In March, he was elected as the chairman of the Epland. In April, he became the prime minister of the federal government. In September, he announced that he would rename the Austrian group to the Oromo Democratic Party.
【经 济】 世界最不发达国家之一。以农牧业为主，工业基础薄弱。门格斯图执政时期因内乱不断、政策失当及天灾频繁，经济几近崩溃。埃革阵执政后，实行以经济建设为中心、以农业和基础设施建设为先导的发展战略，向市场经济过渡，经济恢复较快，1992－1997年经济年均增长7％。1998年埃厄边界冲突爆发后，经济发展受挫。2001年，以埃厄和平进程取得进展为契机，埃塞政府将工作重心转向经济建设。2002年，政府实施可持续发展和减贫计划，先后采取修改投资和移民政策，降低出口税和银行利率、加强能力建设、推广职业技术培训等措施，获国际金融机构肯定。但2002年因旱灾严重，经济增长率放缓，翌年有所恢复。2005年以来，政府实施“以农业为先导的工业化发展战略”，加大农业投入，大力发展新兴产业、出口创汇型产业、旅游业和航空业，吸引外资参与埃塞能源和矿产资源开发，经济保持8%以上高速增长。联合国视埃塞为实现千年发展目标的典范。2010年，埃革阵在多党议会选举中获胜后，着手制订并实施首个5年“经济增长与转型计划”，着力加强水电站、铁路等基础设施建设，加快制造业发展，目标是到2025年成为中等收入国家。2015年，首个5年“经济增长与转型计划”圆满收官。2016年起实施第二个5年“经济增长与转型计划”。2018年主要经济数字预测如下：
【资 源】 已探明的矿藏有黄金、铂、镍、铜、铁、煤、钽、硅、钾盐、磷酸盐、大理石、石灰石、石油和天然气。马来西亚、沙特阿拉伯、英国、苏丹、约旦等国公司在埃塞进行油气勘探开发。水资源丰富，号称“东非水塔”。境内河流湖泊较多，青尼罗河发源于此，但利用率不足5%。目前森林覆盖率为9%。
【工 业】 工业门类不齐全，结构不合理，零部件、原材料依靠进口。制造业以食品、饮料、纺织、皮革加工为主，集中于首都等两、三个城市。皮革是第二大出口产品，每年出口收入约5100万美元。
[Economy] One of the least developed countries in the world. Mainly in agriculture and animal husbandry, the industrial base is weak. During the Gosstu administration, the economy collapsed due to constant civil strife, misconduct and frequent natural disasters. After the Egyptian ruling, the development strategy centered on economic construction and guided by agriculture and infrastructure construction was adopted. The transition to a market economy and rapid economic recovery showed an average annual growth rate of 7% in 1992-1997. After the outbreak of the border conflict in Egypt in 1998, economic development was frustrated. In 2001, with the progress of the Eritrean peace process, the Ethiopian government shifted its focus to economic construction. In 2002, the government implemented the plan for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. It successively adopted measures to modify investment and immigration policies, reduce export taxes and bank interest rates, strengthen capacity building, and promote vocational and technical training, and was recognized by international financial institutions. However, due to the severe drought in 2002, the economic growth rate slowed down and recovered in the following year. Since 2005, the government has implemented the “agricultural-led industrialization development strategy”, increased agricultural investment, vigorously developed emerging industries, export-oriented foreign exchange industries, tourism and aviation, and attracted foreign investment in the development of energy and mineral resources in Ethiopia. Maintain a high growth rate of 8% or more. The United Nations views Ethiopia as a model for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In 2010, after the victory of the multi-party parliamentary elections, Egeyra set out and implemented the first five-year “economic growth and transformation plan”, focusing on strengthening the construction of infrastructure such as hydropower stations and railways, and accelerating the development of the manufacturing industry. The goal is to 2025. Year became a middle-income country. In 2015, the first five years of “economic growth and transformation plan” ended successfully. The second five-year “Economic Growth and Transformation Plan” will be implemented in 2016. The main economic figures for 2018 are predicted as follows:
Gross domestic product: $72.1 billion.
Economic growth rate: 7.6%.
Currency name: Ethiopian Bill.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar is equivalent to 27.55 Bill.
Inflation rate: 13.9%.
Total external debt: $28.78 billion.
Foreign exchange reserves: $3.720 billion.
Foreign trade volume: 20.084 billion US dollars.
(Source: January 2019, London Economic Quarterly Review)
[Resources] The proven deposits are gold, platinum, nickel, copper, iron, coal, antimony, silicon, potash, phosphate, marble, limestone, oil and natural gas. Companies in Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, Sudan, and Jordan conduct oil and gas exploration and development in Ethiopia. Rich in water resources, it is known as the “East African Water Tower”. There are many rivers and lakes in the territory, and the Blue Nile River originates here, but the utilization rate is less than 5%. The current forest coverage rate is 9%.
[Industrial] Industrial categories are incomplete, the structure is unreasonable, and parts and raw materials are imported. The manufacturing industry is mainly engaged in food, beverage, textile and leather processing, and is concentrated in two or three cities such as the capital. Leather is the second largest export product with an annual export revenue of approximately $51 million.
In recent years, Ethiopia has accelerated industrialization and actively built industrial parks. According to the plan, it is planned to build an industrial park in the capital, Addis Ababa, and four major cities, Awasa, Di Radawa, Markley, and Kongbocha. At present, the construction of the Addis Ababa Industrial Park has begun to take shape, the Awasa Industrial Park has been completed and the construction of the remaining two industrial parks is still under planning. In April 2015, the Ethiopian government introduced the Industrial Park Law.
【农 业】 农业系国民经济和出口创汇的支柱，占GDP约40%。农牧民占总人口85%以上，主要从事种植和畜牧业，另有少量渔业和林业。现有农业用地1240万公顷。以小农耕作为主，广种薄收，靠天吃饭，常年缺粮。苔麸、小麦等谷类作物占粮食作物产量的84.15%。近年来，因政府取消农产品销售垄断、放松价格控制、鼓励农业小型贷款、加强农技推广和化肥使用、粮食产量有所上升。经济作物有咖啡、恰特草、鲜花、油料等。其中咖啡产量居非洲前列，年均产量33万吨左右。咖啡出口创汇占埃塞出口的约24%，其产量占世界产量的15%。
[Agriculture] The agricultural sector is the backbone of the national economy and foreign exchange earning, accounting for about 40% of GDP. Farmers and herdsmen account for more than 85% of the total population, mainly engaged in planting and animal husbandry, and a small amount of fisheries and forestry. The existing agricultural land is 12.4 million hectares. With small farming as the main, wide-ranging and thin harvest, relying on the heavens to eat, and lacking food all the year round. Cereal crops such as moss bran and wheat account for 84.15% of the production of food crops. In recent years, due to the government’s abolition of agricultural product monopoly, loosening price controls, encouraging small-scale agricultural loans, strengthening agricultural technology promotion and fertilizer use, food production has increased. Cash crops include coffee, chia grass, flowers, and oil. Among them, coffee production ranks in the forefront of Africa, with an average annual output of about 330,000 tons. Foreign exchange earnings from coffee exports account for about 24% of Ethiopia’s exports, and its production accounts for 15% of world production.
In the big country of animal husbandry, the grazing land accounts for more than half of the country. Mainly for family grazing, low resilience, output value accounts for about 20% of GDP, and absorbs about 30% of the agricultural population. The total number of livestock stocks ranks first in Africa and tenth in the world. Among them, 35 million cattle, 21 million sheep, 16.8 million goats, and 1 million camels.
[Tourism] There are abundant tourism resources, many cultural relics and wildlife parks, and seven relics have been included in the World Heritage List by UNESCO. The government has taken measures to expand the airport and simplify visa procedures to promote tourism development. It plans to make Ethiopia become one of the top 10 tourism countries in Africa by 2020.
[Transportation and Telecommunications] Railway: The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Standard Rail Electrified Railway, which was financed and built by China, was completed and opened to traffic in October 2016. It was officially put into commercial operation in January 2018, with a total length of about 760 kilometers. The Ethiopian territory is about 670 kilometers long and is the only electrified transnational railway in Ethiopia.
Highway: Road transport accounts for 90% of the country’s total traffic. At present, the Ethiopian government is implementing the highway sector development plan to expand and renovate the highway system. As of 2015, the total length of the national highway is about 110,000 kilometers. According to the goal set by Ethiopia’s second “Growth and Transformation Plan”, by the end of the 2019/2020 fiscal year, the national highway of Ethiopia will reach 220,000 kilometers.
Water transport: It used to be the main port of Assab and Masawah in Eritrea. After the border conflict in Ayers, the goods entering and leaving the country mainly passed through the port of Djibouti, using 90% of the port’s throughput capacity.
Air transport: There are more than 40 airports, including Addis Ababa, Direwa and Bahir Dar as international airports. Ethiopian Airlines has 82 aircraft, including the first aircraft near the Airbus A350 and Boeing 787. The routes are spread across all continents, with 19 domestic passenger destinations, 95 international passenger destinations and 35 freight destinations. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, Egypt Shipping sent 7.6 million passengers and 270,000 tons of cargo, making it the only airline in Africa with more than 7 million passengers. The capital, Addis Ababa, is the best airport in Africa, providing ground handling services to 15 airlines.
Telecommunications: In December 2002, Ethiopian Telecom Corporation formulated a development plan for the next 20 years, with a planned investment of 3.5 billion Bills to provide telecommunications services to 50 cities across the country. By the end of 2015, there were 42.3 million mobile phone users and 12.4 million network access users.
[Financial Finance] The government is working hard to reform the tax structure, reduce the deficit, stop domestic borrowing, and change the national debt. The state’s financial situation has improved. Foreign exchange reserves were $3.577 billion. Ethiopia is a beneficiary of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Debt Relief Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. In recent years, it has received significant debt relief from the United States, Russia and the World Bank,
Ethiopia has three state-owned banks, including a commercial bank, a development bank, and a commercial construction bank, and a state-owned insurance company. There are also 12 private banks and 8 private insurance companies. Among them, private banks have 363 branches across the country with total assets of 42.3 billion.
[External Relations] Pursue a comprehensive foreign policy and advocate the development of relations with countries on the basis of equality, mutual benefit, mutual respect and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. Emphasize that diplomacy serves the economic construction. We will attach importance to strengthening friendly cooperation with neighboring countries, strive to develop relations with the West and Arab countries, and strive for economic assistance. Focus on learning from the development experience of Asian countries such as China. Efforts will be made to promote political and economic transformation in Africa, attach importance to the role of regional powers in Africa, especially in East Africa, and actively mediate hotspot issues in South Sudan and Somalia. He is a member of the African Union, the (East African) Intergovernmental Development Organization, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the current rotating chairman of the (East African) Intergovernmental Development Organization.
[attitudes on major international issues]
The international situation: It is believed that peace and development are the trend of the times, and the international community’s cooperation trend in the political, economic and social fields is expected to strengthen. Support the democratization of international relations and call on developing countries to actively integrate into the globalization process through joint self-reliance. Africa should have more say in global governance issues.
United Nations reform: attaches importance to the role of the United Nations and believes that the trend of multi-polarization in the world provides an opportunity for the United Nations to play a greater role. He advocated promoting the democratization of the United Nations and supporting the reform of the Security Council. He hoped that Africa would have a permanent seat on the veto and adhere to the common position of the AU.
Africa’s development: Call on the international community to pay attention to Africa, innovate financing methods, increase financing channels, and increase aid to Africa. It advocates reforming the international financial system, increasing the corresponding policy space for African countries, and taking the development results and performance of African countries as the criteria for providing assistance, increasing African representation and voice. It is believed that African countries should seriously consider their own development paths and policies and avoid further marginalization.
Climate change: Prime Minister Meles served as coordinator of the African Heads of State and Government of Climate Change and co-chair of the United Nations High-level Panel on Climate Change Funds (which was disbanded due to mission completion). Adhere to “common but differentiated responsibilities”; call on African countries to strengthen unity and cooperation, and establish a collective bargaining mechanism for climate change in Africa; basically recognize the long-term goal of global warming not exceeding 2 °C and halving global emissions by 2050, requiring developed countries to Take the lead in reducing emissions and provide sufficient financial and technical support to developing countries. Basically satisfied with the results of the Durban meeting, he believed that the meeting adhered to the two-track negotiation mechanism and the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”, made arrangements for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, launched the Green Climate Fund, and sent an active positive to the international community. The signal, the whole is good for Africa.
[Relationship with the United States] Ethiopia and the United States established diplomatic relations in 1903. Ethiopia attaches importance to relations with the United States and is one of the black African countries that receive the most aid from the United States. However, it criticizes the United States for accusing it of violating human rights. Messer is an African anti-terrorism partner and supports Ethiopia to send troops to Somalia. The two countries maintain close military cooperation. In 2007, Ethiopian President Gilma and Foreign Minister Seyoum visited the United States respectively. US State Department Assistant Secretary of State Fraser visited Ethiopia several times. In October 2008, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles met with US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice during a high-level meeting of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in New York. In July 2010, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs of the US State Department, Carlson, visited Ethiopia. In 2011, Ethiopian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Haier Mariam visited the United States, and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Ethiopia. In April 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Ethiopia. In August, Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam went to the United States to attend the US-Africa summit. In July 2015, US President Barack Obama visited Ethiopia. In October 2017, the two Republican Senators visited Egypt, and the US Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Heili, was appointed by President Trump to visit Egypt. In March 2018, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited Egypt. In July, Prime Minister Abbey visited the United States and met with Vice President of the United States, Burns, World Bank President Kim Min Jong, and International Monetary Fund Organization President Lagarde. In November, US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Najib visited Egypt, and the US Army Commander of the African Command, Wald Hauser, followed up.
【军 事】 武装力量由国防军、安全部队和民兵组成。联邦政府总理为武装部队总司令，统帅全国武装力量。国防部为最高军事行政机关，下辖空军司令部和陆军司令部，国防军参谋长塞拉·梅孔嫩（Seare Mekonen ）上将为最高军事指挥官。国防军由原埃革阵领导的推翻门格斯图政权的军队组成，1991年革命胜利后成为正规国防军，1996年正式实行军衔制，共分12级，上将是全军最高军衔。埃厄边界冲突结束后，埃塞大规模裁军，国防开支不断下降。国防军总兵力约18万人，其中正规军约15万人，安全部队和民兵预备役约3万人。空军约8000人，有作战飞机130余架。安全防暴部队负责重点警务、维持社会秩序。民兵组织属地方武装组成部分，配合正规部队防卫作战、维持治安。军队装备以苏制武器为主。
【教 育】 埃革阵执政后，将发展教育、提高国民文化素质和培养技术人才作为政府工作重点之一。全国实行10年义务教育制，包括小学8年、初中2年。共有小学2.1万所，在校生超过1400万人，教师约21.6万人。综合性大学数量已从2所增至21所。适龄儿童入学率达90%，中学和大学入学率分别为28%和17%。成年男性识字率为50%，女性为23%。目前，埃塞公立大学入学人数已达79000人。
【新闻出版】 全国现有121家报刊杂志。官方有阿姆哈拉语日报《亚的斯泽门》（Addis Zemen）和季刊《泽门》（Zemen），奥罗莫语周报《贝瑞萨》（Beresa），阿姆哈拉语和英文季刊《今日埃塞俄比亚》（Ethiopia Today），英文日报《埃塞俄比亚先驱报》（The Ethiopian Herald），阿拉伯文周报《世界》（Alem）。
官方埃塞俄比亚通讯社（Ethiopian News Agency）成立于1942年，是非洲大陆历史最悠久的通讯社之一，也是埃塞最早的新闻机构。在国内设有38家分支机构。另有私营的瓦尔塔信息中心（Walta Information Center），1993年成立，主要报道国内政治、经济和社会要闻，向国内各广播电台、电视台和主要报刊供稿。
[Foreign Trade] At present, the average tax rate of Ethiopian imports is 50%. In recent years, exports have rebounded rapidly, but due to increased import demand, the deficit is large. The main export commodities are coffee, oilseed, cheddar, leather and gold, imported machinery, automobiles, petroleum products, fertilizers, chemicals, etc. The main trading partners are China, Germany, Japan, Italy, the United States, India, Saudi Arabia and so on.
[Foreign Capital] Ethiopia enacted the Investment Law in 1992 and revised it several times in 1996, 1998 and 2002. In recent years, the government has taken measures such as relaxing investment areas, lowering investment minimums, simplifying investment approval procedures, and exempting taxes to increase investment attraction. Foreign direct investment has grown rapidly. At present, foreign investment is mainly distributed in the real estate, manufacturing, hotel and tourism, construction, education and service industries, with major investments from China, the United States, India and Saudi Arabia.
[Foreign Aid] After the Eritrean border conflict broke out in 1998, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank suspended the issuance of new loans to Ethiopia. In December 2000, Eyre signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and resumed its assistance. The aid mainly comes from multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the African Development Bank, the World Food Programme, and the United States, Japan, the European Union, Italy, and Norway.
[People’s life] The average life expectancy is 42 years and the infant mortality rate is 96.8 baht. 44% of the population live on less than $1 a day, and 50% of the population has less than 15 kg/month. The electricity population accounts for 13% of the national population. Nearly 3 million people living with HIV. The coverage of medical services nationwide reached 87%.
[Military] The armed forces are composed of the National Defense Forces, security forces, and militia. The Prime Minister of the Federal Government is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and commands the national armed forces. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest military executive, with Air Force Command and Army Command, and Chief of Staff of the National Defence Force, General Seare Mekonen, as the highest military commander. The National Defence Force consisted of the army of the former Egyptian regime who overthrew the Mengistu regime. After the victory of the 1991 revolution, it became the regular defense army. In 1996, it officially implemented the military rank system, which was divided into 12 levels. The general was the highest rank of the whole army. After the end of the border conflict between Ethiopia and Ethiopia, Ethiopia’s large-scale disarmament and defense spending continued to decline. The total strength of the National Defence Force is about 180,000, of which about 150,000 are regular troops, and about 30,000 are reserved for security forces and militia. The Air Force has about 8,000 people and more than 130 combat aircraft. The security riot unit is responsible for key policing and maintaining social order. The militia organization is a part of the local armed forces, and cooperates with the regular forces to defend operations and maintain law and order. The military equipment is mainly based on Soviet weapons.
[Education] After the Egei ruling, it will be one of the priorities of the government to develop education, improve the quality of the national culture and cultivate technical talents. The 10-year compulsory education system is implemented throughout the country, including 8 years in primary schools and 2 years in junior high schools. There are 21,000 primary schools with more than 14 million students and 216,000 teachers. The number of comprehensive universities has increased from 2 to 21. The enrollment rate for school-age children is 90%, and the enrollment rates for secondary and university are 28% and 17% respectively. Adult male literacy rate is 50%, and female is 23%. At present, the number of students enrolled at the public university in Ethiopia has reached 79,000.
[Press and Publication] There are 121 newspapers and magazines in the country. Officials include the Amharic daily “Addis Zemen” and the quarterly “Zemen”, the Oromo weekly “Beresa” (Beresa), Amharic and English. The quarterly magazine “Ethiopia Today”, the English-language newspaper “The Ethiopian Herald”, the Arabic weekly “Alem”.
Founded in 1942, the official Ethiopian News Agency is one of the oldest news agencies on the African continent and the earliest news agency in Ethiopia. There are 38 branches in China. Another private Walta Information Center, established in 1993, mainly reports on domestic political, economic and social news, and contributes to domestic radio stations, television stations and major newspapers.
Ethiopian Radio has nearly 100 journalists, and uses 8 national languages such as Amhara to broadcast in English, French and Arabic. Ethiopian TV is the only TV station in the country. It was launched in 1965 and currently broadcasts Amhara, Oromo, Tigray and English programs. In order to strengthen the management of radio and television, the Ethiopian government adopted the broadcasting law in January 2002 and established the Radio and Television Bureau (ERTA) under the Ministry of Information.
[Relationship with the United Kingdom] In the 19th century, the British Expeditionary Force invaded Ethiopia and was stubbornly resisted by local soldiers and civilians. In 1973, Ethiopia and the United Kingdom signed an agreement on economic and technological cooperation. During the period of Mengustu, the two sides were alienated by the dispute between Ethiopia and the Somali territories. After Egnik took office, relations between the two countries gradually improved. British has a cultural center in Ethiopia and is the second largest donor to Ethiopia. After the election in Ethiopia in May 2005, the relationship between the two countries was affected by the British accusation that the election did not meet the democratic standards. The relationship between the two countries has recovered in 2006. Ethiopia believes that Britain has greatly helped in debt relief, capacity building, poverty alleviation, the establishment of a social public service system, and the establishment of a network information platform. In June 2008, British Foreign Secretary Jim Howell visited Ethiopia. In 2011, Ethiopian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Haier Mariam visited the UK. The British Minister for International Development and the Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Ethiopia. In January 2013, Ethiopian Foreign Minister Tverdros visited the UK. In February, the British Deputy Prime Minister visited Ethiopia. In July, former British Prime Minister Blair visited Ethiopia. In November 2018, the British Minister of African Affairs Harriet Baldwin visited Ethiopia.
[Relationship with Russia] After the end of the Cold War, Ethiopia has little exchanges with Russia and has few economic and trade activities. In January 1992, Ethiopia announced the recognition of all former Soviet republics. In 2001, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles made his first official visit to Russia. In November, the Russia-Egypt Friendship Association was established. In September 2002, Russian Prime Minister Kasyanov visited Ethiopia and held talks with Prime Minister Meles. The two sides reached an agreement on repairing the former Soviet Union economic aid project and developing natural gas. In 2004, the two countries established direct trade relations. In 2011, Ethiopian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Haier Mariam visited Russia. From 2007 to November 2013, Russia provided $13 million in assistance to the UN Office of the World Food Programme in Ethiopia. In March 2018, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov visited Egypt.
[Relationship with neighboring countries]
Relations with Eritrea: Ethiopia and Utter formed a federation in 1952. In 1962, the Ethiopian government announced that Utto would be a state, triggering the struggle of the Uttar people for independence. In 1993, Ute declared independence and Ethiopia recognized and established diplomatic relations with it. In 1998, the two countries broke out of war due to border conflicts. In 2000, a peace agreement was signed. In September of the same year, UNMEE was established. The Ethiopian peace process was deadlocked because Ethiopia refused to accept the ruling of the Eritrean Boundary Commission. The side committee announced the dissolution after completing the “marking on the map” in November 2007. On July 30, 2008, the UN Security Council passed a resolution to end UNMEE’s term of office. In 2009 and 2011, Ethiopia twice promoted the UN Security Council to impose sanctions on Ecuador. In June 2016, the two countries had a small-scale exchange of fire in the border-breaking areas and accused each other of launching provocations.
On June 5, 2018, the EMG’s Executive Committee issued a statement stating that the Egyptian side will fully accept and implement the Algiers Peace Agreement signed with the Ecuadorian side in 2000 and the border between the two countries. resolution. In July, Prime Minister Abbey and Eritrean President Isaias exchanged visits and announced that Eyre ended the war, resumed diplomatic relations, and achieved navigation and communication. In September, Abi and Isaias signed the “Agreement on Comprehensive Cooperation for Peace and Friendship” in the Saudi city of Jeddah. In November 2018, the UN Security Council passed a resolution to lift all sanctions against Iraq.
Relations with Djibouti: Ethiopia and Djibouti established a consular-level relationship in 1995 and formally established diplomatic relations in 1996. The railways and highways of the two countries are connected, and the Ethiopian-Djibouti Railway Company is jointly signed with the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. After the death of Ayers, the port of Djibouti became the largest sea passage in Ethiopia. At present, 85% of Ethiopian import and export goods are transshipped through the port, and 700 million US dollars of port usage fees are paid annually to Kyrgyzstan. In recent years, bilateral relations have been good. The leaders of the two countries have exchanged visits many times and signed a number of cooperation agreements on security, ports, trade and investment. In March 2017, Djibouti President Guelleh visited Ethiopia. In April 2018, Prime Minister Abbey visited Djibouti.
Relations with Kenya: Ethiopia and Kenya established diplomatic relations in 1961 (establishing a consular-level relationship in 1954). After Egnik came to power, bilateral relations further developed. In March 2005, President Kibaki visited Egypt. The two sides agreed to cooperate in the areas of investment, trade, tourism, infrastructure construction, regional and equality, and signed cooperation agreements in the military field between the two countries. In January 2007, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles paid a working visit to Kenya. On March 2, 2012, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles, Kenyan President Kibaki and South Sudanese President Kiel attended the groundbreaking ceremony of the Lamugang-South Sudan-Esser traffic corridor project in Lamu Harbor, Kenya. The project included Ports, roads, railways and oil pipelines are designed to provide trade routes and sea ports for landlocked countries in the eastern and central Africa. In April 2013, Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam visited Kenya and met with Kenyan President Kenyatta. The two sides exchanged views on bilateral relations and peace and reconstruction in Somalia.
Relations with Sudan: Ethiopia and Sudan established diplomatic relations in 1956. In the 1980s, Ethiopia and Sudan supported each other’s anti-government forces. After the Egyptian ruling, relations between the two countries, especially economic and trade cooperation, developed rapidly. With the opening of road and microwave communications, Ethiopia began to import large quantities of oil from Sudan and used Port Sudan. Ethiopia supported the Soviet government’s position on the Darfur issue and believed that the issue was a Soviet internal government. Oppose the International Criminal Court to prosecute President Bashir. In April 2008, Ethiopia’s first group of police officers from the United Nations/African Union’s UNAMID Darfur began to travel to the Soviet Union. Since then, 1,600 peacekeepers have been deployed in Darfur. In recent years, high-level visits between the two countries have continued. In April 2010, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles called Sudanese President Bashir to congratulate Barren. In July 2011, with the authorization of the UN Security Council, Ethiopia deployed the United Nations Interim Security Force (UNISFA) to the Abuye area.
Relations with South Sudan: Ethiopia is the only country that is adjacent to Sudan and South Sudan. Under the impetus of the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie, the Sudanese government signed the Addis Ababa Agreement with the southern Sudanese authorities in 1972, and the first civil war ended in the Soviet Union. During the Mengers military government, Ethiopian relations with Sudan were relatively cold. In 1983, the second civil war broke out in Ethiopia, and Ethiopia increased its support for the anti-Soviet armed forces in southern Jiangsu. The Soviet government also supports the anti-government armed forces in Ethiopia, and the two countries have committed evil. In 1991, after the Egyptian ruling overthrew the Mongerstu military government, it paid attention to balance development and relations between the two countries and participated in mediating the Soviet civil war through various channels. In 2005, the two Soviet Union signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Kenya, and Ethiopia has played an active role in this regard. Since then, Ethiopia and the South Sudanese authorities have established separate consulates in Juba and Addis Ababa. In July 2011, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles attended the South Sudan Independence Day celebrations, and the two countries established diplomatic relations. In November of the same year, Ethiopia opened the consulate in Juba to the embassy. After the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two countries exchanged visits frequently. The two sides established a joint ministerial committee and established a strategic partnership to strengthen cooperation in the fields of transportation, transportation, trade, communications, education, capacity building and security. After the fierce armed conflict in South Sudan in December 2013, Ethiopian actively participated in the mediation, and Prime Minister Haier Mariam went to South to mediate and played an important role. Since January 2014, under the great mediation of the East African Intergovernmental Development Organization (IGAD) and other parties, the two sides of the conflict in South Sudan have repeatedly negotiated and signed a ceasefire agreement in Ethiopia. In May, South Sudanese President Kiel and opposition leader Martial met for the first time since the outbreak of the conflict in Addis Ababa under the auspices of Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam and signed the agreement on resolving the crisis in South Sudan. 》. Since the end of 2017 and the beginning of 2018, despite the changes in the political situation of Ethiopia, Ethiopia has insisted on promoting three meetings of the High-level Forum on Reinvigorating the South Peace Agreement in the country. Ethiopian President Sahel-Walker participated in the signing ceremony of the “Revitalization Agreement” held in the southern capital of Juba on October 31, 2018.
Relations with Egypt: The two countries have different opinions on the use of water resources in the Nile. After Egnik took office, bilateral relations gradually improved. The two countries and Sudan maintained communication on the use of water resources in the Nile River, and established the “East Nile River Basin Expert Committee Office” and the “Tripartite Forum” to coordinate and rationally develop and utilize the Nile water resources. In January 2007, Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum visited Egypt. In June 2009, the two countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Joint Development and Utilization of the Nile. In May 2010, the seven countries in the upper reaches of the Nile River, headed by Ethiopia, signed the Cooperation Framework Agreement separately, demanding that the countries of the Nile River Basin enjoy the right to use the water resources of the Nile River fairly and rationally. Egypt opposes this. In June 2013, the Egyptian Foreign Minister visited Ethiopia and the two sides issued a joint communique stating that the relevant issues will be resolved through dialogue. In March 2015, under the impetus of the Sudan, Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam, Egyptian President Seyci and Sudanese President Bashir signed the Agreement on the Declaration of Principles for the Revitalization of Dams in Khartoum, emphasizing the peaceful settlement of differences through consultation and negotiation. Cooperation on the basis of mutual benefit and respect for international law. In January 2018, Prime Minister Haier visited Egypt and held a direct dialogue with Egyptian President Seyce on the water supply of the Nile and the construction of the Ethiopian dam. In the same month, Sudanese President Bashir, Egyptian President Seyce and Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam held a tripartite meeting during the 30th AU Summit to exchange views on the relations between the three countries, especially the construction of the revival dam, and announced the establishment of the Minister of Water Resources of the Three Kingdoms. The participating technical committees explored the problems facing the construction of the revival dam. In May, Ethiopia and Egypt and Sudan held a new round of consultations and consensus on the revival of the dam in Addis Ababa. In June, Prime Minister Abbey visited Egypt, saying that the revival of the dam would not affect the share of the Nile in Egypt. In December, Ethiopia announced that the revival of the dam hydropower station will be postponed until 2022.
Relations with Somalia: In 1964 and 1977, the two countries fought twice in territorial disputes and broke diplomatic relations in 1977. After Egnik took office, Ethiopia was actively involved in mediating the internal conflicts and repeatedly promoted the Somali faction in its territory and launched an international aid conference. In January 2002, the (East African) Intergovernmental Development Organization Summit authorized the joint mediation of Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti, and held a new round of meetings. Under the impetus of Ethiopia and other countries, it passed the transitional federal charter and established the transitional federal government and parliament. In October 2006, President of the Transitional Federal Government Yusuf visited Ethiopia and met with Prime Minister Meles to seek for Ethiopia to continue to support the peace process and provide assistance. In December, Esser sent troops to help the Transitional Federal Government defeat the anti-government armed Islamic court coalition. In March 2010, the Soviet Transitional Government and the important armed faction Sunni Alliance reached a cooperation agreement, and Ethiopia played an important role. In September and November 2010, the Prime Minister and President of the Transitional Government visited Ethiopia. In December 2011, Ethiopia entered a cross-border attack against the anti-government armed forces Shabab. After the establishment of the official government in 2012, there were more high-level exchanges between the two countries. Ethiopia also promoted the settlement government and the Zhublan local interim government to reach a settlement agreement. In April 2013, Somali Prime Minister Hilltown visited Ethiopia and Ethiopia said that he will continue to support peace and stability in Somalia. In January 2014, Ethiopian troops stationed in Somalia formally joined the AU Mission in Somalia. In February 2017, the presidential election was held. Former Prime Minister Mohammed was elected as the new president of the federal government and he took office. Essie congratulated Mu.
[Relationship with Arab Countries] Ethiopia is actively developing relations with Arab countries, especially the Gulf countries, and strives for economic aid and investment. In January 2003, the meeting of foreign ministers of Ethiopia, Sudan and Yemen was held in Khartoum. The three parties discussed the issue of strengthening economic cooperation and agreed to establish a regional anti-terrorist coalition. In February 2004, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles held talks with Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi during his attendance at the AU Special Summit. In February 2005, Prime Minister Meles visited Qatar and the two countries signed an economic and technological cooperation agreement. In March of the same year, the Saudi parliamentary delegation visited Ethiopia. In April 2008, Ethiopia called on Qatar to destabilize the Horn of Africa and announced the break-up of the two countries. In November 2012, the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Qatar visited Ethiopia, the first high-level visit after the two countries broke diplomatic relations, marking the official return of normalization of Eka relations. In March 2013, UAE Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah visited Ethiopia. Ethiopia decided to open a new embassy in Abu Dhabi. In November, Ethiopian Prime Minister Haier Mariam went to Kuwait to attend the “3rd Africa-Arab Summit.”
After taking office, Prime Minister Abbey has close contacts with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The two countries have provided financial assistance to Ethiopia’s economic and social development and played an important role in the improvement of Ethiopia’s relations with Eritrea.