The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国
【国名】 斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国（The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka）。
【国家元首和政府首脑】 总统迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena)，2015年1月当选。
[Country name] The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
[Area] 65,610 square kilometers.
[Population] 21.44 million (2017). The Sinhalese accounted for 74.9%, the Tamil group 15.4%, the Mozu 9.2%, and the other 0.5%. Sinhalese and Tamil are both official and national languages, and upper-class society is generally English. 70.2% of the residents believe in Buddhism, 12.6% believe in Hinduism, 9.7% believe in Islam, and 7.4% believe in Catholicism and Christianity.
[Capital] Colombo, with a population of 753,000.
[Head of Heads of State and Government] President Maithripala Sirisena was elected in January 2015.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: February 4 (1948).
[Profile] The island nation on the Indian Ocean south of the South Asian subcontinent, facing the Indian Ocean from the Paco Strait in the northwest. Close to the equator, the year-round is like summer, the annual average temperature is 28 °C, affected by the Indian Ocean monsoon, the southwest coastal area is humid. The average annual precipitation is 1757 mm (2017). The scenery is beautiful and is known as the “Pearl on the Indian Ocean”.
2,500 years ago, Aryans from North India immigrated to Ceylon to establish the Sinhala Dynasty. In 247 BC, Ashoka of the Indian Peacock Dynasty sent his son to the island to promote Buddhism, which was welcomed by the local kings. Since then, the Sinhalese have abandoned Brahmanism and converted to Buddhism. Around the 2nd century BC, the Tamils of South India began to migrate and settle in Ceylon. From the 5th to the 16th century, there was a constant battle between the Kingdom of Sinhalese and the Kingdom of Tamil. It was ruled by the Portuguese and the Dutch since the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, it became a British colony. In February 1948, he gained independence and was named Ceylon. On May 22, 1972, it was renamed the Republic of Sri Lanka. On August 16, 1978, the country was renamed the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
【议会】 斯议会为一院制，由225名议员组成，任期6年。本届议会于2015年8月选出。席位分布情况为：统一国民党106席，统一人民自由联盟95席，泰米尔全国联盟16席，人民解放阵线6席，穆斯林大会党和伊拉姆人民民主党各1席。现任议长卡鲁·贾亚苏里亚(Karu Jayasuriya)，统一国民党党员，于2015年9月1日宣誓就职。
【政府】 2018年12月，斯里兰卡组建新一届内阁。内阁成员包括总统、总理、部长在内共30人。主要成员有：总统兼国防部长、马哈威利河发展与环境部长迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳（Maithripala Sirisena），总理兼国家政策、经济事务、回迁重置、北部发展、技能与职业培训、青年事务部长拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈（Ranil Wickremesinghe），财政与大众媒体部长曼格拉·萨马拉维拉（Mangala Samaraweera），外交部长提拉克·马拉帕纳（Tilak Marapana），城市规划、水资源、高等教育部长劳夫·哈基姆（Rauf Hakeem），工商、流民安置与合作发展部长里沙德·巴蒂于廷（Rishad Bathiudeen），发展战略、国际贸易与科学技术研究部长马利克·萨马拉维克拉马（Malik Samarawickrama），港口、航运与南方发展部长萨格拉·拉特纳亚克（Sagala Ratnayaka）等。另有3名非内阁部长、17名国务部长和7名副部长。
【司法机构】 司法机构由三部分组成：法院，包括最高法院、上诉法院、高级法院和地方法院等；司法部，负责司法行政工作；司法委员会，负责法院人事和纪律检查。最高法院首席法官纳林·佩雷拉（Nalin Perera），2018年10月12日就任。
[Politics] The President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet. On January 9, 2015, Metripala Sirisena defeated former President Rajapaksa in the seventh presidential election in Sri Lanka and was elected as the new president. On August 17, 2015, Sri Lanka held the fifteenth parliamentary election. The united Kuomintang led by Lanier Vikram Masingha won 106 of the 225 seats and won the election. On the 21st, Vikram Masingha became prime minister. In October 2018, President Sisena appointed Rajapaksa as Prime Minister and removed Prime Minister Vikram Mahinha. In December, Rajapaksa resigned as prime minister and Vikram Masingha re-elected as prime minister.
[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on September 7, 1978. It is the fourth constitution in the history of Sri Lanka. It abolished the British-style parliamentary system that followed many years, followed France and the United States and changed its presidential system. The Constitution was amended several times after 1982. The Constitution stipulates that all officials, including members of parliament, must swear to oppose separatism and safeguard national unity.
[Parliament] The Sri Lankan Parliament is a one-chamber system consisting of 225 members for a term of six years. The current parliament was elected in August 2015. The distribution of seats was: unified KMT 106 seats, unified People’s Freedom Union 95 seats, Tamil National League 16 seats, People’s Liberation Front 6 seats, Muslim Congress Party and Ilam People’s Democratic Party each. The current Speaker, Karu Jayasuriya, a member of the Nationalist Party, was sworn in on September 1, 2015.
[Government] In December 2018, Sri Lanka formed a new cabinet. The cabinet consists of 30 members including the president, the prime minister and the minister. The main members are: President and Minister of Defence, Mahaveli River Development and Environment Minister Maithripala Sirisena, Prime Minister and National Policy, Economic Affairs, Resettlement Reset, Northern Development, Skills and Vocational Training , Minister of Youth Affairs Ranil Wickremesinghe, Minister of Finance and Mass Media Mangala Samaraweera, Foreign Minister Tilak Marapana, Rauf Hakeem, Minister of Urban Planning, Water Resources and Higher Education, Minister of Business, Residents and Cooperative Development, Rishad Bathiudeen, Minister of Development Strategy, International Trade and Science and Technology Research Malik Samarawickrama, Minister of Ports, Shipping and Southern Development Sagala Ratnayaka. There are also three non-Cabinet Ministers, 17 Ministers of State and 7 Deputy Ministers.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 9 provinces and 25 districts. The nine provinces are Western, Central, Southern, Northern, Northern, Northern, Eastern, Uwa and Sabaragamuwa.
[Judiciary] The Judiciary consists of three parts: the court, including the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the District Court; the Ministry of Justice, which is responsible for judicial administration; and the Judicial Committee, which is responsible for court personnel and discipline inspection. Nairo Perera, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, took office on October 12, 2018.
【政党】 （1）斯里兰卡自由党(Sri Lanka Freedom Party)：1951年9月由所罗门·班达拉奈克创建。奉行开放的市场经济政策和不结盟的外交政策。曾于1956年至1960年、1960年至1964年、1970年至1977年、1994年至2001年、2004年至2015年执政。1981、1984和1993年先后三次分裂。目前，主席为现任总统西里塞纳。
（2）统一国民党(United National Party)：1946年9月，以森那纳亚克为首的锡兰国民大会党、以班达拉奈克为首的僧伽罗大会党和以贾亚为首的全锡兰穆斯林联盟合并，成立统一国民党。主张自由竞争、对外开放的经济政策和不结盟的外交政策。曾于1948年至1956年、1960年3月至7月、1965年至1970年、1977年至1994年、2001年至2004年先后独立或与其他政党联合执政。党领袖为现任总理拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈。
（3）泰米尔全国联盟（The Tamil National Alliance）：成立于2001年10月，由泰米尔联合解放阵线、伊拉姆人民革命解放阵线、泰米尔伊拉姆解放组织和全锡兰泰米尔大会党四个泰米尔政党组成，总部位于斯北部泰米尔人聚居的贾夫纳。主张泰米尔人具有民族自决权，呼吁政府保护泰米尔人权利。2011年以来该党与斯里兰卡政府就民族问题政治解决方案展开多轮对话。现任党领袖杉潘坦（R. Sampanthan）。
（4）人民解放阵线（Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna，People’s Liberation Front）：成立于1970年，主要成员来自当时的锡兰共产党。直至上世纪90年代初，该党一直坚持武装斗争。90年代以来调整政策，选择议会斗争道路。现任党领袖为阿努拉·迪萨纳亚克（Anura Dissanayake)，总书记为提尔文·席尔瓦（Tilvin Silva）。
[Party] (1) Sri Lanka Freedom Party: Created by Solomon Bandaranaike in September 1951. Pursue an open market economy policy and a non-aligned foreign policy. He was in power from 1956 to 1960, 1960 to 1964, 1970 to 1977, 1994 to 2001, and 2004 to 2015. Three divisions were made in 1981, 1984 and 1993. Currently, the chairman is the current president, Sirisena.
(2) United National Party: In September 1946, the Ceylon National Congress headed by Sennanayak, the Sinhala Congress Party headed by Bandaranaike and the head of Jaya The Ceylon Muslim League merged to form the United National Party. Economic policies that advocate free competition, openness to the outside world, and non-aligned foreign policies. He was independent or co-governed from 1948 to 1956, March to July 1960, 1965 to 1970, 1977 to 1994, and 2001 to 2004. The party leader is the current prime minister, Lanier Wikrama Singh.
(3) The Tamil National Alliance: Established in October 2001 by the Tamil Joint Liberation Front, the Ilam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front, the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization and the All Ceylon Tamil Conference The party consists of four Tamil parties, headquartered in Jaffna, where the Tamil people live in the north. It is advocated that the Tamils have the right to self-determination and call on the government to protect the rights of Tamils. Since 2011, the party and the Sri Lankan government have initiated several rounds of dialogue on the political solution to ethnic issues. The current party leader, R. Sampanthan.
(4) People’s Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, People’s Liberation Front): Founded in 1970, the main members came from the then Ceylon Communist Party. Until the early 1990s, the party has always insisted on armed struggle. Since the 1990s, we have adjusted our policies and chosen the path of parliamentary struggle. The current party leader is Anura Dissanayake, and the general secretary is Tilvin Silva.
Other political parties and organizations include the Popular Front Party, the Muslim Congress Party, the National Traditional Party, the Democratic Party, the Ceylon Workers’ Congress Party, the Ilam People’s Democratic Party and the Sri Lankan Communist Party.
[Peace Process and Domestic Situation] The conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the Tamil Eelam Liberation Tigers (“Tiger”) lasted for 26 years, killing more than 70,000 people. In February 2002, under the mediation of Norway, the two sides signed the “Permanent Ceasefire Agreement” and held six rounds of peace talks. In April 2003, the “Tiger Tiger” withdrew from the peace talks and the peace process was suspended. In February and October 2006, the two sides held two rounds of peace talks, but failed to reach an agreement. In July 2007, the government army regained the Eastern Province and promoted it to the “Hu-Control Zone” in the north. In January 2008, the Sri Lankan government announced its withdrawal from the Permanent Ceasefire Agreement. In January 2009, the government army regained the towns of Kirinochchi, the administrative capital of the Tigers. In May, President Sri announced the success of the military operation, regaining all the “Tiger” control areas, and eliminating the main leaders of “Tiger” such as Prabhakaran. At present, the Sri Lankan government actively promotes post-war civilian resettlement and economic and social reconstruction, and the political, economic and security situation has generally stabilized.
After the “Tiger” organization was wiped out, Western countries continued to pressure Sri Lanka on issues such as resettlement of displaced persons (IDPs) and human rights. Under the impetus of some Western countries and non-governmental organizations, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the establishment of a panel of experts in June 2010 to investigate violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and violations during the Civil War. Western countries have also repeatedly promoted the adoption of the resolution on the United Nations Human Rights Council. The Sri Lankan Government established a Lessons Learned and National Reconciliation Commission to investigate violations of the principles of international human rights law since 2002. In October 2015, the Kosovo Bill of Rights proposed by the United States and co-sponsored by Sri Lanka was adopted at the 30th UN Human Rights Council meeting, which supported Sri Lanka’s domestic investigation.
【主要政府机构网址】斯里兰卡政府网：www.gov.lk 斯里兰卡总统办公室www.president.gov.lk 斯里兰卡外交部：www.mfa.gov.lk
[Main Government Website] Sri Lanka Government Website: www.gov.lk Sri Lankan President’s Office www.president.gov.lk Sri Lanka Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mfa.gov.lk
[Important figures] Metripala Sirisena: President, born on September 3, 1951, Sinhalese, Buddhist. He studied at the former Soviet Union Gorky College. First elected to Parliament in 1989. Since 1994, he has served as Deputy Minister of Irrigation and Mahaweli Development, Minister of Agriculture, and Minister of Health. In 2001, he was the general secretary of the Liberal Party. In January 2015, he was elected as the president of the opposition as a co-candidate, and in the same month he was elected as the party chairman.
Lanier Vikramah Singh: Prime Minister, born on March 24, 1949 in the Sinhala political family, Sinhalese, Buddhist. He graduated from the Law Department of Ceylon University in 1972 with a bachelor’s degree in law. In 1973, he served as the executive member of the United Nationalist Party. He was elected as a member of Parliament for the first time in 1977 and became the youngest cabinet minister in the history of the country at the age of 29 as the Minister of Youth Affairs, Employment and Education. He has served successively as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Youth Affairs, Employment and Education, and Minister of Industry. From May 1993 to August 1994, from December 2001 to April 2004, he served twice as Prime Minister. In December 1994, he was elected leader of the United Nationalist Party. In April 2004, he became the leader of the opposition party. In 2005, he was elected as a candidate for the Nationalist Party to participate in the presidential election and lost to Rajapaksa. In January 2015, he was appointed Prime Minister by newly elected President Sirisena. In August, he led the United Nationalist Party to win parliamentary elections and re-elected the prime minister. After being dismissed by the President in October 2018, he became prime minister again in December.
Karu Jaya Surya: Speaker, born on September 29, 1940, Sinhalese. He graduated from Ananda College, worked in business in the early years, and worked in the military for about 7 years. In the early 1990s, he served as the ambassador to Germany. In 1996, he was invited by the Prime Minister of the United Nations Nationalist Party (UNP), Vikma Mahinha, to join the UNP and served as the party chairman. He was the deputy leader of the UNP. Mayor of Colombo from 1997 to 1999. He was elected as a member in 2000 and has been re-elected to this day. He served as Minister of Electricity and Energy from 2001 to 2004, Minister of Public Administration and Interior from 2007 to 2008, Minister of Public Administration, Democratic Governance and Buddhism in January 2015, and Chairman of the Uniform Kuomintang Leadership Committee. In September 2015, he was elected as the 15th President of the Parliament.
Tilak Malapana: Foreign Minister, who joined the Office of the Attorney General in 1968. From 1992 to 1994, he served as the Attorney General. In 2000, he was nominated as a member of the Nationalist Party. From 2001 to 2003, he served as Minister of Defense. From 2002 to 2004, he served as Minister of Expressway, Transportation and Civil Aviation. In 2015, he was nominated as a member of the Nationalist Party by the United National Party and served as Minister of Law and Order and Prison Reform. In May 2017, the cabinet was reorganized as the Minister of Development Tasks. In August 2017, he became the foreign minister. He was dismissed in October 2018 and re-elected as foreign minister in December.
[Economy] The plantation economy is the main crop, and the main crops are tea, rubber, coconut and rice. The industrial base is weak, with agricultural products and garment processing industries as the mainstay. The first to implement economic liberalization policies among South Asian countries. In 1978, the government began to implement an economic open policy, vigorously attracting foreign investment, promoting privatization, and gradually forming a market economy. In recent years, the economy has maintained a medium-speed growth. In 2005-2008, the national economic growth rate reached or exceeded 6% for four consecutive years, the first time since independence. Since 2008, due to the impact of the international financial crisis, Sri Lanka’s foreign exchange reserves have been greatly reduced, and the income of major export commodities such as tea and rubber and foreign short-term investment have declined. After the end of the domestic military conflict, the Sri Lankan government adopted a series of positive response measures. At present, the macro economy is gradually picking up, but it still faces difficulties such as heavy foreign debt burden and slowdown in exports.
The main economic data for 2017 are as follows (Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka 2017 Annual Report):
Gross domestic product (GDP): 138.89 billion rupees (about 87.2 billion US dollars)
Per capita GDP: $4,065
National economic growth rate: 3.1%
Currency name: Rupee
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 152.46 rupees (2017 average).
Inflation rate: 6.6%
Unemployment rate: 4.2%
[Resources] The main mineral deposits include graphite, gemstones, ferrotitanium, zircon and mica. Graphite, gemstones, mica, etc. have been mined. Rich in fisheries, forestry and water resources.
[Industrial] Industries mainly include textiles, clothing, leather, food, beverages, tobacco, paper, wood, chemicals, petroleum processing, rubber, plastics and metal processing and machine assembly industries, most of which are concentrated in the Colombo region. In 2017, industrial output accounted for 26.8% of GDP.
[Agriculture] The area of arable land is 4 million hectares, and 2 million hectares have been utilized. The main crops are tea, rubber, coconut and so on. In 2017, agricultural output accounted for about 6.9% of GDP.
[Service Industry] In 2017, the service industry’s output value accounted for 56.8% of GDP, and trade, transportation, finance, insurance, real estate, communications and other industries grew rapidly.
[Tourism] Tourism is an important part of the economy. Tourists mainly come from Europe, India, China, Southeast Asia and other countries and regions. In 2003-2005, the number of visitors to Sri Lanka for three consecutive years exceeded 500,000. Since the end of 2005, the conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the “Tiger” has had a certain impact on the tourism industry. In 2009, with the improvement of the situation in Sri Lanka, the tourism industry gradually recovered and showed a rapid development momentum. In 2017, the number of arrivals was 2,114,400, a year-on-year increase of 3.2%.
【军事】 陆、空军建于1949年，海军建于1950年。总统为武装部队总司令。最高国防决策机构为国家安全委员会，成员有国防部常秘、国防参谋长、陆、海、空三军司令、警察总监等，主席由总统兼任。国防部为最高军事行政机构。武装力量由正规军和警察组成。正规军分陆、海、空三个军种。总统通过国家安全委员会、国防部和陆海空三军司令部对全军实施领导和指挥。国防参谋长维杰古纳拉特纳(Admiral Ravindra Wijegunaratne)，陆军司令马赫什·塞纳纳亚克（Major General Mahesh Senanayake)，海军司令席尔瓦(Vice Admiral Piyal de Silva)，空军司令贾亚帕蒂(Air Marshal Kapila Jayampathy)。总兵力约28万，陆军18.7万，海军5.5万，空军3.8万。另有警察、国民辅助志愿队和家乡卫队约8万。
[Transportation] There are 12,380 kilometers of highways and 1,640 kilometers of railways nationwide. The main ports are Colombo, Hambantota, Gore and Trincomalee. Colombo Airport and Hambantota (Matara) Airport are international airports. SriLankan Airlines operates international aviation business.
[Financial Finance] In 2017, the fiscal revenue was US$12.013 billion, the fiscal expenditure was US$16.877 billion, and the fiscal deficit was US$3.864 billion. In 2017, the foreign exchange reserve was 7.959 billion US dollars, an increase of 32.2%. Foreign debt was US$44.839 billion, up 4.3% year-on-year. .
[Foreign Trade] Implement a free foreign trade policy. Except for the government’s control of oil, other commodities can be imported freely. In recent years, the structure of export trade has undergone fundamental changes, from the past agricultural products to industrial products. The main export commodities are textiles, clothing, tea, rubber and its products, and jewelry products. The main import targets are India, China, the United States, Canada, the United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Japan, Australia and so on.
[Foreign Capital] The government implements a policy of protecting and attracting foreign investment. Foreign direct investment in 2017 was approximately $1.913 billion, mainly investing in infrastructure construction projects, services and manufacturing.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid plays a prominent role in the economic life of Sri Lanka. Almost all large projects rely on foreign aid for construction. There are more than 30 countries and international organizations providing assistance to Sri Lanka, mainly China, India, Japan, the United States, and the Asian Development Bank. The total amount of foreign aid in 2017 was approximately $240 million.
[People’s Life] The government has long implemented welfare measures such as rice subsidies, free education, and free medical care for all. In 2017, public health expenditures accounted for 1.57% of GDP and life expectancy was 75 years.
[Military] The land and air force were built in 1949, and the navy was built in 1950. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The highest defense decision-making body is the National Security Council. The members include the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of National Defense, the Chief of Defence, the Commander of the Army, the Sea, and the Air Force, and the Chief of Police. The President is also the President. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest military administrative agency. The armed forces are composed of regular troops and police. The regular army is divided into three branches: land, sea and air. The President conducted leadership and command of the entire army through the National Security Council, the Ministry of National Defense, and the Army, Navy, and Air Force Command. Admiral Ravindra Wijegunaratne, Chief of Defense, Major General Mahesh Senanayake, Vice Admiral Piyal de Silva, Air Force Commander Jayapa Air Marshal Kapila Jayampathy. The total strength is about 280,000, the army is 187,000, the navy is 55,000, and the air force is 38,000. There are also about 80,000 police, national auxiliary volunteers and hometown guards.
[Cultural Education] Ethnic culture has a long history and is deeply influenced by Buddhism. The government has always attached importance to education and has implemented free education from kindergarten to university since 1945. In 2017, the literacy rate of residents reached 93.1%. There are 10,194 schools in the country and 106 private schools with about 4.3 million students and about 248,000 teachers. Government spending on education reached 201.16 billion rupees in 2017, an increase of 8% over the previous year. The main universities are the University of Peradeniya, the University of Kelania and the University of Colombo.
[Press and Publication] There are more than 200 newspapers and magazines, and four newspaper systems: (1) Ceylon United Press: Founded in 1918, it was taken over by the government in 1973. The Daily News is the largest English-language daily newspaper. The Daily Sun is the largest Sinhala Daily. (2) Upari Group Newspaper Company: Founded in November 1981. The main newspaper, “Island Daily”, is a British and Japanese-language daily newspaper with a large circulation. (3) Vijay Newspaper Company: Founded in 1990. The main newspapers include the Sinhala Daily News “Langka Light” and the English “Daily Mirror” and “Sunday Times”. (4) Express newspaper company: founded in 1930, private. Published the Tamil newspaper, “Lion” is the largest Tamil Daily.
Lankan News Agency: A semi-official news agency co-founded by several newspaper companies in 1978.
Sri Lanka TV: National TV, launched in 1982, broadcast daily in English, Chinese and Thai. Independent television station, launched in 1979, mainly broadcast in Sinhalese. There are also Earth TV stations, MTV TV stations, etc.
[External Relations] Pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy, support the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, oppose all forms of imperialism, colonialism, racism and great power hegemonism, safeguard Sri Lanka’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and do not allow foreign countries. Intervene in Sri Lanka’s internal affairs and foreign affairs. Concerned about international and regional security, and advocate general and complete disarmament, including global nuclear disarmament and the establishment of a new international political and economic order. Resolutely opposed to international terrorism, the United Nations Convention against Terrorist Bombings was signed in January 1998 and became the first signatory of the Convention. Actively promote regional cooperation in South Asia. Call for strengthening international counter-terrorism cooperation within organizations such as the United Nations and SAARC. Diplomatic relations have been established with more than 140 countries.
[Relationship with China] See “China-Sri Lanka Bilateral Relations”.
[Relationship with the United States] The United States is the main donor and the largest export market. In 1997, the United States declared the “Tiger” a terrorist organization. After the tsunami disaster at the end of 2004, the United States played an active role in disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction. In February 2012, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs Blake visited Sri Lanka. In May, Foreign Minister Perris visited the United States. In November, Assistant Secretary of the South Asian and Central Asian Affairs assisted Allers to visit Sri Lanka. In January 2013, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs helped James Moore, Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs, Jane Zimmerman, and Assistant Secretary of Defense, Vikram Singh, to visit Sri Lanka. In January 2013, Stephen Rapp, the ambassador of the US Department of State’s Global Criminal Justice Office, visited the country. In January 2014 and February 2015, Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia, Nisa Biswal, visited Sri Lanka. In February 2015, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited the United States. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry visited. In February 2016, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited the United States. In November 2017, US State Department Deputy Secretary of State Shannon visited Sri Lanka. In October 2018, the US State Department’s Chief Assistant Secretary for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs helped Alice Wells to visit Sri Lanka.
[Relationship with India] Sri Lanka has a long history and geographical connections. Maintaining friendly relations with India is the focus of Sri Lanka’s foreign policy. The two sides attach importance to economic cooperation and hope to start the cooperation of SAARC. India supports the peaceful resolution of ethnic conflicts. In January 2013, Foreign Minister Perris visited India. In May 2014, President Rajapaksa was invited to attend the inauguration ceremony of Indian Prime Minister Modi. In January 2015, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited India. In February, President Sisena visited India. In March, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Sri Lanka. In September, Prime Minister Vikama Singh visited India. In February 2016, Indian Foreign Minister Swarajhi visited Sri Lanka. In September 2017, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Malapana visited India. In October 2017, the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sennanayak visited India. In March 2018, President Sirisena went to India to attend the inaugural meeting of the International Solar Energy Alliance. In October 2018, Prime Minister Vikram Mahinha visited India.
[Relationship with SAARC] Sri Lanka attaches importance to regional cooperation in South Asia and actively supports and participates in various activities of SAARC. In July 1998, the 10th Summit of the SAARC was held in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka actively promotes cooperation among SAARC countries and emphasizes that economic development is the primary task of SAARC. For this, a peaceful and stable regional environment is needed. In 2008, Si successfully hosted the 15th SAARC Summit. In 2011 and 2014, President Rajapaksa attended the 17th SAARC Summit in Maldives and the 18th SAARC Summit in Nepal. In May 2017, SAARC Secretary-General Sial visited the country.