The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国

【国名】 斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国(The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka)。

【面积】 65610平方公里。

【人口】 2144万(2017年)。僧伽罗族占74.9%,泰米尔族15.4%,摩尔族9.2%,其他0.5%。僧伽罗语、泰米尔语同为官方语言和全国语言,上层社会通用英语。居民70.2%信奉佛教,12.6%信奉印度教,9.7%信奉伊斯兰教,7.4%信奉天主教和基督教。

【首都】 科伦坡(Colombo),人口75.3万。

【国家元首和政府首脑】 总统迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena),2015年1月当选。

【重要节日】 独立日:2月4日(1948年)。

【简况】 南亚次大陆以南印度洋上的岛国,西北隔保克海峡与印度相望。接近赤道,终年如夏,年平均气温28℃,受印度洋季风影响,西南部沿海地区湿度大。年平均降水量1757毫米(2017年)。风景秀丽,素有“印度洋上的明珠”之称。

2500年前,来自北印度的雅利安人移民至锡兰岛建立僧伽罗王朝。公元前247年,印度孔雀王朝的阿育王派其子来岛弘扬佛教,受到当地国王欢迎,从此僧伽罗人摈弃婆罗门教而改信佛教。公元前2世纪前后,南印度的泰米尔人也开始迁徙并定居锡兰岛。从5世纪至16世纪,岛内僧伽罗王国和泰米尔王国之间征战不断。16世纪起先后被葡萄牙人和荷兰人统治。18世纪末成为英国殖民地。1948年2月获得独立,定国名锡兰。1972年5月22日改称斯里兰卡共和国。1978年8月16日改国名为斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国。

[Country name] The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

[Area] 65,610 square kilometers.

[Population] 21.44 million (2017). The Sinhalese accounted for 74.9%, the Tamil group 15.4%, the Mozu 9.2%, and the other 0.5%. Sinhalese and Tamil are both official and national languages, and upper-class society is generally English. 70.2% of the residents believe in Buddhism, 12.6% believe in Hinduism, 9.7% believe in Islam, and 7.4% believe in Catholicism and Christianity.

[Capital] Colombo, with a population of 753,000.

[Head of Heads of State and Government] President Maithripala Sirisena was elected in January 2015.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: February 4 (1948).

[Profile] The island nation on the Indian Ocean south of the South Asian subcontinent, facing the Indian Ocean from the Paco Strait in the northwest. Close to the equator, the year-round is like summer, the annual average temperature is 28 °C, affected by the Indian Ocean monsoon, the southwest coastal area is humid. The average annual precipitation is 1757 mm (2017). The scenery is beautiful and is known as the “Pearl on the Indian Ocean”.

2,500 years ago, Aryans from North India immigrated to Ceylon to establish the Sinhala Dynasty. In 247 BC, Ashoka of the Indian Peacock Dynasty sent his son to the island to promote Buddhism, which was welcomed by the local kings. Since then, the Sinhalese have abandoned Brahmanism and converted to Buddhism. Around the 2nd century BC, the Tamils ​​of South India began to migrate and settle in Ceylon. From the 5th to the 16th century, there was a constant battle between the Kingdom of Sinhalese and the Kingdom of Tamil. It was ruled by the Portuguese and the Dutch since the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, it became a British colony. In February 1948, he gained independence and was named Ceylon. On May 22, 1972, it was renamed the Republic of Sri Lanka. On August 16, 1978, the country was renamed the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

【政治】 总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队总司令,享有任命总理和内阁其他成员的权力。2015年1月9日,迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳在斯里兰卡第七届总统选举中击败前总统拉贾帕克萨,当选新一任总统。2015年8月17日,斯里兰卡举行第十五届议会选举,拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈领导的统一国民党获得225个议席中的106个,赢得选举。21日,维克拉马辛哈就任总理。2018年10月,西里塞纳总统任命拉贾帕克萨为总理,免去维克拉马辛哈总理职务。12月,拉贾帕克萨辞去总理职务,维克拉马辛哈再次就任总理。

【宪法】 现行宪法于1978年9月7日生效,为斯历史上第四部宪法,废除沿袭多年的英国式议会制,效仿法国和美国,改行总统制。1982年后曾多次修改宪法。宪法规定,斯所有官员,包括议员在内,必须宣誓反对分裂主义,维护国家统一。

【议会】 斯议会为一院制,由225名议员组成,任期6年。本届议会于2015年8月选出。席位分布情况为:统一国民党106席,统一人民自由联盟95席,泰米尔全国联盟16席,人民解放阵线6席,穆斯林大会党和伊拉姆人民民主党各1席。现任议长卡鲁·贾亚苏里亚(Karu Jayasuriya),统一国民党党员,于2015年9月1日宣誓就职。

【政府】 2018年12月,斯里兰卡组建新一届内阁。内阁成员包括总统、总理、部长在内共30人。主要成员有:总统兼国防部长、马哈威利河发展与环境部长迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena),总理兼国家政策、经济事务、回迁重置、北部发展、技能与职业培训、青年事务部长拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈(Ranil Wickremesinghe),财政与大众媒体部长曼格拉·萨马拉维拉(Mangala Samaraweera),外交部长提拉克·马拉帕纳(Tilak Marapana),城市规划、水资源、高等教育部长劳夫·哈基姆(Rauf Hakeem),工商、流民安置与合作发展部长里沙德·巴蒂于廷(Rishad Bathiudeen),发展战略、国际贸易与科学技术研究部长马利克·萨马拉维克拉马(Malik Samarawickrama),港口、航运与南方发展部长萨格拉·拉特纳亚克(Sagala Ratnayaka)等。另有3名非内阁部长、17名国务部长和7名副部长。

【行政区划】 全国分为9个省和25个区。9个省分别为西方省、中央省、南方省、西北省、北方省、北中省、东方省、乌瓦省和萨巴拉加穆瓦省。

【司法机构】 司法机构由三部分组成:法院,包括最高法院、上诉法院、高级法院和地方法院等;司法部,负责司法行政工作;司法委员会,负责法院人事和纪律检查。最高法院首席法官纳林·佩雷拉(Nalin Perera),2018年10月12日就任。

[Politics] The President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the power to appoint the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet. On January 9, 2015, Metripala Sirisena defeated former President Rajapaksa in the seventh presidential election in Sri Lanka and was elected as the new president. On August 17, 2015, Sri Lanka held the fifteenth parliamentary election. The united Kuomintang led by Lanier Vikram Masingha won 106 of the 225 seats and won the election. On the 21st, Vikram Masingha became prime minister. In October 2018, President Sisena appointed Rajapaksa as Prime Minister and removed Prime Minister Vikram Mahinha. In December, Rajapaksa resigned as prime minister and Vikram Masingha re-elected as prime minister.

[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on September 7, 1978. It is the fourth constitution in the history of Sri Lanka. It abolished the British-style parliamentary system that followed many years, followed France and the United States and changed its presidential system. The Constitution was amended several times after 1982. The Constitution stipulates that all officials, including members of parliament, must swear to oppose separatism and safeguard national unity.

[Parliament] The Sri Lankan Parliament is a one-chamber system consisting of 225 members for a term of six years. The current parliament was elected in August 2015. The distribution of seats was: unified KMT 106 seats, unified People’s Freedom Union 95 seats, Tamil National League 16 seats, People’s Liberation Front 6 seats, Muslim Congress Party and Ilam People’s Democratic Party each. The current Speaker, Karu Jayasuriya, a member of the Nationalist Party, was sworn in on September 1, 2015.

[Government] In December 2018, Sri Lanka formed a new cabinet. The cabinet consists of 30 members including the president, the prime minister and the minister. The main members are: President and Minister of Defence, Mahaveli River Development and Environment Minister Maithripala Sirisena, Prime Minister and National Policy, Economic Affairs, Resettlement Reset, Northern Development, Skills and Vocational Training , Minister of Youth Affairs Ranil Wickremesinghe, Minister of Finance and Mass Media Mangala Samaraweera, Foreign Minister Tilak Marapana, Rauf Hakeem, Minister of Urban Planning, Water Resources and Higher Education, Minister of Business, Residents and Cooperative Development, Rishad Bathiudeen, Minister of Development Strategy, International Trade and Science and Technology Research Malik Samarawickrama, Minister of Ports, Shipping and Southern Development Sagala Ratnayaka. There are also three non-Cabinet Ministers, 17 Ministers of State and 7 Deputy Ministers.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 9 provinces and 25 districts. The nine provinces are Western, Central, Southern, Northern, Northern, Northern, Eastern, Uwa and Sabaragamuwa.

[Judiciary] The Judiciary consists of three parts: the court, including the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the District Court; the Ministry of Justice, which is responsible for judicial administration; and the Judicial Committee, which is responsible for court personnel and discipline inspection. Nairo Perera, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, took office on October 12, 2018.

【政党】 (1)斯里兰卡自由党(Sri Lanka Freedom Party):1951年9月由所罗门·班达拉奈克创建。奉行开放的市场经济政策和不结盟的外交政策。曾于1956年至1960年、1960年至1964年、1970年至1977年、1994年至2001年、2004年至2015年执政。1981、1984和1993年先后三次分裂。目前,主席为现任总统西里塞纳。

(2)统一国民党(United National Party):1946年9月,以森那纳亚克为首的锡兰国民大会党、以班达拉奈克为首的僧伽罗大会党和以贾亚为首的全锡兰穆斯林联盟合并,成立统一国民党。主张自由竞争、对外开放的经济政策和不结盟的外交政策。曾于1948年至1956年、1960年3月至7月、1965年至1970年、1977年至1994年、2001年至2004年先后独立或与其他政党联合执政。党领袖为现任总理拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈。

(3)泰米尔全国联盟(The Tamil National Alliance):成立于2001年10月,由泰米尔联合解放阵线、伊拉姆人民革命解放阵线、泰米尔伊拉姆解放组织和全锡兰泰米尔大会党四个泰米尔政党组成,总部位于斯北部泰米尔人聚居的贾夫纳。主张泰米尔人具有民族自决权,呼吁政府保护泰米尔人权利。2011年以来该党与斯里兰卡政府就民族问题政治解决方案展开多轮对话。现任党领袖杉潘坦(R. Sampanthan)。

(4)人民解放阵线(Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna,People’s Liberation Front):成立于1970年,主要成员来自当时的锡兰共产党。直至上世纪90年代初,该党一直坚持武装斗争。90年代以来调整政策,选择议会斗争道路。现任党领袖为阿努拉·迪萨纳亚克(Anura Dissanayake),总书记为提尔文·席尔瓦(Tilvin Silva)。

其他政党和组织还有人民阵线党、穆斯林大会党、国家传统党、民主党、锡兰工人大会党、伊拉姆人民民主党和斯里兰卡共产党等。

【和平进程与国内局势】斯政府与“泰米尔伊拉姆解放虎”组织(简称“猛虎”)间的冲突持续26年,造成7万多人死亡。2002年2月,在挪威斡旋下,双方签署《永久停火协议》,先后举行6轮和谈。2003年4月,“猛虎”退出和谈,和平进程宣告中断。2006年2月和10月,双方又举行两轮和谈,但未能达成一致。2007年7月,政府军收复东方省并向北部“虎控区”推进。2008年1月,斯政府宣布退出《永久停火协议》。2009年1月,政府军收复“猛虎行政首都”基里诺奇等城镇。5月,斯总统宣布军事行动取得成功,收复所有“猛虎”控制区域,消灭普拉巴卡兰等“猛虎”主要头目。目前,斯政府积极推进战后平民安置和经济社会重建,政治、经济、安全形势总体趋于稳定。

“猛虎”组织被消灭后,西方国家不断在流离失所者(IDP)安置和人权等问题上向斯施压。在一些西方国家和非政府组织推动下,联合国秘书长潘基文于2010年6月宣布成立专家小组,对斯内战期间违反国际人道法和人权法及侵权行为进行调查。西方国家还多次推动在联合国人权理事会通过涉斯决议。斯政府成立教训总结与民族和解委员会,调查2002年以来违反国际人权法原则的行为。2015年10月,由美国提出、斯里兰卡作为共同提案国提出的涉斯人权法案在第30次联合国人权理事会会议上通过,该决议支持斯开展国内调查。

[Party] (1) Sri Lanka Freedom Party: Created by Solomon Bandaranaike in September 1951. Pursue an open market economy policy and a non-aligned foreign policy. He was in power from 1956 to 1960, 1960 to 1964, 1970 to 1977, 1994 to 2001, and 2004 to 2015. Three divisions were made in 1981, 1984 and 1993. Currently, the chairman is the current president, Sirisena.

(2) United National Party: In September 1946, the Ceylon National Congress headed by Sennanayak, the Sinhala Congress Party headed by Bandaranaike and the head of Jaya The Ceylon Muslim League merged to form the United National Party. Economic policies that advocate free competition, openness to the outside world, and non-aligned foreign policies. He was independent or co-governed from 1948 to 1956, March to July 1960, 1965 to 1970, 1977 to 1994, and 2001 to 2004. The party leader is the current prime minister, Lanier Wikrama Singh.

(3) The Tamil National Alliance: Established in October 2001 by the Tamil Joint Liberation Front, the Ilam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front, the Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization and the All Ceylon Tamil Conference The party consists of four Tamil parties, headquartered in Jaffna, where the Tamil people live in the north. It is advocated that the Tamils ​​have the right to self-determination and call on the government to protect the rights of Tamils. Since 2011, the party and the Sri Lankan government have initiated several rounds of dialogue on the political solution to ethnic issues. The current party leader, R. Sampanthan.

(4) People’s Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, People’s Liberation Front): Founded in 1970, the main members came from the then Ceylon Communist Party. Until the early 1990s, the party has always insisted on armed struggle. Since the 1990s, we have adjusted our policies and chosen the path of parliamentary struggle. The current party leader is Anura Dissanayake, and the general secretary is Tilvin Silva.

Other political parties and organizations include the Popular Front Party, the Muslim Congress Party, the National Traditional Party, the Democratic Party, the Ceylon Workers’ Congress Party, the Ilam People’s Democratic Party and the Sri Lankan Communist Party.

[Peace Process and Domestic Situation] The conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the Tamil Eelam Liberation Tigers (“Tiger”) lasted for 26 years, killing more than 70,000 people. In February 2002, under the mediation of Norway, the two sides signed the “Permanent Ceasefire Agreement” and held six rounds of peace talks. In April 2003, the “Tiger Tiger” withdrew from the peace talks and the peace process was suspended. In February and October 2006, the two sides held two rounds of peace talks, but failed to reach an agreement. In July 2007, the government army regained the Eastern Province and promoted it to the “Hu-Control Zone” in the north. In January 2008, the Sri Lankan government announced its withdrawal from the Permanent Ceasefire Agreement. In January 2009, the government army regained the towns of Kirinochchi, the administrative capital of the Tigers. In May, President Sri announced the success of the military operation, regaining all the “Tiger” control areas, and eliminating the main leaders of “Tiger” such as Prabhakaran. At present, the Sri Lankan government actively promotes post-war civilian resettlement and economic and social reconstruction, and the political, economic and security situation has generally stabilized.

After the “Tiger” organization was wiped out, Western countries continued to pressure Sri Lanka on issues such as resettlement of displaced persons (IDPs) and human rights. Under the impetus of some Western countries and non-governmental organizations, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the establishment of a panel of experts in June 2010 to investigate violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and violations during the Civil War. Western countries have also repeatedly promoted the adoption of the resolution on the United Nations Human Rights Council. The Sri Lankan Government established a Lessons Learned and National Reconciliation Commission to investigate violations of the principles of international human rights law since 2002. In October 2015, the Kosovo Bill of Rights proposed by the United States and co-sponsored by Sri Lanka was adopted at the 30th UN Human Rights Council meeting, which supported Sri Lanka’s domestic investigation.

【主要政府机构网址】斯里兰卡政府网:www.gov.lk 斯里兰卡总统办公室www.president.gov.lk 斯里兰卡外交部:www.mfa.gov.lk

【重要人物】迈特里帕拉·西里塞纳:总统,1951年9月3日出生,僧伽罗族,佛教徒。曾在前苏联高尔基文学院学习。1989年首次当选议员。1994年起历任灌溉与马哈威利发展副部长、农业部长、卫生部长等职。2001年任自由党总书记。2015年1月以反对党共同候选人身份当选总统,同月当选自由党主席。

拉尼尔·维克拉马辛哈:总理,1949年3月24日出生于僧伽罗政治世家,僧伽罗族,佛教徒。1972年毕业于锡兰大学法律系,获法学学士学位。1973年任统一国民党执委。1977年首次当选议员,29岁出任青年事务、就业和教育部长,成为斯历史上最年轻的内阁部长。历任外交部副部长、青年事务、就业和教育部长、工业部长等职。1993年5月至1994年8月、2001年12月至2004年4月两次出任总理。1994年12月当选统一国民党领袖。2004年4月成为反对党领袖。2005年作为统一国民党候选人参加总统竞选,败给拉贾帕克萨。2015年1月被新当选总统西里塞纳任命为总理。8月,率领统一国民党赢得议会选举,连任总理。2018年10月被总统解职后,12月再次就任总理。

卡鲁·贾亚苏里亚:议长,生于1940年9月29日,僧伽罗族。毕业于阿南达学院,早年从商,并在军队工作约7年,上世纪90年代初任斯驻德国大使。1996年,受斯统一国民党(UNP)领袖维克拉马辛哈总理邀请加入UNP并担任党主席,曾任UNP副领袖。1997-1999年任科伦坡市长。2000年当选议员并连任至今。曾于2001至2004年任电力和能源部长、2007至2008年任公共管理和内政部长、2015年1月任公共管理、民主治理和佛教事务部长,兼任统一国民党领导委员会主席。2015年9月,当选斯第15届议会议长。

提拉克·马拉帕纳:外长,1968年进入总检察长办公室工作。1992年至1994年任总检察长。2000年被统一国民党提名为议员。2001年至2003年任国防部长,2002年至2004年兼任高速公路、交通运输和民航部长。2015年再次被统一国民党提名为议员,并任法律与秩序和监狱改革部长。2017年5月,斯内阁改组后出任发展任务部长。2017年8月,就任外交部长。2018年10月被解职,12月再次出任外长。

[Main Government Website] Sri Lanka Government Website: www.gov.lk Sri Lankan President’s Office www.president.gov.lk Sri Lanka Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.mfa.gov.lk

[Important figures] Metripala Sirisena: President, born on September 3, 1951, Sinhalese, Buddhist. He studied at the former Soviet Union Gorky College. First elected to Parliament in 1989. Since 1994, he has served as Deputy Minister of Irrigation and Mahaweli Development, Minister of Agriculture, and Minister of Health. In 2001, he was the general secretary of the Liberal Party. In January 2015, he was elected as the president of the opposition as a co-candidate, and in the same month he was elected as the party chairman.

Lanier Vikramah Singh: Prime Minister, born on March 24, 1949 in the Sinhala political family, Sinhalese, Buddhist. He graduated from the Law Department of Ceylon University in 1972 with a bachelor’s degree in law. In 1973, he served as the executive member of the United Nationalist Party. He was elected as a member of Parliament for the first time in 1977 and became the youngest cabinet minister in the history of the country at the age of 29 as the Minister of Youth Affairs, Employment and Education. He has served successively as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Youth Affairs, Employment and Education, and Minister of Industry. From May 1993 to August 1994, from December 2001 to April 2004, he served twice as Prime Minister. In December 1994, he was elected leader of the United Nationalist Party. In April 2004, he became the leader of the opposition party. In 2005, he was elected as a candidate for the Nationalist Party to participate in the presidential election and lost to Rajapaksa. In January 2015, he was appointed Prime Minister by newly elected President Sirisena. In August, he led the United Nationalist Party to win parliamentary elections and re-elected the prime minister. After being dismissed by the President in October 2018, he became prime minister again in December.

Karu Jaya Surya: Speaker, born on September 29, 1940, Sinhalese. He graduated from Ananda College, worked in business in the early years, and worked in the military for about 7 years. In the early 1990s, he served as the ambassador to Germany. In 1996, he was invited by the Prime Minister of the United Nations Nationalist Party (UNP), Vikma Mahinha, to join the UNP and served as the party chairman. He was the deputy leader of the UNP. Mayor of Colombo from 1997 to 1999. He was elected as a member in 2000 and has been re-elected to this day. He served as Minister of Electricity and Energy from 2001 to 2004, Minister of Public Administration and Interior from 2007 to 2008, Minister of Public Administration, Democratic Governance and Buddhism in January 2015, and Chairman of the Uniform Kuomintang Leadership Committee. In September 2015, he was elected as the 15th President of the Parliament.

Tilak Malapana: Foreign Minister, who joined the Office of the Attorney General in 1968. From 1992 to 1994, he served as the Attorney General. In 2000, he was nominated as a member of the Nationalist Party. From 2001 to 2003, he served as Minister of Defense. From 2002 to 2004, he served as Minister of Expressway, Transportation and Civil Aviation. In 2015, he was nominated as a member of the Nationalist Party by the United National Party and served as Minister of Law and Order and Prison Reform. In May 2017, the cabinet was reorganized as the Minister of Development Tasks. In August 2017, he became the foreign minister. He was dismissed in October 2018 and re-elected as foreign minister in December.

【经济】以种植园经济为主,主要作物有茶叶、橡胶、椰子和稻米。工业基础薄弱,以农产品和服装加工业为主。在南亚国家中率先实行经济自由化政策。1978年开始实行经济开放政策,大力吸引外资,推进私有化,逐步形成市场经济格局。近年来,斯经济保持中速增长。2005-2008年,斯国民经济增长率连续四年达到或超过6%,为独立以来的首次。2008年以来,受国际金融危机影响,斯外汇储备大量减少,茶叶、橡胶等主要出口商品收入和外国短期投资下降。斯国内军事冲突结束后,斯政府采取了一系列积极应对措施。当前斯宏观经济逐步回暖,但仍面临外债负担重、出口放缓等困难。

2017年主要经济数据如下(资料来源:斯里兰卡中央银行2017年度报告):

国内生产总值(GDP):132890亿卢比(约合872亿美元)

人均国内生产总值:4065美元

国民经济增长率:3.1%

货币名称:卢比(Rupee)

汇率:1美元=152.46卢比(2017年平均值)。

通货膨胀率:6.6%

失业率:4.2%

【资源】 主要矿藏有石墨、宝石、钛铁、锆石、云母等。石墨、宝石、云母等已开采。渔业、林业和水力资源丰富。

【工业】 工业主要有纺织、服装、皮革、食品、饮料、烟草、造纸、木材、化工、石油加工、橡胶、塑料和金属加工及机器装配等工业,大多集中于科伦坡地区。2017年工业产值占GDP的26.8%。

【农业】 可耕地面积400万公顷,已利用200万公顷。主要作物为茶叶、橡胶、椰子等。2017年农业产值约占GDP的6.9%。

【服务业】 2017年服务业产值占GDP的比重约为56.8%,贸易、运输、金融、保险、房地产、通讯等产业增长较快。

【旅游业】 旅游业是斯经济的重要组成部分。游客主要来自欧洲、印度、中国、东南亚等国家和地区。2003-2005年,斯连续三年到访外国游客数量突破50万人。自2005年底,斯政府军与“猛虎”冲突对旅游业造成一定冲击。2009年,随着斯局势转好,旅游业逐步恢复,呈现快速发展势头。2017年入境人数为211.64万人次,同比增长3.2%。

[Economy] The plantation economy is the main crop, and the main crops are tea, rubber, coconut and rice. The industrial base is weak, with agricultural products and garment processing industries as the mainstay. The first to implement economic liberalization policies among South Asian countries. In 1978, the government began to implement an economic open policy, vigorously attracting foreign investment, promoting privatization, and gradually forming a market economy. In recent years, the economy has maintained a medium-speed growth. In 2005-2008, the national economic growth rate reached or exceeded 6% for four consecutive years, the first time since independence. Since 2008, due to the impact of the international financial crisis, Sri Lanka’s foreign exchange reserves have been greatly reduced, and the income of major export commodities such as tea and rubber and foreign short-term investment have declined. After the end of the domestic military conflict, the Sri Lankan government adopted a series of positive response measures. At present, the macro economy is gradually picking up, but it still faces difficulties such as heavy foreign debt burden and slowdown in exports.

The main economic data for 2017 are as follows (Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka 2017 Annual Report):

Gross domestic product (GDP): 138.89 billion rupees (about 87.2 billion US dollars)

Per capita GDP: $4,065

National economic growth rate: 3.1%

Currency name: Rupee

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 152.46 rupees (2017 average).

Inflation rate: 6.6%

Unemployment rate: 4.2%

[Resources] The main mineral deposits include graphite, gemstones, ferrotitanium, zircon and mica. Graphite, gemstones, mica, etc. have been mined. Rich in fisheries, forestry and water resources.

[Industrial] Industries mainly include textiles, clothing, leather, food, beverages, tobacco, paper, wood, chemicals, petroleum processing, rubber, plastics and metal processing and machine assembly industries, most of which are concentrated in the Colombo region. In 2017, industrial output accounted for 26.8% of GDP.

[Agriculture] The area of ​​arable land is 4 million hectares, and 2 million hectares have been utilized. The main crops are tea, rubber, coconut and so on. In 2017, agricultural output accounted for about 6.9% of GDP.

[Service Industry] In 2017, the service industry’s output value accounted for 56.8% of GDP, and trade, transportation, finance, insurance, real estate, communications and other industries grew rapidly.

[Tourism] Tourism is an important part of the economy. Tourists mainly come from Europe, India, China, Southeast Asia and other countries and regions. In 2003-2005, the number of visitors to Sri Lanka for three consecutive years exceeded 500,000. Since the end of 2005, the conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the “Tiger” has had a certain impact on the tourism industry. In 2009, with the improvement of the situation in Sri Lanka, the tourism industry gradually recovered and showed a rapid development momentum. In 2017, the number of arrivals was 2,114,400, a year-on-year increase of 3.2%.

【交通运输】 全国有公路12380公里,铁路1640公里。主要港口有科伦坡、汉班托塔、高尔和亭可马里。科伦坡机场、汉班托塔(马塔拉)机场为国际机场。斯里兰卡航空公司经营国际航空业务。

【财政金融】 2017年财政收入为120.13亿美元,财政支出168.77亿美元,财政赤字38.64亿美元。2017年外汇储备79.59亿美元,同比增长32.2%。外债448.39亿美元,同比增长4.3%。。

【对外贸易】 实行自由外贸政策,除政府控制石油外,其他商品均可自由进口。近年来,出口贸易结构发生根本变化,由过去的农产品为主转变为以工业产品为主。主要出口商品为纺织品、服装、茶叶、橡胶及其制品、珠宝产品。主要进口对象是印度、中国、美国、加拿大、阿联酋、新加坡、日本、澳大利亚等。

【外国资本】 政府实行保护和吸引外资的政策。2017年外国直接投资约19.13亿美元,主要投资于基础设施建设项目、服务业和制造业。

【外国援助】 外援在斯经济生活中作用突出。斯几乎所有大型项目均依靠外援兴建。向斯提供援助的国家和国际组织有30多个,主要有中国、印度、日本、美国、亚洲开发银行等。2017年外援总额约为2.4亿美元。

【人民生活】 政府长期以来实行大米补贴、免费教育和全民免费医疗等福利措施。2017年,公共卫生开支占GDP的1.57%,预期寿命75岁。

【军事】 陆、空军建于1949年,海军建于1950年。总统为武装部队总司令。最高国防决策机构为国家安全委员会,成员有国防部常秘、国防参谋长、陆、海、空三军司令、警察总监等,主席由总统兼任。国防部为最高军事行政机构。武装力量由正规军和警察组成。正规军分陆、海、空三个军种。总统通过国家安全委员会、国防部和陆海空三军司令部对全军实施领导和指挥。国防参谋长维杰古纳拉特纳(Admiral Ravindra Wijegunaratne),陆军司令马赫什·塞纳纳亚克(Major General Mahesh Senanayake),海军司令席尔瓦(Vice Admiral Piyal de Silva),空军司令贾亚帕蒂(Air Marshal Kapila Jayampathy)。总兵力约28万,陆军18.7万,海军5.5万,空军3.8万。另有警察、国民辅助志愿队和家乡卫队约8万。

【文化教育】 民族文化历史悠久,深受佛教影响。政府一贯重视教育,自1945年起实行幼儿园到大学的免费教育。2017年居民识字率达93.1%。全国有学校10194所,私立学校106所,在校学生约430万人,教师约24.8万。2017年政府教育开支达2011.6亿卢比,比上年增长8%。主要大学有佩拉德尼亚大学、凯拉尼亚大学和科伦坡大学等。

【新闻出版】 有报刊200余种,4个报业系统:(1)锡兰联合报业公司:1918年创办,1973年由政府接管。《每日新闻》是斯最大的英文日报。《每日太阳报》是最大的僧伽罗文日报。(2)乌帕里集团报业公司:1981年11月创办。主要报刊《岛报》为英、僧文日报,发行量很大。(3)维贾亚报业公司:1990年创办。主要报刊有僧伽罗文日报《兰卡之光》和英文《每日镜报》和《星期日时报》。(4)快报报业公司:1930年创办,私营。出版泰米尔文报刊,《雄狮报》为最大的泰米尔文日报。

兰卡通讯社:1978年由几家报业公司联合创办的半官方新闻机构。

斯里兰卡电视台:国家电视台,1982年开播,每天用英、僧、泰三种语言播出。独立电视台,1979年开播,主要用僧伽罗语播出。另有地球电视台、MTV电视台等。

[Transportation] There are 12,380 kilometers of highways and 1,640 kilometers of railways nationwide. The main ports are Colombo, Hambantota, Gore and Trincomalee. Colombo Airport and Hambantota (Matara) Airport are international airports. SriLankan Airlines operates international aviation business.

[Financial Finance] In 2017, the fiscal revenue was US$12.013 billion, the fiscal expenditure was US$16.877 billion, and the fiscal deficit was US$3.864 billion. In 2017, the foreign exchange reserve was 7.959 billion US dollars, an increase of 32.2%. Foreign debt was US$44.839 billion, up 4.3% year-on-year. .

[Foreign Trade] Implement a free foreign trade policy. Except for the government’s control of oil, other commodities can be imported freely. In recent years, the structure of export trade has undergone fundamental changes, from the past agricultural products to industrial products. The main export commodities are textiles, clothing, tea, rubber and its products, and jewelry products. The main import targets are India, China, the United States, Canada, the United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Japan, Australia and so on.

[Foreign Capital] The government implements a policy of protecting and attracting foreign investment. Foreign direct investment in 2017 was approximately $1.913 billion, mainly investing in infrastructure construction projects, services and manufacturing.

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid plays a prominent role in the economic life of Sri Lanka. Almost all large projects rely on foreign aid for construction. There are more than 30 countries and international organizations providing assistance to Sri Lanka, mainly China, India, Japan, the United States, and the Asian Development Bank. The total amount of foreign aid in 2017 was approximately $240 million.

[People’s Life] The government has long implemented welfare measures such as rice subsidies, free education, and free medical care for all. In 2017, public health expenditures accounted for 1.57% of GDP and life expectancy was 75 years.

[Military] The land and air force were built in 1949, and the navy was built in 1950. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The highest defense decision-making body is the National Security Council. The members include the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of National Defense, the Chief of Defence, the Commander of the Army, the Sea, and the Air Force, and the Chief of Police. The President is also the President. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest military administrative agency. The armed forces are composed of regular troops and police. The regular army is divided into three branches: land, sea and air. The President conducted leadership and command of the entire army through the National Security Council, the Ministry of National Defense, and the Army, Navy, and Air Force Command. Admiral Ravindra Wijegunaratne, Chief of Defense, Major General Mahesh Senanayake, Vice Admiral Piyal de Silva, Air Force Commander Jayapa Air Marshal Kapila Jayampathy. The total strength is about 280,000, the army is 187,000, the navy is 55,000, and the air force is 38,000. There are also about 80,000 police, national auxiliary volunteers and hometown guards.

[Cultural Education] Ethnic culture has a long history and is deeply influenced by Buddhism. The government has always attached importance to education and has implemented free education from kindergarten to university since 1945. In 2017, the literacy rate of residents reached 93.1%. There are 10,194 schools in the country and 106 private schools with about 4.3 million students and about 248,000 teachers. Government spending on education reached 201.16 billion rupees in 2017, an increase of 8% over the previous year. The main universities are the University of Peradeniya, the University of Kelania and the University of Colombo.

[Press and Publication] There are more than 200 newspapers and magazines, and four newspaper systems: (1) Ceylon United Press: Founded in 1918, it was taken over by the government in 1973. The Daily News is the largest English-language daily newspaper. The Daily Sun is the largest Sinhala Daily. (2) Upari Group Newspaper Company: Founded in November 1981. The main newspaper, “Island Daily”, is a British and Japanese-language daily newspaper with a large circulation. (3) Vijay Newspaper Company: Founded in 1990. The main newspapers include the Sinhala Daily News “Langka Light” and the English “Daily Mirror” and “Sunday Times”. (4) Express newspaper company: founded in 1930, private. Published the Tamil newspaper, “Lion” is the largest Tamil Daily.

Lankan News Agency: A semi-official news agency co-founded by several newspaper companies in 1978.

Sri Lanka TV: National TV, launched in 1982, broadcast daily in English, Chinese and Thai. Independent television station, launched in 1979, mainly broadcast in Sinhalese. There are also Earth TV stations, MTV TV stations, etc.

【对外关系】奉行独立和不结盟的外交政策,支持和平共处五项原则,反对各种形式的帝国主义、殖民主义、种族主义和大国霸权主义,维护斯里兰卡独立、主权和领土完整,不允许外国对斯内政和外交事务进行干涉。关心国际和地区安全,主张全面彻底裁军,包括全球核裁军以及建立国际政治、经济新秩序。坚决反对国际恐怖主义,1998年1月签署了《联合国反恐怖爆炸公约》,成为该公约的第一个签字国。积极推动南亚区域合作。在联合国和南盟等组织内呼吁加强国际反恐合作。已同140多个国家建立了外交关系。

【同中国的关系】 参见“中国斯里兰卡双边关系”。

【同美国的关系】 美是斯主要援助国和最大的出口市场。1997年,美宣布“猛虎”为恐怖组织。2004年底海啸灾难发生后,美在斯救灾和灾后重建中发挥了积极作用。2012年2月,美南亚和中亚事务助理国务卿布莱克访斯。5月,斯外长佩里斯访美。11月,美南亚和中亚事务助卿帮办阿勒斯访斯。2013年1月,美南亚和中亚事务助卿帮办詹姆斯·摩尔,民主、人权、劳工事务助卿帮办简·齐摩曼访斯和国防部副部长助理维克拉姆·辛格访斯。2013年1月,美国务院全球刑事司法办公室无任所大使斯蒂芬·拉普访斯。2014年1月和2015年2月,美南亚和中亚助理国务卿妮莎·比斯瓦尔访斯。2015年2月,斯外长萨马拉维拉访美。5月,美国国务卿克里访斯。2016年2月,斯外长萨马拉维拉访美。2017年11月,美国国务院副国务卿香农访斯。2018年10月,美国国务院主管南亚和中亚事务首席助卿帮办爱丽丝·威尔斯访斯。

【同印度的关系】 斯印有悠久的历史和地缘联系。同印度保持友好关系是斯外交政策的重点。双方重视经济合作,希望藉此带动南盟合作的起步。印支持斯和平解决民族冲突。2013年1月,斯外长佩里斯访印。2014年5月,斯总统拉贾帕克萨应邀出席印度总理莫迪的就职仪式。2015年1月,斯外长萨马拉维拉访印。2月,斯总统西里塞纳访印。3月,印度总理莫迪访斯。9月,斯总理维克拉马辛哈访印。2016年2月,印度外长斯瓦拉吉访斯。2017年9月,斯外长马拉帕纳访印。2017年10月,斯外交部国务部长森纳纳亚克访印。2018年3月,斯总统西里塞纳赴印出席国际太阳能联盟成立大会。2018年10月,斯总理维克拉马辛哈访印。

【同南盟的关系】 斯重视南亚区域合作,积极支持和参与南盟各项活动。1998年7月,南盟第十届首脑会议在斯举行。斯积极推动南盟国家开展合作,强调经济发展是南盟的首要任务,为此需要一个和平、安定的地区环境。2008年,斯成功主办第15届南盟峰会。2011年和2014年,斯总统拉贾帕克萨分别出席在马尔代夫举行的第17届南盟峰会和在尼泊尔举行的第18届南盟峰会。2017年5月,南盟秘书长西亚尔访斯。

[External Relations] Pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy, support the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, oppose all forms of imperialism, colonialism, racism and great power hegemonism, safeguard Sri Lanka’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, and do not allow foreign countries. Intervene in Sri Lanka’s internal affairs and foreign affairs. Concerned about international and regional security, and advocate general and complete disarmament, including global nuclear disarmament and the establishment of a new international political and economic order. Resolutely opposed to international terrorism, the United Nations Convention against Terrorist Bombings was signed in January 1998 and became the first signatory of the Convention. Actively promote regional cooperation in South Asia. Call for strengthening international counter-terrorism cooperation within organizations such as the United Nations and SAARC. Diplomatic relations have been established with more than 140 countries.

[Relationship with China] See “China-Sri Lanka Bilateral Relations”.

[Relationship with the United States] The United States is the main donor and the largest export market. In 1997, the United States declared the “Tiger” a terrorist organization. After the tsunami disaster at the end of 2004, the United States played an active role in disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction. In February 2012, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs Blake visited Sri Lanka. In May, Foreign Minister Perris visited the United States. In November, Assistant Secretary of the South Asian and Central Asian Affairs assisted Allers to visit Sri Lanka. In January 2013, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs helped James Moore, Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs, Jane Zimmerman, and Assistant Secretary of Defense, Vikram Singh, to visit Sri Lanka. In January 2013, Stephen Rapp, the ambassador of the US Department of State’s Global Criminal Justice Office, visited the country. In January 2014 and February 2015, Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia, Nisa Biswal, visited Sri Lanka. In February 2015, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited the United States. In May, US Secretary of State Kerry visited. In February 2016, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited the United States. In November 2017, US State Department Deputy Secretary of State Shannon visited Sri Lanka. In October 2018, the US State Department’s Chief Assistant Secretary for South Asian and Central Asian Affairs helped Alice Wells to visit Sri Lanka.

[Relationship with India] Sri Lanka has a long history and geographical connections. Maintaining friendly relations with India is the focus of Sri Lanka’s foreign policy. The two sides attach importance to economic cooperation and hope to start the cooperation of SAARC. India supports the peaceful resolution of ethnic conflicts. In January 2013, Foreign Minister Perris visited India. In May 2014, President Rajapaksa was invited to attend the inauguration ceremony of Indian Prime Minister Modi. In January 2015, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Samara Vila visited India. In February, President Sisena visited India. In March, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Sri Lanka. In September, Prime Minister Vikama Singh visited India. In February 2016, Indian Foreign Minister Swarajhi visited Sri Lanka. In September 2017, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Malapana visited India. In October 2017, the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sennanayak visited India. In March 2018, President Sirisena went to India to attend the inaugural meeting of the International Solar Energy Alliance. In October 2018, Prime Minister Vikram Mahinha visited India.

[Relationship with SAARC] Sri Lanka attaches importance to regional cooperation in South Asia and actively supports and participates in various activities of SAARC. In July 1998, the 10th Summit of the SAARC was held in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka actively promotes cooperation among SAARC countries and emphasizes that economic development is the primary task of SAARC. For this, a peaceful and stable regional environment is needed. In 2008, Si successfully hosted the 15th SAARC Summit. In 2011 and 2014, President Rajapaksa attended the 17th SAARC Summit in Maldives and the 18th SAARC Summit in Nepal. In May 2017, SAARC Secretary-General Sial visited the country.