The Democratic Republic of the Congo 刚果民主共和国,简称刚果(金)

【国 名】刚果民主共和国(The Democratic Republic of the Congo,La République Démocratique du Congo)。简称刚果(金)。

【面 积】2344885平方公里。

【人 口】8134万人(2017年)。全国有254个民族,分属班图、苏丹和尼洛特三大语系。班图语系各部族占全国人口的84%,主要分布在南部、中部和东部,其中刚果族为全国第一大族;苏丹语系各部族多居住在北部,人口最多的是阿赞德和孟格贝托两族;尼洛特语系各部族是最早生活在刚境内的土著居民,大多已被其他部族同化,仅余俾格米和阿卢尔等少数部族现生活在赤道密林里。法语为官方语言,官方承认的民族语言为林加拉语(Lingala)、斯瓦希里语(Swahili)、基孔果语(Kikongo)和契卢巴语(Kiluba)。居民50%信奉罗马天主教,20%信奉基督教新教,10%信奉伊斯兰教,其余信奉各种本土原始宗教。

【首 都】 金沙萨(Kinshasa),原名利奥波德维尔。面积9965平方公里,人口975.7万,系刚第一大城市和全国政治、经济、文化中心。年平均气温26℃。

【国家元首】 费利克斯·安托万·齐塞克迪(Félix Antoine Tshisekedi),2019年1月24日正式就职,任期5年。

【重要节日】 6月30日(独立日)。

[Country name] The Democratic Republic of the Congo (La République Démocratique du Congo). Referred to as Congo (Gold).

[Dimensions] 2,344,885 square kilometers.

[People] 81.34 million people (2017). There are 254 ethnic groups in the country, belonging to the three major languages ​​of Bantu, Sudan and Nilot. The Bantu language family accounts for 84% of the national population, mainly in the south, central and eastern regions, of which the Congo is the country’s largest ethnic group; the Sudanese language tribes live in the north, the most populous are Azand and Menggebei. The two ethnic groups are the first indigenous people living in the territory of the Nile, and most of them have been assimilated by other tribes. Only a few tribes such as Yumi Gumi and Alur live in the equatorial jungle. French is the official language, and the officially recognized national languages ​​are Lingala, Swahili, Kikongo and Kiluba. 50% of the residents believe in Roman Catholicism, 20% believe in Protestantism, 10% believe in Islam, and the rest believe in various indigenous religions.

[City] Kinshasa, formerly known as Leopoldville. With an area of ​​9,965 square kilometers and a population of 9.757 million, it is the largest city and the national political, economic and cultural center. The annual average temperature is 26 °C.

[Head of State] Félix Antoine Tshisekedi officially took office on January 24, 2019 for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] June 30 (Independence Day).

【简 况】 地处非洲中部,东邻乌干达、卢旺达、布隆迪、坦桑尼亚,南接赞比亚、安哥拉,北连南苏丹和中非共和国,西隔刚果河与刚果(布)相望。西部有狭长走廊通大西洋。海岸线长37公里。北部属热带雨林气候,南部属热带草原气候。年平均气温27℃,年降水量1500~2000毫米左右。

13~14世纪是刚果王国的一部分。1884~1885年柏林会议将刚划为比利时国王的“私人采地”,称“刚果自由国”,后改称“比属刚果”。1960年6月30日宣告独立,卡萨武布当选总统,卢蒙巴为总理,定国名刚果共和国,简称“刚果(利)”。1964年8月改国名为刚果民主共和国。1965年11月国民军总司令蒙博托发动政变推翻卡萨武布,自任总统。1966年5月首都改名金沙萨,国名简称“刚果(金)”。1971年10月改国名为扎伊尔共和国。1990年4月实行多党制。1997年5月洛朗·德西雷·卡比拉推翻蒙博托政权,自任总统,恢复“刚果民主共和国”国名和独立时的国旗、国歌。1998年8月,刚部分军人在乌干达和卢旺达军队的支持下发动叛乱,津巴布韦、安哥拉和纳米比亚等国应刚政府请求出兵相助,引发地区冲突,并造成刚分裂分治局面。1999年,冲突各方在赞比亚首都卢萨卡签署停火协议,联合国安理会决定成立联合国刚果(金)特派团(联刚团,MONUC),向刚派驻维和部队。2001年1月16日,洛·卡比拉遇刺身亡,其子约瑟夫·卡比拉·卡邦格继任总统。

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[Profile] It is located in central Africa, with Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east, Zambia and Angola to the south, South Sudan and the Central African Republic to the north, and Congo (Brazza) to the west. The west has narrow corridors leading to the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is 37 kilometers long. The northern part has a tropical rainforest climate and the southern part has a savanna climate. The annual average temperature is 27 °C, and the annual precipitation is about 1500-2000 mm.

The 13th to 14th centuries were part of the Congolese kingdom. From 1884 to 1885, the Berlin conference will be designated as the “private land acquisition” of the Belgian king, called the “Congo Free State”, and later renamed “beyond the Congo.” On June 30, 1960, he declared independence, Casabuk was elected president, Lumumba was prime minister, and the country was named Congo, referred to as “Congo (利).” In August 1964, the country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In November 1965, the commander-in-chief of the National Army, Mobutu, launched a coup to overthrow Casa Wubu and became president. In May 1966, the capital was renamed Kinshasa, and the country name was referred to as “Congo (Gold)”. In October 1971, the country was renamed the Republic of Zaire. A multiparty system was introduced in April 1990. In May 1997, Laurent Desiré Kabila overthrew the Mobutu regime and assumed the presidency to restore the national name of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the national flag and national anthem of independence. In August 1998, some military personnel launched a rebellion with the support of the Ugandan and Rwandan troops. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia should have requested the military to help each other, trigger regional conflicts and create a situation of division and division. In 1999, the parties to the conflict signed a ceasefire agreement in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. The UN Security Council decided to establish the UN Congo (Golden Mission) (MONUC), and has just sent troops to the peacekeeping force. On January 16, 2001, Lo Kabila was assassinated and his son Joseph Kabila Kabang was succeeded to the presidency.

【政 治】 约瑟夫·卡比拉继任总统后,在国际社会大力推动下,刚和平进程重新启动并取得重大进展,外国军队相继撤出,联刚团在刚部署总体进展顺利。2003年4月,刚政府和国内各派就过渡期权力分配问题达成一致,签署《全面包容性协议》和《过渡期宪法》,并于6月组成过渡政府,卡比拉任过渡期总统2005年12月,刚举行全民公投通过了《新宪法》。2006年7月和10月,刚举行总统选举,卡比拉当选。2009年4月刚执政党争取重建与民主人民党总书记博夏卜当选议长。2011年11月,刚举行总统大选,卡比拉以48.95%得票率蝉联,并于12月20日宣誓就职。2013年10月,刚召开全国协商会议,决定成立由总统多数派、反对派和公民社会三方组成的全国团结政府。2014年12月,团结政府成立。2015年以来,刚大选问题逐渐升温。2015年1月,国民议会审议通过包含预先进行人口普查等条款的选举法修正案。反对派指责政府企图借此延长卡比拉执政期限,为其修宪连任创造条件,在首都金沙萨组织游行示威,并演变为大规模骚乱。国民议会随后撤销有关争议条款,骚乱随即平息。2016年9月,刚开启全国政治对话,以艾蒂安·齐塞克迪(Etienne Tshisekedi)为首的激进反对派抵制对话。10月,总统多数派、温和反对派、公民社会三方达成协议,决定将大选推迟至2018年4月。12月19日,刚组成由国民议会议员巴迪班加任总理的全国团结政府。此后,在刚全国主教会议斡旋下,激进反对派与总统多数派展开对话,12月31日达成“全国包容性政治解决方案”,规定总统大选应于2017年底举行,卡比拉继续留任直至新总统选出,但不得谋求第三任期,过渡期总理一职由反对派联盟成员担任。2017年2月,艾蒂安·齐塞克迪病逝。4月,卡比拉任命反对派人士奇巴拉为过渡政府总理,激进反对派反对。11月,刚独立选举委员会公布大选时间表,定于2018年12月举行总统、国民议会、省议会“三合一”选举。2017年12月至2018年3月,刚天主教会支持的“世俗协调委员会”在全国范围内多次组织大规模游行示威,要求卡比拉切实履行“全国包容性政治解决方案”并公开承诺不参加此次大选,警方同抗议者发生冲突并造成人员伤亡。2018年9月,刚独立选举委员会公布最终总统候选人名单,卡比拉不再参选。2018年12月30日,刚果(金)举行大选投票,本次大选登记选民逾4600万名,全国各地共设投票站75000个,共21位候选人参选。投票进程总体顺利,未发生严重暴力冲突。2019年1月,原反对党民主与进步联盟候选人、艾蒂安·齐塞克迪之子费利克斯·安托万·齐塞克迪当选并就职总统。

[Politics] After Joseph Kabila succeeded the president, with the vigorous promotion of the international community, the peace process was re-launched and significant progress was made. Foreign troops were withdrawn one after another. The Ganggang Group’s overall deployment has progressed smoothly. In April 2003, the government and domestic factions reached an agreement on the issue of transitional power distribution, signed the “Comprehensive Inclusive Agreement” and the “Transitional Constitution”, and formed the transitional government in June. Kabila served as the transitional president in 2005. In December, the referendum was just adopted and the New Constitution was passed. In July and October 2006, just after the presidential election, Kabila was elected. In April 2009, Boshav, the general secretary of the ruling party for reconstruction and the Democratic People’s Party, was elected as the speaker. In November 2011, just after the presidential election, Kabila won the vote with 48.95% of the vote and was sworn in on December 20. In October 2013, a national consultation meeting was held, and it was decided to establish a national unity government composed of the presidential majority, the opposition and civil society. In December 2014, the Solidarity Government was established. Since 2015, the issue of the election has gradually warmed up. In January 2015, the National Assembly reviewed and approved amendments to the electoral law that included provisions for pre-census censuses. The opposition accused the government of attempting to extend Kabila’s ruling period and create conditions for its constitutional re-election. It organized demonstrations in the capital Kinshasa and evolved into mass riots. The National Assembly subsequently withdrew the relevant dispute clause and the riots subsided. In September 2016, the national political dialogue was just opened, and the radical opposition boycott led by Etienne Tshisekedi boycotted the dialogue. In October, the presidential majority, the moderate opposition, and the civil society reached an agreement and decided to postpone the election until April 2018. On December 19th, the National Solidarity Government, which was formed by the National Assembly member Badi Benga as Prime Minister, was formed. Since then, under the mediation of the National Bishops Conference, the radical opposition and the presidential majority have started a dialogue. On December 31, a “National Inclusive Political Solution” was reached, stipulating that the presidential election should be held at the end of 2017. Kabila will remain in office until the new The president is elected, but he cannot seek a third term. The transitional prime minister is a member of the opposition coalition. In February 2017, Etienne Zisekdi died of illness. In April, Kabila appointed the opposition figure Chibala as the prime minister of the transitional government and the radical opposition. In November, the Independent Electoral Commission announced the timetable for the general election. It is scheduled to hold the “three-in-one” elections of the President, the National Assembly and the Provincial Assembly in December 2018. From December 2017 to March 2018, the “Secular Coordination Committee” supported by the Catholic Church organized large-scale demonstrations across the country, demanding that Kabila effectively implement the “National Inclusive Political Solution” and publicly promise not to participate. In this election, the police clashed with the protesters and caused casualties. In September 2018, the Independent Electoral Commission announced the final list of presidential candidates, and Kabila no longer participated in the election. On December 30, 2018, the Congo (DRC) held a general election. More than 46 million voters were registered in this election. There were 75,000 polling stations across the country, and a total of 21 candidates were elected. The voting process was generally smooth and no serious violent conflicts occurred. In January 2019, Felix Antoine Zisekdi, the former leader of the opposition Democratic and Progressive Alliance and the son of Etienne Zisekdi, was elected and inaugurated.

【刚果(金)东部问题】 2008年1月,刚政府在东部北基伍省首府戈马市召开南、北基伍省和平、安全与发展大会,该地区部分非法武装组织与刚政府签署停火协议。8月,刚政府军与该地区恩孔达武装发生冲突,大量平民流离失所。2009年1月,刚与卢旺达达成协议,卢派兵进入刚东部参与围剿非法武装,并逮捕恩孔达。3月,两国政府宣布结束联合军事行动,卢军全部撤离刚境。2008年12月,刚政府联合乌干达政府、苏丹南方政府,对在刚东北部地区活动的乌反政府武装上帝抵抗军(LRA)采取了统一军事行动。2009年3月,乌军从刚撤出。此后,在各方努力下,刚东部地区局势明显改善。

2010年5月,联合国安理会一致通过1925号决议,决定从同年7月1日起将联刚团更名为联合国刚果(金)稳定特派团(联刚稳定团,MONUSCO),任务重心由监督停火、维持和平转向保护平民、巩固和平与维持稳定。2013年3月,联合国通过决议,决定在联刚稳定团内部设立“干预旅”,目标是协助减轻武装团体对刚东部国家主权和平民安全构成的威胁,干预旅共3069人,由南非、坦桑尼亚、马拉维负责出兵。

2012年4月,刚反政府武装“3月23日运动”(简称M23)在刚东部发动战事。12月,刚政府与M23开启谈判。2013年2月,刚、卢、乌等11个地区国家签署《刚果(金)和大湖地区和平、安全与合作框架文件》。10月起,刚政府军在联刚稳定特派团干预旅的支持下,陆续攻占M23所有据点。12月,刚政府与M23在内罗毕以各自声明形式达成11点共识,M23宣布结束武装叛乱。5月,活动在刚东的卢旺达反政府武装“解放卢旺达民主力量(FDLR)”提出投降,但未在限定时间内完成解武,2015年2月,刚政府开始对FDLR进行军事打击。2017年12月,乌干达反政府武装“民主同盟军(ADF)”袭击联刚稳定团在北基伍省的基地,同维和部队及刚政府军激烈交火,14名维和士兵和5名刚军士兵在交火中身亡。2018年,刚军在东部展开针对非法武装的军事行动,引起ADF反弹,造成大量军民伤亡。

【宪 法】 2006年2月18日,卡比拉总统颁布了《新宪法》。宪法规定:国家机构由总统、政府、国民议会、参议院和法院组成。总统为国家元首、三军统帅,由普选产生,任期五年,可连任一届,负责维护宪法尊严、国家独立主权和领土安全,在议会监督和政府参与下,保障国家机构正常运行。总理为政府首脑,政府与总统共同制订国策,政府是国策执行的主要负责机构。政府对议会负责,国民议会可对政府成员提出不信任案;总统有权解散议会。司法权独立于立法和行政权,由宪法法院、最高法院、行政法院、民事法庭、军事法庭和检察院组成。

【议 会】 刚国民议会议员500名,参议院议员108名,任期均为5年。国民议会、参议院分别于2018年12月、2019年3月举行选举,前总统卡比拉领导的“刚果共同阵线”(FCC)在两院均获得多数席位。

[Congo (East) Eastern Issue] In January 2008, the government held the South and North Kivu Peace, Security and Development Conference in Goma, the capital of the North Kivu province. Some illegal armed organizations in the region signed a ceasefire with the government. protocol. In August, the GPA troops clashed with the Nkunda forces in the area and a large number of civilians were displaced. In January 2009, an agreement was reached with Rwanda, and Lu sent troops into the eastern part of the country to participate in the illegal armed forces and arrested Nkunda. In March, the two governments announced the end of the joint military operation, and Lu Jun all withdrew from the border. In December 2008, the Gang government, in conjunction with the Ugandan government and the Southern Sudanese government, took a unified military action against the armed opposition LRA, which was active in the northeastern region. In March 2009, the Ukrainian army had just withdrawn. Since then, with the efforts of all parties, the situation in the eastern part of the country has improved significantly.

In May 2010, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1925 and decided to change the name of the UNDG from the United Nations Congolese Mission in St. Petersburg (MONUSCO) from 1 July of the same year. The focus of the mission was to monitor the ceasefire. Peacekeeping is turning to protecting civilians, consolidating peace and maintaining stability. In March 2013, the United Nations adopted a resolution deciding to establish an “intervention brigade” within MONUSCO with the objective of helping to alleviate the threat posed by armed groups to the sovereignty of the eastern countries and the safety of civilians, intervening in a total of 3,069 people from South Africa and Tanzania. Malawi is responsible for sending troops.

In April 2012, the anti-government armed forces “March 23 Movement” (M23) launched a war in the east. In December, the government just started negotiations with M23. In February 2013, 11 regional countries including Gang, Lu and Uganda signed the “Framework Document on Peace, Security and Cooperation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo”. Since October, the government forces have successively captured all the M23 positions with the support of the MONUC Intervention Brigade. In December, the government and M23 reached an 11-point consensus in Nairobi in their respective statements, and M23 announced the end of the armed rebellion. In May, the Rwandan rebels (FDLR), the Rwandan anti-government armed forces in Gangdong, surrendered, but did not complete the disarming within a limited time. In February 2015, the government began a military strike against FDLR. In December 2017, Uganda’s anti-government armed forces “ADF” attacked MONUSCO’s base in North Kivu, where it exchanged fire with peacekeeping forces and military forces, 14 peacekeepers and 5 military soldiers. In the crossfire, he died. In 2018, the armed forces launched military operations against illegal armed forces in the east, causing the ADF to rebound, causing a large number of military casualties.

[Constitution] On February 18, 2006, President Kabila promulgated the “New Constitution.” The Constitution states that the state body consists of the President, the Government, the National Assembly, the Senate and the Court. The President is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the three armed forces. It is elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years. It can be held for one term. It is responsible for safeguarding the dignity of the Constitution, the independence and sovereignty of the country, and the security of the territory. Under the supervision of the parliament and the participation of the government, the state organs are guaranteed to operate normally. The prime minister is the head of government. The government and the president jointly formulate a national policy. The government is the main responsible agency for the implementation of the national policy. The government is responsible to the parliament, and the National Assembly can raise a case of no confidence in the members of the government; the president has the power to dissolve the parliament. Judicial power is independent of legislative and executive powers and consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Administrative Court, the Civil Court, the Military Court and the Procuratorate.

[Parliament] There are 500 members of the National Assembly and 108 members of the Senate. The term of office is 5 years. The National Assembly and the Senate held elections in December 2018 and March 2019 respectively. The former Congolese Common Front (FCC) led by former President Kabila won a majority in both houses.

【政 府】 过渡期政府于2017年5月成立,由总理、3位副总理、9名国务部长、35位部长和11位副部长组成。主要成员有:总理布鲁诺·奇巴拉(Bruno Tshibala),副总理兼外交和地区一体化部长莱昂纳尔·谢·奥基通杜(Léonard She Okitundu),副总理兼内政部长亨利·莫瓦·萨卡尼(Henri Mova Sakani),副总理兼交通运输部长若泽·马基拉·苏曼达(José Makila Sumanda);国务部长兼司法和掌玺部长亚历克西·坦布韦·姆万巴(Alexis Thambwe Mwamba),国务部长兼计划部长莫德斯特·巴哈蒂·卢奎博(Modeste Bahati Lukwebo),国务部长兼国民经济部长约瑟夫·卡皮卡·迪坎库(Joseph Kapika Dikanku),国务部长兼预算部长皮埃尔·坎古迪亚·姆巴伊(Pierre Kangudia Mbayi),国务部长兼地方分权和机构改革部长阿扎里亚斯·鲁贝鲁瓦·马尼瓦(Azarias Rubrewa Manywa),国务部长兼外贸部长让·卢西安·布萨·通巴(Jean Lucien Bussa Tongba),国务部长兼就业、劳动和社会保障部长朗贝尔·马图库·梅纳(Lambert Matuku Menas),国务部长兼公职部长米歇尔·邦贡戈·伊科利·恩东博(Michel Bongongo Ikoli Ndombo),国务部长兼议会关系部长让–皮埃尔·利桑加·邦甘加(Jean-Pierre Lisanga Bonganga),国防、退伍军人和重返社会部长克里斯潘·阿塔马·塔贝(Crispin Atama Tabe),财政部长亨利·亚夫·穆朗(Henri Yav Mulang),新闻和媒体部长朗贝尔·门德·奥马兰加(Lambert Mende Omalanga),国企部长维维娜·蒙巴·马蒂帕(女,Wivine Mumba Matipa),邮政、电信和信息通讯新技术部长埃梅里·奥昆吉·恩乔武(Emery Okundji Ndjovu),矿业部长马丁·卡布韦卢卢·拉比洛(Martin Kabwelulu Labilo),土地部长鲁梅亚·杜马莱吉(Lumeya Dhu-Maleghi),领土与城市整治部长费利克斯·卡邦格·农比(Félix Kabange Numbi),基础设施、公共工程和重建部长托马斯·卢哈卡·洛森乔拉(Thomas Luhaka Losenjola),城建和住房部长约瑟夫·科孔扬吉·维塔内内(Joseph Kokonyangi Witanéné),石油部长艾梅·恩戈伊·穆凯纳·卢萨·迪斯(Aimé Ngoy Mukena Lusa Diesse),工业部长马塞尔·伊伦加·莱乌(Marcel Ilunga Lehu),能源和水力资源部长安热莱·伊福托 (Ingele Ifoto),可持续发展部长阿米·安巴多贝·恩永戈洛(Amy Ambatobe Nyongolo),旅游部长弗兰克·姆韦·迪·马利拉·阿佩内拉(Franck Mwe Di Malila Apenela),中小企业部长比安弗尼·利约塔·恩乔利(Bienvenu Liyota Ndjoli),发展合作部长约翰·奎特·姆万·奎特(John Kwet Mwan Kwet),农业部长乔治·卡扎迪·卡邦戈(Georges Kazadi Kabongo),初级、中级和职业教育部长加斯东·穆塞梅纳·邦加拉(Gaston Musemena Bongala),性别、儿童和家庭部长尚塔尔·萨富(Chantal Safu,女),社会事务部长欧仁·塞鲁富利·恩加亚巴塞卡(Eugene Serufuli Ngayabaseka),团结和人道主义行动部长伯纳德·比安戈·桑戈(Bernard Byango Sango),体育部长帕皮·尼安戈·伊齐亚迈(Papy Nyango Iziamay),大学和高等教育部长史蒂夫·姆比卡伊·马布卢基(Steves Mbikayi Mabuluki),职业培训、工艺和手工业部长皮埃罗·乌韦卡·乌卡巴(Pierrot Uweka Ukaba),科学研究部长埃瓦·穆瓦卡萨(Heva Muakasa),农村发展部长朱斯坦·比塔奎拉(Justin Bitakwira),人权部长玛丽-安热·穆绍贝夸(Marie-Ange Mushobekwa,女),卫生部长奥利·伊伦加·卡伦加(Oly Ilunga Kalenga),青年和新公民意识启蒙部长玛吉·基亚拉·博伦加(Maguy Kiala Bolenga,女),渔业和畜牧业部长帕卢库·基萨卡·耶雷·耶雷(Paluku Kisaka Yere Yere),传统事务部长吉·米库卢蓬博(Guy Mikulu Pombo),文化和艺术部长阿斯特丽·马迪亚(Astrid Madiya,女),刚果侨民部长埃马纽埃尔·伊伦加·恩戈耶·卡松戈(Emmanuel Ilunga Ngoie Kasongo),驻总理府部长奇邦古·卡拉拉(Tshibangu Kalala)。2019年1月齐塞克迪就任总统后,新政府尚未成立。

【行政区划】 2016年2月完成行政区划调整,原11个省被划分成26个省。

[Government] The transitional government was established in May 2017 and consists of the Prime Minister, three deputy prime ministers, nine ministers of state, 35 ministers and 11 deputy ministers. The main members are: Prime Minister Bruno Tshibala, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration, Léonard She Okitundu, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Henry Mowa · Henri Mova Sakani, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Transport José Makila Sumanda; Minister of State and Minister of Justice and Liberation, Alexis Tambowe Alexis Thambwe Mwamba, State Secretary and Minister of Planning Modeste Bahati Lukwebo, Minister of State and Minister of National Economy Joseph Kapika Dikanku Pierre Kangudia Mbayi, Minister of State and Budget, Minister of State and Minister of Decentralization and Institutional Reform, Azarias Ruberoum Maniwa (Azarias) Rubrewa Manywa), Minister of State and Minister of Foreign Trade Jean Lucien Bussa Tongba, Minister of State and Minister of Employment, Labor and Social Security, Lambert Matu Ku Menas), Minister of State and Public Service Michel Bongongo Ikoli Ndombo, Minister of State and Minister of Parliamentary Relations Jean-Pierre Lisanga Bonanga (Jean-Pierre Lisanga Bonganga), Crispin Atama Tabe, Minister of Defence, Veterans and Reintegration, Finance Minister Henri Yav Mulang, News and Media Minister Lambert Mende Omalanga, Minister of State and Enterprise Wivine Mumba Matipa, Minister of Post, Telecommunications and Information Technology, Emery O. Emery Okundji Ndjovu, Minister of Mines Martin Kabwelulu Labilo, Land Minister Lumeya Dhu-Maleghi, Territory and City Rehabilitation Minister Félix Kabange Numbi, Minister of Infrastructure, Public Works and Reconstruction Thomas Luhaka Losenjola, Ministry of Urban Construction and Housing Joseph Kokonyangi Witanéné, Minister of Petroleum Aimé Ngoy Mukena Lusa Diesse, Minister of Industry Marcel Yi Marcel Ilunga Lehu, Minister of Energy and Water Resources, Ingele Ifoto, Minister of Sustainability, Amy Ambatobe Nyongolo, Tourism Minister Franck Mwe Di Malila Apenela, Minister of Small and Medium Business Bienvenu Liyota Ndjoli, Minister of Development Cooperation John John Kwet Mwan Kwet, Minister of Agriculture Georges Kazadi Kabongo, Minister of Primary, Intermediate and Vocational Education Gaston Musemena Bonga Gaston Musemena Bongala, Minister of Gender, Children and Family, Chantal Safu (female), Minister of Social Affairs Eugene Serufuli Ngayabaseka, Unity and people Bernard Byango Sango, Minister of Sport, Papy Nyango Iziamay, Minister of Sport, Steve Mbika, Minister of Higher Education and Higher Education Steves Mbikayi Mabuluki, Minister of Vocational Training, Crafts and Handicrafts Pierrot Uweka Ukaba, Minister of Scientific Research Heva Muakasa, Minister of Rural Development Justin Bitakwira, Minister of Human Rights Marie-Ange Mushobekwa (female), Minister of Health Ollie Ilunga (Oly Ilunga) Kalenga), Minister of Youth and New Citizenship Enlightenment Maguy Kiala Bolenga (female), Minister of Fisheries and Livestock, Paluku Kisaka Yere Yere), Minister of Traditional Affairs Guy Mikulu Pombo, Minister of Culture and Art Astrid Madiya (female), Minister of Congolese Minister Emmanuel Irunga Ngoye Kasongo Emmanuel Ilunga Ngoie Kasongo), Minister in the Prime Minister Qibang ancient Carrara (Tshibangu Kalala). After Kisekdi became president in January 2019, the new government has not yet been established.

[Administrative Division] In February 2016, the administrative division was adjusted. The original 11 provinces were divided into 26 provinces.

【政 党】 1990年4月实行多党制后,曾涌现出400多个政党。洛·卡比拉执政期间曾一度禁止政党活动。2001年5月,约·卡比拉总统颁布“政党和政治团体组织活动法”,正式解除党禁,同时规定各党需重新登记。截止2015年9月,在刚内政部注册的政党为477个(现在可能有600多个)。主要政党情况如下:

民主与社会进步联盟(Union Pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social,UDPS):成立于1982年 2月,曾长期在野,持激进立场,主张实行西方式民主制度。2003年拒绝参加过渡政府。2006年拒绝参加总统和立法选举。前党主席艾蒂安·齐塞克迪,曾在蒙博托时期任总理、部长、大使等职,在2011年11月举行的总统选举中以32.33%选票位列第二。艾蒂安·齐塞克迪拒绝接受选举结果,自行宣布“当选总统”并在家中举行自己的“就职典礼”,被政府宣布无效和违宪。艾蒂安·齐塞克迪还拒绝接受并指示该党当选议员不要履职。艾蒂安·齐塞克迪去世后,其子费利克斯·安托万·齐塞克迪继任党主席。在2018年12月举行的国民议会选举中,其领导的竞选平台“引领变革方向”(CACH)共获得40多个席位。

争取重建与民主人民党(Le Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et la Démocratie,PPRD):2003年3月31日成立,是支持前总统卡比拉的主要政党。该党党章规定,党的理想目标是通过民主途径执掌国家政权,保障民族团结、领土完整和国家繁荣。主要机构包括全国代表大会和全国执行委员会。总部设在金沙萨。常务书记埃玛纽埃尔·拉马扎尼·沙达里(Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary)。在2018年12月举行的国民议会选举中,其领导的竞选平台FCC共获得330多个席位。

为公民和发展而战斗党(Engagement pour la Citoyenneté et le Développement,ECIDE):2009年3月7日成立,主张建设繁荣的国家,维护人民权益,推广民主文化。总部设在金沙萨。党主席玛尔丹·马迪迪·法尤卢(Martin Madidi Fayulu),曾当选国民议会议员,2018年11月,刚主要反对派推举其为总统选举反对派共同候选人。在2018年12月举行的国民议会选举中,其领导的竞选平台“觉醒联盟”(LAMUKA)共获得90多个席位。

刚果解放运动(Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo,MLC):1998年11月10日成立,原为前总统蒙博托旧部成立的政治军事组织,曾长期得到乌干达支持,与卡比拉政府武装对峙。2003年6月宣布转为政党,并参加刚内部政治对话,后加入过渡政府,获得外交、计划、预算等部部长职位,党主席本巴担任过渡期主管经济和财政事务的副总统。该党总部设在赤道省,首都金沙萨及全国主要大城市建有分支机构。该党主席本巴参加总统竞选落败后,于2007年1月当选参议员。3月下旬,刚政府军武力解除本巴卫队武装,本巴赴葡萄牙治病。2008年5月,比利时警方根据国际刑事法院逮捕令在布鲁塞尔逮捕了本巴。目前,刚解运日常事务主要由该党总书记巴扎伊巴主持。该党在2018年底举行的总统大选中同法尤卢领导的为公民和发展而战斗党结盟。

刚果国家联盟(Union pour la Nation Congolaise,UNC):成立于2010年。党主席维达尔·卡梅雷(Vital Kamerhe),原执政党重建与民主人民党总书记,2006年12月当选国民议会议长,2009年3月因反对刚果(金)与卢旺达就清剿刚东非法武装采取联合军事行动而辞去议长职务,2019年担任总统办公室主任。2010年6月UNC在刚内政部登记成立并获官方承认。同年12月卡梅雷正式对外宣布退出重建与民主人民党,辞去国民议会议长职务。2011年7月,UNC召开第一次全国大会,卡梅雷推出自己的竞选纲领,正式宣布参加总统大选。卡在2011年11月举行的总统选举中以7.74%的得票率位居第三。该党在2018年底举行的总统大选中同齐塞克迪领导的民主与社会进步联盟结盟。

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[Political Party] After the implementation of the multi-party system in April 1990, more than 400 political parties have emerged. During the administration of Los Kabila, political party activities were once banned. In May 2001, President Joan Kabila promulgated the “Regulations on the Organization of Political Parties and Political Organizations”, officially lifting the party ban, and stipulated that all parties need to re-register. As of September 2015, there were 477 political parties registered in the Ministry of the Interior (and there may be more than 600 now). The main political parties are as follows:

Union Pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS): Established in February 1982, it has been in the wild for a long time and advocates the implementation of a Western-style democracy. In 2003, he refused to participate in the transitional government. In 2006, he refused to participate in the presidential and legislative elections. Former party chairman Etienne Zisekdi, who served as prime minister, minister, and ambassador during the Mobutu period, ranked second with 32.33% of the votes in the presidential elections held in November 2011. Etienne Zisekdi refused to accept the election results, announced the “elected president” and held his own “inauguration ceremony” at home, which was declared invalid and unconstitutional by the government. Etienne Zisekdi also refused to accept and instruct the party elected to refrain from performing his duties. After the death of Etienne Zisekdi, his son Felix Antoine Zisekdi served as the party chairman. In the National Assembly elections held in December 2018, its leadership campaign platform “CACH” has won more than 40 seats.

Le Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et la Démocratie (PPRD): Established on March 31, 2003, is the main political party supporting former President Kabila. The Party’s party constitution stipulates that the party’s ideal goal is to hold the state power through democratic channels and guarantee national unity, territorial integrity and national prosperity. The main institutions include the National Congress and the National Executive Committee. Headquartered in Kinshasa. Standing secretary Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary. In the National Assembly elections held in December 2018, the FCC, its leading campaign platform, won more than 330 seats.

Engagement pour la Citoyenneté et le Développement (ECIDE): Established on March 7, 2009, advocates building a prosperous country, safeguarding the rights and interests of the people, and promoting a democratic culture. Headquartered in Kinshasa. Party Chairman Martin Madidi Fayulu was elected to the National Assembly. In November 2018, the main opposition party elected him as a common candidate for the presidential election. In the National Assembly elections held in December 2018, the leader of the campaign platform “LAMUKA” won more than 90 seats.

Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo (MLC): Established on November 10, 1998. It was originally a political and military organization established by the former President Mobutu. It was supported by Uganda for a long time and confronted the Kabila government. In June 2003, he was declared a political party and participated in the internal political dialogue. He then joined the transitional government and obtained ministerial positions in the diplomatic, planning, and budget departments. Party Chairman Benba served as the vice president in charge of economic and financial affairs during the transition period. The party is headquartered in Equateur Province, with capitals in Kinshasa and major cities across the country. After the party’s president, Benba, was defeated in the presidential election, he was elected to the Senate in January 2007. In late March, the newly-elected government forces to disarm Benba, and Benba went to Portugal to treat the disease. In May 2008, the Belgian police arrested Bumba in Brussels in accordance with the arrest warrant of the International Criminal Court. At present, the daily affairs of the company have been mainly presided over by the Party’s general secretary Bazaiba. The party’s presidential election in late 2018 formed an alliance with the fighting party led by Fayoulu for citizenship and development.

Union pour la Nation Congolaise (UNC): Established in 2010. Party Chairman Vital Kamerhe, former General Secretary of the Reconstruction and Democratic People’s Party of the ruling party, was elected as the Speaker of the National Assembly in December 2006. In March 2009, he opposed the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. The armed forces took the joint military action and resigned from the position of the speaker. In 2019, they served as the director of the presidential office. In June 2010, UNC was registered and officially recognized in the Ministry of the Interior. In December of the same year, Camere officially announced his withdrawal from the Reconstruction and Democratic People’s Party and resigned as the chairman of the National Assembly. In July 2011, UNC held its first national conference. Camere launched its own campaign platform and officially announced its participation in the presidential election. The card ranked third in the presidential election held in November 2011 with a 7.74% vote. The party formed an alliance with the Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress led by Zisekdi in the presidential election held in late 2018.

【重要人物】 费利克斯·安托万·齐塞克迪:总统。1963年6月13日生于金沙萨市,UDPS创始人艾蒂安·齐塞克迪之子。年轻时即追随其父参与政治活动。2011年曾当选国民议会议员,2016年起先后任民主与社会进步联盟副总书记、主席。2019年1月赢得大选并就任总统。

【经 济】 联合国公布的世界最不发达国家之一。农业、采矿业占经济主导地位,加工工业不发达,粮食不能自给。曾是非洲经济状况较好的国家之一,上世纪90年代初起,因政局持续动荡,刚经济连年负增长。1996年的内战和1998年的地区冲突,使国民经济雪上加霜,濒于崩溃。2001年卡比拉继任总统及2003年组成临时过渡政府后,刚大幅调整经济政策,推行市场经济,放松经济管制,加强与国际金融机构的合作,宏观经济状况逐步改善。2002年宏观经济出现拐点,由原来持续负增长转为正增长。2006年12月卡比拉当选总统后,刚新政府继续奉行稳健的经济政策,并启动国家重建计划和“五大工程”,宏观经济继续保持恢复性增长。2011年卡比拉蝉联总统后提出国家“现代化革命”战略,表示未来五年,刚将大力发展农业、矿业,开发水电资源,实现刚经济社会发展的现代化目标。刚外债负担沉重,主要债权人为巴黎俱乐部、国际货币基金组织和世界银行。2010年7月1日,国际货币基金组织和世行宣布刚达到重债穷国减债倡议完成点,截至2011年底,减免刚111亿美元债务。2018年主要经济指标估算如下:

国内生产总值:434.1亿美元

人均国内生产总值:516美元

经济增长率:3.9%

货币名称:刚果法郎(Franc Congolais, FC)

汇率:1美元=1626.2刚果法郎

通货膨胀率:37.1%

外债:27.3亿美元

(资料来源:2019年第一季度《伦敦经济季评》)

【资 源】 自然资源丰富,素有“世界原料仓库”和“地质奇迹”之称。全国蕴藏多种有色金属、稀有金属和非金属矿,其中铜、钴、工业钻石、锌、锰、锡、钽、锗、钨、镉、镍、铬储量颇为可观,在世界上占有重要地位。铁、煤、黄金、银等储量也很丰富,还有白金、铅、磷酸盐、硅酸盐等。主要矿产储量为:铜7500万吨(占世界15%)、钴450万吨(占世界1/2)、铌钽3000万吨(占世界80%)、钻石2.06亿克拉(占世界23%)、锡45万吨、黄金600吨、铁10亿吨、锂3100万吨、铬镍2250万吨、锰700万吨、锌700万吨、铝200万吨。已探明的石油海上储量3150.66万桶,陆地储量2000万桶,天然气海上储量200亿立方米,陆地储量100亿立方米。此外,位于刚果(金)与卢旺达交界处的基伍湖深水中蕴藏着丰富的天然气资源。森林覆盖率为53%,约1.25亿公顷,占全非洲森林面积的47%,占世界森林的6.5%,但目前仅开采62万公顷。盛产乌木、红木、花梨木、黄漆木等20多种贵重木材。水力资源极为丰富,估计可开发的水电蕴藏量为1.06亿兆瓦,占非洲水电资源的37%,世界的6%。目前,刚供水率仅为9%,供电率为26%。

[important figures] Felix Antoine Chisekdi: President. Born on June 13, 1963 in Kinshasa, the son of UDPS founder Etienne Zisekdi. When he was young, he followed his father to participate in political activities. In 2011, he was elected to the National Assembly. Since 2016, he has served as Deputy General Secretary and Chairman of the Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress. In January 2019, he won the general election and became president.

[Economy] One of the world’s least developed countries announced by the United Nations. Agriculture and mining account for the dominant position in the economy, the processing industry is underdeveloped, and food cannot be self-sufficient. He used to be one of the countries with a better economic situation in Africa. Since the beginning of the 1990s, due to the continued turmoil in the political situation, the economy has experienced negative growth year after year. The civil war of 1996 and the regional conflicts of 1998 made the national economy worse and collapsed. After Kabila succeeded the president in 2001 and formed the temporary transitional government in 2003, he had just adjusted economic policies, promoted the market economy, relaxed economic control, strengthened cooperation with international financial institutions, and gradually improved the macroeconomic situation. In 2002, the macro economy turned into an inflection point, which turned from a sustained negative growth to a positive growth. After Kabila was elected president in December 2006, the new government continued to pursue a sound economic policy and launched the National Reconstruction Plan and the “Five Major Projects”. The macro economy continued to maintain growth. In 2011, after Kabila reelected the president, he proposed the national “modernization revolution” strategy, saying that in the next five years, he will vigorously develop agriculture, mining, and develop hydropower resources to achieve the modernization goal of economic and social development. The burden of foreign debt is heavy, and the main creditors are the Paris Club, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. On July 1, 2010, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank announced that they had just reached the completion point of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt Relief Initiative. As of the end of 2011, the debt relief was just $1.11 billion. The main economic indicators for 2018 are estimated as follows:

Gross domestic product: $43.41 billion

Per capita GDP: $516

Economic growth rate: 3.9%

Currency name: Congolese Franc (Franc Congolais, FC)

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 1626.2 Congolese francs

Inflation rate: 37.1%

External debt: $2.73 billion

(Source: London Economic Quarterly Review, First Quarter, 2019)

[Resources] Rich in natural resources, it is known as the “world raw material warehouse” and “geological miracle”. There are many non-ferrous metals, rare metals and non-metallic minerals in the country. Among them, copper, cobalt, industrial diamonds, zinc, manganese, tin, antimony, antimony, tungsten, cadmium, nickel and chromium have considerable reserves and occupy an important position in the world. . Iron, coal, gold, silver and other reserves are also very rich, as well as platinum, lead, phosphate, silicate and so on. The main mineral reserves are: 75 million tons of copper (15% of the world), 4.5 million tons of cobalt (1/2 of the world), 30 million tons (80% of the world) and 206 million carats of diamonds (23% of the world). 4 million tons of tin, 600 tons of gold, 1 billion tons of iron, 31 million tons of lithium, 22.5 million tons of chromium and nickel, 7 million tons of manganese, 7 million tons of zinc and 2 million tons of aluminum. The proven oil offshore reserves are 31.506 million barrels, the land reserves are 20 million barrels, the natural gas reserves are 20 billion cubic meters, and the land reserves are 10 billion cubic meters. In addition, the deep waters of Lake Kivu at the junction of Congo (Kinshasa) and Rwanda are rich in natural gas resources. The forest coverage rate is 53%, about 125 million hectares, accounting for 47% of the forest area in Africa, accounting for 6.5% of the world’s forests, but currently only 620,000 hectares are mined. It is rich in more than 20 kinds of precious wood such as ebony, mahogany, rosewood and yellow lacquer wood. The water resources are extremely rich, and the estimated hydropower reserves that can be developed are 106 million megawatts, accounting for 37% of African hydropower resources and 6% of the world. At present, the water supply rate is only 9%, and the power supply rate is 26%.

【工矿业】 矿业是刚重要的经济支柱。1990年后,刚经济持续困难,矿业生产全面滑坡。1997年和1998年两次战争均发生在矿产资源丰富的东部地区,生产遭到严重破坏。近年来随着国内局势不断缓和,矿业生产有所恢复,2016年工矿业产值占国内生产总值的32.5%。系世界第一大钴生产国,第五大铜生产国。2018年3月,刚政府颁布新矿业法,全面提高矿税。

【农 业】 农业落后,2016年产值占国内生产总值的20.6%。全国可耕地面积约8000万公顷,早期曾开垦耕地600万公顷。

刚农村人口占全国人口的70%左右,个体农民是农业生产的主体,多采用刀耕火种的种植方式。2012年6月24日,新农业法正式生效,与1987年版农业法相比,其基本特点是所有农业用地归国家所有,经营者可依法获得经营权,每25年更新一次。刚主要粮食作物有玉米、稻米、木薯、豆类等;主要经济作物有咖啡、棕榈、棉花、可可、橡胶、烟草、茶叶等。

【交通运输】 内河航运和空运占重要地位,陆路运输落后。

水运:刚全国河流总长2.3万公里,其中1.5万公里可通航。主要航道为刚果河和开赛河,一般可通行150-400吨船只,有2785公里航道可通行800至1000吨船只。主要河港有马塔迪、博马、金沙萨、伊来博、基桑加尼、姆班达卡、金杜和卡巴洛。另外,东部的坦噶尼喀湖等湖泊均有港口。主要海港为巴纳纳港,有定期通往西非、地中海国家、法国、北欧、美国和日本六条远洋航线。

空运:刚空运相对发达,国内航线约3.9万公里,非洲航线约1.4万公里,洲际航线约2.4万公里,与布鲁塞尔、巴黎、伊斯坦布尔、约翰内斯堡、亚的斯亚贝巴、内罗毕、利伯维尔及杜阿拉等有定期航班。刚共有54个机场,其中6个国际机场。

公路:全国原有公路总长14.5万公里,其中一级公路58129公里,乡村公路87300公里,城市公路网7400公里。由于长年战乱破坏和缺乏维护,大部分公路无法正常通行,许多二级公路和乡村公路遭损毁,目前仅剩5万公里的主干道(其中沥青路仅占1.8%),平均每百平方公里只有7公里长的道路。

铁路:全长6111公里,其中电气化线路858公里。

【对外贸易】 在国民经济中占有举足轻重的地位。主要出口钴、铜、原油、钻石、农林产品,进口粮食、日用消费品、机电产品、各类原材料等。主要出口目的地国为中国、赞比亚、意大利、比利时,主要进口来源国有南非、中国、赞比亚、比利时等。近年来,刚对外贸易保持较快增长,进、出口基本平衡。

【财政金融】2019年刚财政预算约为63亿美元。收入主要来源为海关、行政税费、矿产、石油出口及外来援助、捐赠、债务减免等。支出主要用于改善民生、机构改革、宏观经济稳定和发展、基础设施建设、国防与安全等方面。

2012年7月,刚央行开始发行1000刚郎、5000刚郎、10000刚郎和20000刚郎大面额新钞。

【外国援助】 2016年刚接受外国援助21.07亿美元,其中双边援助占45.2%。双边援助方主要有德国、美国、英国、比利时、日本等,多边援助方主要有联合国下属组织和机构、欧盟、非洲开发银行等。

[Industrial and mining] Mining is an important economic pillar. After 1990, the economy continued to face difficulties and mining production fell across the board. Both wars in 1997 and 1998 occurred in the eastern part of the mineral resources, and production was severely damaged. In recent years, with the easing of the domestic situation, mining production has recovered. In 2016, industrial and mining output accounted for 32.5% of GDP. It is the world’s largest cobalt producer and the fifth largest copper producer. In March 2018, the government issued a new mining law to comprehensively increase the mine tax.

[Agriculture] Agriculture is backward. In 2016, the output value accounted for 20.6% of GDP. The country’s arable land area is about 80 million hectares. In the early days, 6 million hectares of cultivated land were cultivated.

The rural population accounts for about 70% of the national population. Individual farmers are the mainstay of agricultural production, and they use slash-and-burn cultivation methods. On June 24, 2012, the new agricultural law came into force. Compared with the 1987 version of the agricultural law, its basic feature is that all agricultural land is owned by the state, and operators can obtain management rights according to law, and are updated every 25 years. The main food crops are corn, rice, cassava, beans, etc. The main cash crops are coffee, palm, cotton, cocoa, rubber, tobacco, and tea.

[Transportation] Inland navigation and air transportation occupy an important position, and land transportation is backward.

Water transport: The total length of rivers in the country is 23,000 kilometers, of which 15,000 kilometers can be navigable. The main waterways are the Congo River and the Kaisai River, which can generally operate 150-400 tons of vessels, and 2785 kilometers of waterways can pass 800 to 1000 tons of vessels. The main river ports are Matadi, Boma, Kinshasa, Ilybo, Kisangani, Mbandaka, Kindu and Kabalo. In addition, lakes such as Lake Tanganyika in the east have ports. The main seaport is the port of Banana, with regular ocean routes to West Africa, the Mediterranean countries, France, Northern Europe, the United States and Japan.

Air transport: The air transport is relatively developed, with domestic flights of approximately 39,000 kilometers, African routes of approximately 14,000 kilometers, and intercontinental routes of approximately 24,000 kilometers, with Brussels, Paris, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Libreville and Douala and other regular flights. There are just 54 airports, including 6 international airports.

Highway: The total length of the original roads in the country is 145,000 kilometers, including 58129 kilometers for first-class roads, 87300 kilometers for rural roads and 7,400 kilometers for urban road networks. Due to years of war damage and lack of maintenance, most of the roads are not able to pass normally. Many secondary roads and rural roads have been damaged. At present, there are only 50,000 kilometers of main roads (including asphalt roads only 1.8%), with an average of 100 square kilometers. Only 7 kilometers long road.

Railway: The total length is 6,111 kilometers, of which 858 kilometers are electrified lines.

[Foreign Trade] occupies a pivotal position in the national economy. It mainly exports cobalt, copper, crude oil, diamonds, agricultural and forestry products, imported food, daily consumer goods, mechanical and electrical products, and various raw materials. The main export destination countries are China, Zambia, Italy, and Belgium. The main import destination countries are South Africa, China, Zambia, and Belgium. In recent years, foreign trade has maintained rapid growth, and imports and exports have basically balanced.

[Financial Finance] Just 2019, the budget is about 6.3 billion US dollars. The main sources of income are customs, administrative taxes, minerals, oil exports and foreign aid, donations, debt relief and so on. Expenditure is mainly used to improve people’s livelihood, institutional reform, macroeconomic stability and development, infrastructure construction, national defense and security.

In July 2012, the central bank began issuing 1,000 new francs, 5,000 gang, 10,000 gang and 20,000 gangs of new denominations.

[Foreign Aid] In 2016, foreign aid was received for US$ 2.107 billion, of which bilateral assistance accounted for 45.2%. The bilateral aid parties mainly include Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Japan, etc. The multilateral aid parties mainly include UN organizations and institutions, the European Union, and the African Development Bank.

【医疗卫生】 刚独立之初,基本上继承了殖民时期的医疗保障制度,国家对医疗卫生事业投入所占比重较大。1974年,医疗补贴制的试行开非洲之先河。建立中央、省及农村三级医疗体系,分设306个卫生区,由卫生部、省巡视厅分别负责管理。每个卫生区设有10至20个卫生站,保障10万至15万人的医疗。20世纪90年代以来,由于资金和人力不足,卫生区濒临瘫痪,民众的卫生状况急剧恶化,各种疾病肆虐,死亡率明显上升。刚婴儿死亡率6.82%(2017年估计),15–49岁的人群中,艾滋病病毒携带者为0.7%(2016年估计),人均预期寿命为57.7岁(2017年估计)。主要传染性疾病有疟疾、艾滋病、麻风、肺结核、霍乱、昏睡病、伤寒、埃博拉、血吸虫等。

【文 化】 刚历史文化较为悠久。其丰富多彩的民间文艺,精美绝伦的铜雕、栩栩如生的木雕和别具一格的面具等,堪称世界艺术宝库中的珍品。西方殖民者的入侵,使刚的民族文化横遭摧残,大量艺术珍品被掠往西方国家或流散到世界各地。刚独立后,特别是70年代初,蒙博托提出恢复和发扬民族“真实性”口号,采取了一系列发展民族文化和消除殖民影响的措施,重视发掘和推广民族文化遗产。刚除有黑非洲屈指可数的国家艺术学院、国家剧院和国家舞蹈团等专业艺术院团外,还有众多由私人或教会赞助的民间乐队和合唱团。20世纪90年代以来,由于内乱和战争,刚文化艺术再次遭到极大破坏。

【教 育】 刚政府采取学校教育与社会教育相结合、国家办学与私人办学并举的教育政策。国家对各类学校进行统一监督和管理。鼓励和支持包括教会在内的各种团体或个人办学,由国民教育部统一对具有办学条件的私立学校进行登记、注册。公立和私立学校的毕业生享受同等待遇,平等参加国家统一考试,合格者方能取得毕业证书。由于政府财政困难,刚大中小学教职员工的工资全部由学生家长承担。刚15岁以上人口文盲率约为22.7%。44.6%的适龄儿童因贫困而失学。80%小学和60%中学为教会学校。全国共有4所综合性大学,其中2所位于金沙萨市,其它2所分别位于基桑加尼和卢本巴希市。目前,刚约有760万5到17岁的失学儿童和青少年。

【新闻出版】 新闻传媒较发达,主要集中在首都。截至2017年12月,刚全国有571家纸质媒体,625家广播电台和387家电视台。影响较大的报纸有:《潜力报》、《参考报》、《光荣榜报》、《灯塔报》、《观察家报》等。有2家通讯社,其中国营1家(刚果通讯社ACP),私营1家(联合通讯社APA)。

【军 事】 刚政府根据2003年《全面包容性协议》有关规定,对各派武装力量进行整合,重新组建国家军队,名为刚果民主共和国武装力量(Forces Armées de la République démocratique du Congo—FARDC)。2003年6月29日,刚有关各方就军队整编及军队领导层权力具体分配达成协议。8月19日,卡比拉总统任命了过渡期军队领导人及各军区司令,各派均分得职位。12月8日,刚新军正式成立。

刚军总兵力现约14万人,其中陆军12.6万人,海军2000人,空军2000人,共和国卫队1万人。另有准军事部队(警察)约8万人。

[Medical Health] At the beginning of independence, it basically inherited the medical security system of the colonial period, and the state accounted for a large proportion of the investment in medical and health care. In 1974, the trial of the medical subsidy system opened the way to Africa. Establish a three-level medical system at the central, provincial and rural levels, with 306 health districts, which are managed by the Ministry of Health and the Provincial Inspection Office. There are 10 to 20 health stations in each sanitation area, which guarantees medical care for 100,000 to 150,000 people. Since the 1990s, due to insufficient funds and manpower, the health district has been plagued by the health conditions of the people, and the health conditions of the people have deteriorated drastically. The infant mortality rate is 6.82% (estimated in 2017), among people aged 15–49, HIV carriers are 0.7% (estimated in 2016) and life expectancy per capita is 57.7 years (estimated in 2017). The main infectious diseases are malaria, AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis, cholera, sleeping sickness, typhoid fever, Ebola, and schistosomiasis.

[Culture] Just a long history and culture. Its rich and colorful folk art, exquisite bronze sculptures, lifelike wood carvings and unique masks are among the treasures of the world art treasure house. The invasion of Western colonialists has devastated the ethnic culture of the country, and a large number of art treasures have been plundered to the West or scattered around the world. After independence, especially in the early 1970s, Mobutu proposed to restore and carry forward the national “authenticity” slogan, adopted a series of measures to develop national culture and eliminate colonial influence, and attach importance to the exploration and promotion of national cultural heritage. In addition to the professional art academies of the National Academy of Arts, the National Theatre and the National Dance Company, which are among the few in Africa, there are also many private or church-sponsored folk bands and choirs. Since the 1990s, due to civil strife and war, the culture and art have once again suffered tremendous damage.

[Education] The government has adopted an education policy that combines school education with social education, national education and private education. The state conducts unified supervision and management of various types of schools. Encourage and support various groups or individuals, including the church, to run schools. The Ministry of Education shall register and register private schools with conditions for running schools. Graduates of public and private schools enjoy the same treatment and participate in the national unified examination on an equal basis. Only those who pass the examination can obtain a diploma. Due to the financial difficulties of the government, the wages of the faculty and staff of the large and middle schools are all borne by the parents of the students. The illiteracy rate of the population just over 15 years old is about 22.7%. 44.6% of school-age children are out of school due to poverty. 80% of primary schools and 60% of secondary schools are church schools. There are 4 comprehensive universities across the country, 2 of which are located in Kinshasa and the other 2 in Kisangani and Lubumbashi. At present, there are about 7.6 million children and adolescents who are out of school, 5 to 17 years old.

[Press and Publication] The news media is more developed, mainly concentrated in the capital. As of December 2017, there were 571 paper media, 625 radio stations and 387 TV stations nationwide. The newspapers with greater influence include: “Possibility”, “Reference”, “Glory”, “Beacon”, “Observer” and so on. There are 2 news agencies, one in China (ACP) and one in private (APA).

[Military] According to the relevant provisions of the 2003 Comprehensive Inclusive Agreement, the government has integrated the armed forces of various factions and re-established the national army, called the Forces Armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC). On June 29, 2003, the parties concerned had just reached an agreement on the military restructuring and the specific distribution of military leadership power. On August 19th, President Kabila appointed the leaders of the transitional army and the commanders of the military regions, all of which were assigned positions. On December 8, the new army was formally established.

The total strength of the Gang Army is about 140,000, including 126,000 in the Army, 2,000 in the Navy, 2,000 in the Air Force, and 10,000 in the Republican Guard. There are also about 80,000 paramilitary units (police).

【同其他国家和国际组织的关系】

英国是刚主要捐助国之一, 2015年向刚提供了2.4亿美元援助,主要用于公共卫生、教育、供水等领域。2017年2月,英非洲事务特使埃得伍访刚。10月,英方宣布未来5年将向刚提供1.75亿英镑人道主义援助。4月,英非洲事务外交大臣鲍德温访刚。

2014年6月,刚经贸部长贝热波勒赴日本东京参加了首届日本—非洲国际经济论坛。2017年5月,日本同刚方就3个发展项目签署金额为2700万美元的合作协议。2015年10月,奇班达外长代表卡比拉总统出席第三届印非峰会。2016年8月,奇班达外长访问韩国、印度。同月,奇班达外长代表卡比拉总统出席第六届东京非洲发展国际会议峰会。

2015年8月,卡比拉总统会见来访的巴西外交国务部长维埃拉,双方就巩固和深化两国在教育、能源、国防和航空等领域交流与合作交换意见。

2012年10月,第14届法语国家组织峰会在刚召开,法国、加纳、喀麦隆、刚果(布)等多国总统,加拿大、乍得、中非等国总理出席,会议通过《金沙萨宣言》,决定在应对环境与经济挑战、推广法语文化和教育等方面加强合作,与会各方还就非洲地区热点问题进行讨论。2013年2月,马塔塔总理访美期间,会晤联合国秘书长潘基文及国际货币基金组织总裁拉加德、世界银行行长金墉等,就刚安全局势、经济发展等交换意见。5月,联合国秘书长潘基文与世界银行行长金墉联袂访刚及大湖地区,推动各方落实《刚果(金)和大湖地区和平、安全与合作框架文件》,世行并宣布向刚提供10亿美元援助。2014年4月,法语国家组织秘书长迪乌夫访刚。9月,卡比拉总统赴纽约出席第69届联合国大会并会见联合国秘书长潘基文。11月,卡比拉总统赴塞内加尔出席第15届法语国家组织峰会。12月,联合国教科文组织总干事博科娃访刚并会见卡比拉总统。2015年7月,国民议会议长米纳库赴瑞士出席第41届法语国家议会大会年会,并当选新一届大会主席。8月,国民议会议长米纳库、参议长肯戈赴纽约出席第四届世界议长大会。2017年3月,米纳库议长在刚主持召开法语国家议会大会非洲地区议长会议。6月,联合国负责维和行动事务的副秘书长拉克鲁瓦访刚。7月,联合国负责人道主义事务的副秘书长奥布莱恩访刚。2018年9月,卡比拉总统出席第73届联合国大会。2019年3月,齐塞克迪总统赴内罗毕出席联合国环境大会。

[Relationship with other countries and international organizations]

The UK is one of the major donors. In 2015, it provided $240 million in aid to the public, education, water supply and other fields. In February 2017, the British Special Envoy for Africa, Edmund Wu, visited the company. In October, the UK announced that it will provide 175 million pounds of humanitarian aid in the next five years. In April, British Foreign Minister Baldwin visited the country.

In June 2014, the Minister of Economy and Trade, Bergerbo, went to Tokyo, Japan to participate in the first Japan-Africa International Economic Forum. In May 2017, Japan and Gangfang signed a cooperation agreement worth US$27 million for three development projects. In October 2015, Foreign Minister Kibanda represented President Kabila at the Third India-Africa Summit. In August 2016, Foreign Minister Chibanda visited South Korea and India. In the same month, Foreign Minister Kibanda represented President Kabila at the 6th Tokyo International Conference on African Development.

In August 2015, President Kabila met with visiting Brazilian Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Vieira. The two sides exchanged views on consolidating and deepening exchanges and cooperation between the two countries in the fields of education, energy, national defense and aviation.

In October 2012, the 14th Francophone Organization Summit was held in France, Ghana, Cameroon, Congo (Brazzaville) and other countries. The Prime Ministers of Canada, Chad and Central Africa attended the meeting and adopted the Kinshasa Declaration. Strengthen cooperation in responding to environmental and economic challenges, promoting French culture and education, and the parties also discussed hot issues in Africa. In February 2013, during his visit to the United States, Prime Minister Matata met with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the International Monetary Fund President Lagarde and World Bank President Kim Min Jong to exchange views on the security situation and economic development. In May, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and World Bank President Kim Jong-il visited the Gang and Great Lakes region to promote the implementation of the “Framework Document on Peace, Security and Cooperation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo” and the World Bank. $1 billion in aid. In April 2014, Secretary-General of the French-speaking Organization, Diouf, visited Gang. In September, President Kabila went to New York to attend the 69th UN General Assembly and met with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. In November, President Kabila went to Senegal to attend the 15th Francophone Organization Summit. In December, UNESCO Director-General Bokova visited Gang and met with President Kabila. In July 2015, Minakku, Speaker of the National Assembly, went to Switzerland to attend the 41st Annual Meeting of the French-speaking Parliamentary Assembly and was elected as the new President of the General Assembly. In August, National Assembly Speaker Minacu and Senate President Kengo went to New York to attend the Fourth World Conference of Speakers. In March 2017, Speaker Minaku was just presiding over the meeting of the Speakers of the African Region of the Francophone Parliament. In June, the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Lacroix, visited Gang. In July, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs O’Brien visited Gang. In September 2018, President Kabila attended the 73rd UN General Assembly. In March 2019, President Kisekdi attended the United Nations Environment Conference in Nairobi.

【同欧盟的关系】 2003年,根据联合国安理会决议,欧盟曾派出2000人的部队驻扎刚东部地区,以保障刚安全局势并改善人道状况,该军事行动后由联合国驻刚果(金)特派团接管。2006年至2014年,欧盟向刚提供援助总额近12亿欧元,主要用于国家治理、环境保护、基础设施建设和医疗卫生。2014年6月,刚总理马塔塔赴布鲁塞尔出席第二届教育资源整合会议(2015-2018年),欧盟宣布将在第11期欧洲发展基金框架下向刚果(金)政府提供6.2亿欧元无偿援助。 2016年10月召开的欧盟外长会通过公报,对刚局势表示担忧,呼吁有关各方尊重宪法,要求刚政府在2017年组织选举。2017年2月至3月,欧盟同联合国、非盟和法语国家组织2次发表联合公报,对2016年政治协议落实情况及开赛地区人道主义危机表示关切。11月,欧盟发布公报,呼吁刚各方积极参与大选进程,落实刚独立选举委员会公布的大选时间表。2018年3月,欧盟宣布将向刚境内外的刚难民提供6000万欧元人道主义援助。

【同非洲国家及地区组织的关系】 刚果(金)重视发展睦邻友好关系,加强与南非、刚果(布)、安哥拉等非洲国家交往,提升在地区事务中的影响力。

2012年4月刚东部地区安全局势升温以来,刚与卢旺达、乌干达等地区国家元首多次会晤,刚外长还先后访问乌干达、赞比亚、安哥拉、布隆迪等国,与周边国家保持密切沟通。 2017年上半年,刚副总理兼外长奥基通杜先后出访安哥拉、赤道几内亚、乍得、赞比亚、科特迪瓦等国,主要就刚国内局势等问题同对方交换看法。2017年8月,刚国民议会议长米纳库赴卢参加卡加梅总统连任就职仪式。2018年8月,卡比拉总统访问安哥拉。2018年2月,刚军在北基伍省鲁丘鲁地区同卢政府军发生边境摩擦。2019年2月,齐塞克迪总统访问安哥拉。3月,齐塞克迪总统访问乌干达,此外还赴卢旺达出席第七届非洲CEO论坛,并会见卡加梅总统。

刚果(金)同刚果(布)仅一河相隔,两国各层级人员往来频繁。萨苏总统曾多次调解刚果(金)内部矛盾及其同卢旺达关系。2012年3月,刚果(布)首都布拉柴维尔发生军火库爆炸事件后,刚果(金)外长奇班达赴刚果(布)向萨苏总统面交了卡比拉总统慰问信,并宣布向刚果(布)提供医疗物资援助。2012年9月、2013年1月、2017年9月,卡比拉总统访问刚果(布)。2015年9月,卡比拉赴刚果(布)出席第十一届非洲运动会开幕式。2013年11月、2014年9月、2016年9月、2017年1月,刚果(布)总统萨苏访问刚果(金)。2017年12月,卡比拉总统赴刚果(布)参加刚果(金)、刚果(布)、安哥拉三方会议。2018年2月,上述三国在金沙萨再次举行三方首脑会议。2019年2月,齐塞克迪总统访问刚果(布)。

南非与刚果(金)在政治、经济、安全等领域交往密切,并积极斡旋刚东问题。2012年10月,卡比拉总统赴南非出席两国大混委会第八次会议。2014年5月,卡比拉总统赴南非出席祖马总统就职典礼。2015年10月,南非总统祖马访刚并出席两国大混委会第九次会议。2017年6月,卡比拉总统赴南非出席两国大混委会第十次会议。10月,南非总统祖马访刚。2018年8月,南非总统拉马福萨访刚。

2016年9月,刚国民议会议长米纳库代表卡比拉总统出席加蓬总统邦戈就职仪式。2012年12月,卡比拉总统赴坦桑尼亚首都达累斯萨拉姆出席南部非洲发展共同体峰会。2015年5月,卡比拉总统赴安哥拉首都罗安达出席第九届大湖地区国际会议组织特别峰会。2016年6月,卡比拉总统赴罗安达出席第六届大湖地区国际会议组织峰会。10月,卡比拉总统赴罗安达出席大湖地区国际会议组织特别峰会,会议重点就刚局势进行了讨论。2017年3月,刚总理巴迪班加赴斯威士兰出席南部非洲发展共同体特别峰会。4月,卡比拉总统访问埃及、加蓬。9月,非盟委员会主席法基访刚。2018年1月,刚副总理兼外长奥基通杜赴亚的斯亚贝巴出席非盟峰会。2月,加蓬总统邦戈、津巴布韦总统姆南加古瓦分别访刚,卡比拉总统访问赞比亚。3月,刚副总理兼外长奥基通杜赴基加利出席非盟特别峰会。4月,卡比拉总统赴安哥拉首都罗安达出席南部非洲发展共同体特别峰会。8月,卡比拉总统赴津巴布韦出席姆南加古瓦总统的就职典礼。2019年2月,齐塞克迪总统出席非盟峰会,并当选轮值副主席;出席南部非洲发展共同体特别峰会;访问肯尼亚、纳米比亚。3月,多哥总统福雷、中非总统图瓦德拉先后访刚。

[Relationship with the European Union] In 2003, according to UN Security Council resolutions, the European Union sent 2,000 troops to the east of the region to safeguard the security situation and improve the humanitarian situation. The military operation was taken over by the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. . From 2006 to 2014, the EU provided nearly 1.2 billion euros in aid to the country, mainly for national governance, environmental protection, infrastructure construction and health care. In June 2014, Prime Minister Matata went to Brussels to attend the second Education Resources Integration Conference (2015-2018). The EU announced that it will provide 620 million euros to the Congolese government under the framework of the 11th European Development Fund. assistance. The EU Foreign Ministers meeting in October 2016 adopted a communiqué to express concern about the situation and called on all parties concerned to respect the Constitution and asked the government to organize elections in 2017. From February to March 2017, the European Union issued a joint communique with the United Nations, the African Union and the French-speaking countries twice, expressing concern about the implementation of the 2016 political agreement and the humanitarian crisis in the region. In November, the EU issued a communique calling on all parties to actively participate in the general election process and implement the timetable for the general election announced by the Independent Electoral Commission. In March 2018, the European Union announced that it would provide 60 million euros of humanitarian assistance to new refugees inside and outside the country.

[Relationship with African countries and regional organizations] The Congo (DRC) attaches importance to developing good-neighborly relations and strengthens contacts with African countries such as South Africa, Congo (Brazzaville) and Angola, and enhances its influence in regional affairs.

Since the security situation in the eastern region has warmed up in April 2012, the heads of state of Rwanda and Uganda have met several times. The foreign minister has also visited Uganda, Zambia, Angola and Burundi to maintain close communication with neighboring countries. In the first half of 2017, just Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Okidundu visited Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Zambia and Côte d’Ivoire, and exchanged views with the other side on issues such as the domestic situation. In August 2017, Minaku, the president of the National Assembly, went to Lu to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Kagame. In August 2018, President Kabila visited Angola. In February 2018, the Gangjun had a border friction with the Lu government forces in the Rutshuru area of ​​North Kivu. In February 2019, President Kisekdi visited Angola. In March, President Zisekdi visited Uganda and also went to Rwanda to attend the 7th African CEO Forum and met with President Kagame.

Congo (Kinshasa) and Congo (Brazzaville) are separated by a river, and people from all levels of the two countries are frequent. President Sassu has repeatedly mediates contradictions within the Democratic Republic of the Congo and his relationship with Rwanda. After the arsenal explosion in Brazzaville, Congo (Brazil) in March 2012, Congo (Gold) Foreign Minister Kibanda went to Congo (Brazzaville) to pay President Kabila a letter of condolence to President Sassu and announced Providing medical supplies assistance to Congo (Brazzaville). In September 2012, January 2013 and September 2017, President Kabila visited Congo (Brazzaville). In September 2015, Kabila went to the Congo (Brazzaville) to attend the opening ceremony of the 11th African Games. In November 2013, September 2014, September 2016 and January 2017, Congo (Brazza) President Sassou visited the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In December 2017, President Kabila went to the Congo (Brazzaville) to participate in the Tripartite Meeting of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Congo (Brazzaville) and Angola. In February 2018, the three countries held another tripartite summit in Kinshasa. In February 2019, President Zisekdi visited the Congo (Brazzaville).

South Africa and the Congo (DRC) have close contacts in the fields of politics, economy and security, and actively mediate the issue of Gangdong. In October 2012, President Kabila went to South Africa to attend the eighth meeting of the two mixed committees. In May 2014, President Kabila went to South Africa to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Zuma. In October 2015, South African President Zuma visited Gang and attended the ninth meeting of the two mixed committees. In June 2017, President Kabila went to South Africa to attend the tenth meeting of the two countries. In October, South African President Zuma visited Gang. In August 2018, South African President Ramafosa visited Gang.

In September 2016, Minaku, the Speaker of the National Assembly, represented President Kabila at the inauguration ceremony of Gabonese President Bongo. In December 2012, President Kabila attended the Southern African Development Community Summit in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania. In May 2015, President Kabila went to Luanda, the capital of Angola, to attend the special summit of the 9th International Conference of the Great Lakes Region. In June 2016, President Kabila went to Luanda to attend the 6th International Conference on the Great Lakes Regional Conference. In October, President Kabila went to Luanda to attend the special summit of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region. The meeting focused on the situation. In March 2017, Prime Minister Badi Bonga went to Swaziland to attend the special summit of the Southern African Development Community. In April, President Kabila visited Egypt and Gabon. In September, the chairman of the AU Commission, Faji, visited the company. In January 2018, the newly appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Okitundu attended the AU summit in Addis Ababa. In February, Gabonese President Bongo and Zimbabwean President Mnanagaguwa visited respectively, and President Kabila visited Zambia. In March, just Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Okidon Du went to Kigali to attend the AU Special Summit. In April, President Kabila went to Luanda, the capital of Angola, to attend the special summit of the Southern African Development Community. In August, President Kabila went to Zimbabwe to attend the inauguration of President Mnanagaguwa. In February 2019, President Zisekdi attended the AU summit and was elected vice chairman; attended the special summit of the Southern African Development Community; visited Kenya and Namibia. In March, Togo’s President Foley and Central African President Tuvaldra visited New York.

【对外关系】 奉行独立自主的外交政策,反对外来干涉。主张睦邻友好和在互相尊重主权和领土完整、互利互惠的基础上发展同世界各国的友好合作。积极参与和推动地区经济和安全合作,是中部非洲国家经济共同体、南部非洲发展共同体、东部和南部非洲共同市场成员国。

【同美国的关系】洛·卡比拉夺取政权后,美率先承认。1998年刚武装冲突爆发后,刚指责美偏袒乌干达、卢旺达。约·卡比拉执政后多次访美,两国关系有所改善。2011年4月,美刚签署减债协议,美同意对刚减债18.23亿美元。2013年2月,马塔塔总理访美。10月,马塔塔总理再度率团访美。2014年5月,美国务卿克里访刚,宣布美方将为刚东重建和2016年大选提供3000万美元的援助资金。8月,卡比拉总统出席在华盛顿举行的首届美非峰会。 2017年2月,巴迪班加总理访美。同月,美政府发表声明,呼吁刚各方保持克制,按2016年政治协议尽快组建过渡政府。10月,美驻联合国代表黑莉访刚。2018年6月,美政府以在选举进程中存在贪腐和侵犯人权行为为由,宣布对部分刚高层官员实施制裁。12月,美方谴责刚竞选活动中的暴力事件。2019年3月,美国主管非洲事务助理国务卿纳吉访刚。4月,齐塞克迪总统访问美国,会见美国务卿蓬佩奥、能源部长佩里。

【同法国的关系】 1998年刚冲突爆发后,法国主张应尊重其主权和领土完整。2011年6月,法刚签署减债协议,法对刚减债10亿美元。2012年10月,法国总统奥朗德出席在刚举行的第14届法语国家峰会。11月,刚总理马塔塔访法。2014年5月,卡比拉总统正式访问法国。2016年12月刚各方签署政治协议后,法对此表示欢迎,敦促各方切实履行协议内容。2017年1月,刚副总理兼外长奥基通杜赴巴马科参加第27届法非峰会。6月,法总统非洲事务顾问巴里斯访刚。9月,奇巴拉总理访法。11月,法总统马克龙表示支持刚方于2018年根据《宪法》要求举行大选,但卡比拉总统不得谋求第三任期。2019年3月,齐塞克迪总统赴肯尼亚出席联合国环境大会期间会见马克龙总统。

【同比利时的关系】 比系刚重要援助国和贸易伙伴。2011年3月,比政府宣布免除刚1.2亿欧元债务。5月,比宣布继续减免刚7.73亿美元债务。2013年8月,比副首相兼外交大臣雷德尔斯访刚。2014年6月,马塔塔总理访比。2016年12月刚各方签署政治协议后,比对此表示欢迎,敦促各方切实履行协议内容。2018年1月,比政府发表声明谴责刚安全部门暴力执法,并表示在刚举行可信的选举前,暂停双边合作项目。同月,刚方宣布关闭由比驻刚使馆管理的签证代办机构“申根之家”和比开发署驻刚办公室。2月,刚方关闭在比安特卫普的领馆,并要求比方关闭在戈马、卢本巴希的领馆。9月,卡比拉总统和比利时首相米歇尔在纽约举行会见。2019年3月,“申根之家”重新开放,并改名为“欧洲签证中心。”

【同德国的关系】 刚和平进程启动后,德恢复1991年以来中止的与刚原有合作项目。2012年10月,刚总理马塔塔访德。2014年9月,马塔塔总理赴德出席德非经济发展论坛并会见德总理默克尔。2015年2月,德外长施泰因迈尔访刚。3月,德经济合作与发展部长米勒访刚。

[External Relations] Pursue an independent foreign policy and oppose foreign interference. Advocate good-neighborly friendship and develop friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and mutual benefit. Actively participate in and promote regional economic and security cooperation. It is a member of the Economic Community of Central African Countries, the Southern African Development Community, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.

[Relationship with the United States] After Los Kabila seized power, the United States took the lead in admitting it. After the outbreak of the armed conflict in 1998, he just accused the United States of being biased towards Uganda and Rwanda. After Joka Kabila visited the United States several times after he took office, relations between the two countries have improved. In April 2011, Mei Gang signed a debt reduction agreement, and the United States agreed to reduce debt by 1.823 billion US dollars. In February 2013, Prime Minister Matata visited the United States. In October, Prime Minister Matata again led a delegation to visit the United States. In May 2014, US Secretary of State Kerry visited the company and announced that the US will provide 30 million U.S. dollars in aid for the reconstruction of Gangdong and the 2016 general election. In August, President Kabila attended the first US-Africa summit in Washington. In February 2017, Prime Minister Badi Bonga visited the United States. In the same month, the US government issued a statement calling for the parties to exercise restraint and form a transitional government as soon as possible in accordance with the 2016 political agreement. In October, US representative to the United Nations, Heili, visited Gang. In June 2018, the US government announced sanctions against some of its top senior officials on the grounds of corruption and human rights violations in the electoral process. In December, the US condemned the violence in the campaign. In March 2019, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Najib visited the United States. In April, President Zisekdi visited the United States and met with US Secretary of State Pompeo and Energy Minister Perry.

[Relationship with France] After the outbreak of the conflict in 1998, France advocated respecting its sovereignty and territorial integrity. In June 2011, Fa Gang signed a debt reduction agreement, which was just $1 billion in debt reduction. In October 2012, French President Hollande attended the 14th French-French Summit. In November, just Prime Minister Matata visited the law. In May 2014, President Kabila officially visited France. After the parties signed a political agreement in December 2016, the law welcomed this and urged all parties to implement the agreement. In January 2017, the Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Okitundu went to Bamako to attend the 27th French-African Summit. In June, Barry, the French president’s adviser on African affairs, visited Gang. In September, Prime Minister Chibala visited France. In November, French President Mark Long expressed support for the election of the party in 2018 in accordance with the requirements of the Constitution, but President Kabila may not seek a third term. In March 2019, President Zisekdi met with President Mark Long during his attendance at the UN Environment Conference in Kenya.

[Relationship with Belgium] It is an important aid country and trading partner. In March 2011, the government announced that it would waive the debt of 120 million euros. In May, it announced that it would continue to reduce the debt of just $773 million. In August 2013, he was interviewed by Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Ryders. In June 2014, Prime Minister Matata visited Belgium. After the parties signed the political agreement in December 2016, they welcomed it and urged all parties to implement the agreement. In January 2018, the government issued a statement condemning the violent law enforcement of the security sector and stated that it would suspend bilateral cooperation projects just before the credible elections. In the same month, Gangfang announced that it would close the “Schengen Home” and the UNDP Office in Hong Kong, which is managed by the embassy. In February, Ganggang closed the consulate in Biantep and asked to close the consulates in Goma and Lubumbashi. In September, President Kabila and Belgian Prime Minister Michelle met in New York. In March 2019, the “Schengen House” was reopened and renamed the “European Visa Center.”

[Relationship with Germany] After the start of the peace process, Germany resumed its original cooperation project with the suspension since 1991. In October 2012, Prime Minister Matata visited Germany. In September 2014, Prime Minister Matata attended the German-African Economic Development Forum in Germany and met with German Chancellor Merkel. In February 2015, German Foreign Minister Steinmeier visited Gang. In March, German Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development Miller visited Gang.