The Cooperative Republic of Guyana 圭亚那合作共和国

【国名】 圭亚那合作共和国(The Cooperative Republic of Guyana)。

【面积】 21.5万平方公里

【人口】 73.8万(2017年)。其中印度裔占39.8%、非洲裔占29.3%、混血种人占19.9%、印第安人占10.5%。英语为官方语言和通用语,也使用克里奥尔语、乌尔都语、印第安语和印地语。居民34.8%信奉基督教新教,24.8%信奉印度教,7.1%信奉天主教,6.8%信奉伊斯兰教。

【首都】 乔治敦(Georgetown),人口约25万。

【国家元首】 总统戴维·格兰杰(David GRANGER),2015年5月就职,任期5年。

【重要节日】 共和国日:2月23日。独立日:5月26日。

【简况】 位于南美洲北部。西北与委内瑞拉交界,南与巴西毗邻,东与苏里南接壤,东北濒大西洋。属热带雨林气候,年降雨量1500至2000毫米,年均气温24-32℃。公元9世纪起为印第安人定居地。15世纪西班牙人入侵,17、18世纪为荷兰占领,1814年荷将其转让给英国,1831年正式成为英殖民地,取名英属圭亚那。1966年5月26日宣告独立。1970年2月23日成立圭亚那合作共和国。

【政治】 圭独立以来,人民全国大会党曾长期执政。1992年至2015年,人民进步党上台后连续执政。2015年5月11日,圭提前举行大选,由民族团结伙伴联盟(主体是人大党)和变革联盟组成的反对党联盟以微弱优势赢得大选,人大党领袖戴维·格兰杰出任总统。2018年12月21日,圭议会通过反对党人民进步党提出的对政府不信任动议,圭应于3个月内举行大选。目前,圭政局总体稳定。

宪法 现行宪法于1980年10月6日生效。宪法规定总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队最高统帅,议会多数党领袖出任总统,任期5年,可连选连任两届。总统有权解散议会。

议会 一院制。议会由国民议会和总统组成,任期5年。国民议会设65席,其中40席为不分区议员,按比例代表制在全国范围内选举产生,25席为地区议员,按人口比例和种族构成从全国10个选区中分别选出。

本届议会于2015年5月产生,民族团结伙伴联盟和变革联盟获33席,人民进步党获32席。议长巴顿·斯科特兰(Barton SCOTLAND),2015年7月就任。

政府 本届政府于2015年7月组成,主要成员包括总统戴维·格兰杰、第一副总统兼总理摩西·纳加穆图(Moses Nagamootoo)、第二副总统兼外交部长卡尔·格里尼奇(Carl GREENIDGE)、第三副总统兼公安部长凯姆拉什·拉姆加谭(Khemraj Ramjattan),第四副总统兼地方事务部长悉尼·阿利科克(Sydney AllIcock)等。

司法机构 最高法院由上诉法院和高等法院组成。现任上诉法院代院长卡尔·辛格(Carl SINGH),高等法院代院长伊恩·张(Ian CHANG)。终审法院为加勒比法院。

政党 主要政党:

(1)人民全国大会党(The People’s National Congress):执政联盟成员。1伯纳姆等人脱离人民进步党后于1959年组建。领袖戴维·格兰杰,总书记奥斯卡·克拉克(Oscar CLARKE)。

(2)变革联盟(Alliance for Change):执政联盟成员。2005年10月成立,被称为“第三势力”,由前人进党和人大党中央执委联合组建。领袖拉斐尔·特罗特曼(Raphael Trotman),主席凯姆拉什·拉姆加谭。

(3)人民进步党 (The People’s Progressive Party):1950年1月成立,反对党。党领袖、总书记巴拉特·贾格迪奥(Bharrat Jagdeo)。

[Country name] The Cooperative Republic of Guyana.

[Area] 215,000 square kilometers

[Population] 738,000 (2017). Among them, Indians accounted for 39.8%, African Americans accounted for 29.3%, mixed-race species accounted for 19.9%, and Indians accounted for 10.5%. English is the official language and lingua franca, and also uses Creole, Urdu, Indian, and Hindi. 34.8% of the residents believe in Protestantism, 24.8% believe in Hinduism, 7.1% believe in Catholicism, and 6.8% believe in Islam.

[Capital] Georgetown, with a population of about 250,000.

[Head of State] President David GRANGER, who took office in May 2015, for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] Republic Day: February 23. Independence Day: May 26.

[profile] Located in the north of South America. It borders Venezuela in the northwest, Brazil in the south, Suriname in the east, and the Atlantic Ocean in the northeast. It has a tropical rainforest climate with an annual rainfall of 1500 to 2000 mm and an average annual temperature of 24-32 °C. It was the Indian settlement since the 9th century. In the 15th century, the Spanish invaded, occupied by the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1814, the Dutch transferred it to the United Kingdom. In 1831, it officially became the British colony, named British Guiana. On May 26, 1966, it declared independence. The Republic of Guyana Cooperative Republic was established on February 23, 1970.

[Politics] Since the independence of Kyu, the People’s National Congress Party has been in power for a long time. From 1992 to 2015, the People’s Progressive Party came to power after taking office. On May 11, 2015, Gui held a general election in advance. The opposition coalition formed by the National Solidarity Alliance (the main body is the National People’s Congress) and the Alliance for Change won the election with a slight advantage. The leader of the National People’s Congress, David Gran, was the distinguished president. On December 21, 2018, the Knesset passed the motion of no confidence in the government proposed by the opposition People’s Progressive Party. Gui should hold a general election within three months. At present, the Kwei government is generally stable.

Constitution The current Constitution entered into force on October 6, 1980. The Constitution stipulates that the President is the head of state, the head of government and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The leader of the majority of the parliament is the president. The term of office is five years and can be re-elected for two consecutive terms. The president has the right to dissolve the parliament.

Parliamentary system. The parliament consists of the National Assembly and the President for a five-year term. The National Assembly has 65 seats, 40 of which are non-divisional members. The proportional representation system is elected nationwide, and 25 seats are district council members. They are selected from 10 national constituencies according to the proportion of the population and ethnicity.

The current parliament was produced in May 2015, the National Unity Alliance and the Change Alliance won 33 seats, and the People’s Progressive Party won 32 seats. Speaker Barton SCOTLAND took office in July 2015.

The current government of the government was formed in July 2015. The main members include President David Granger, First Vice President and Prime Minister Moses Nagamootoo, and Second Vice President and Foreign Minister Carl Gerry. Carl GREENIDGE, third vice president and public security minister Khemraj Ramjattan, fourth vice president and local affairs minister, Sydney Allicock (Sydney All Icock).

Judiciary The Supreme Court is composed of the Court of Appeal and the High Court. The current acting court president, Carl Singh, is the acting president of the High Court, Ian Chang. The Court of Final Appeal is the Caribbean Court of Justice.

Political party Main political party:

(1) The People’s National Congress: a member of the ruling coalition. 1 Burnham and others were formed in 1959 after they left the People’s Progressive Party. Leader David Granger, general secretary Oscar CLARKE.

(2) Alliance for Change: a member of the ruling coalition. It was established in October 2005 and is known as the “third force”. It was jointly formed by the former party and the Central Committee of the National People’s Congress. Leader Raphael Trotman, Chairman Kem Rush Ramgartam.

(3) The People’s Progressive Party: Established in January 1950, the opposition party. Party leader and general secretary Bharrat Jagdeo.

【重要人物】 戴维·格兰杰:总统。1945年7月15日生于首都乔治敦。曾就读于圭亚那大学和西印度大学,获历史学学士学位、政治学硕士学位和国际关系学硕士学位。1965年加入圭国防军,1979年至1990年任国防军参谋长,1990年至1992年任总统国家安全顾问,1994年擢升准将并退役。2011年起任议会反对党领袖。2015年5月大选中当选总统。

摩西·纳加穆图:第一副总统兼总理。1947年11月30日生于科伦太因地区。曾就读于圭亚那大学和西印度大学。曾任教师、记者、律师。1964年加入人进党。1992年至2000年,历任信息部长、地方政府和地区发展部长。2011年10月脱离人进党,加入反对党变革联盟。2015年5月大选后出任第一副总统兼总理。

【经济】 圭经济以初级产品生产为主,铝矾土、蔗糖和大米为三大经济支柱。近年来,圭政府执行稳健的宏观经济政策和适度扩张的财政政策,加大对公共设施投入,并进行大规模糖业改造,经济稳中有升。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:35.91亿美元

人均国内生产总值:4662美元

国内生产总值增长率:3.5%

通货膨胀率:2.3%

货币名称:圭亚那元

汇率:1美元=207圭元

(资料来源:国际货币基金组织)

【资源】 自然资源丰富。矿藏有铝矾土、金、钻石、锰、钼、铜、钽、钨、镍、铀等,其中铝矾土蕴藏量丰富,约3.6亿吨。森林面积16.4万平方公里,占全国土地面积的83%。水力资源丰富。2015年起,圭近海斯塔布鲁克区块先后发现大量石油资源,可采储量约40亿桶。

工业 以采矿业和制糖业为主。主要开采铝矾土、黄金和钻石。

农林渔业 农林渔业产值约占国内生产总值的30%,出口额约占圭出口总额的一半。主要种植水稻和甘蔗,产量约占圭农业总产量的一半,此外还种植椰子、水果、蔬菜、烟草等。

旅游业 近年来,圭重视开发旅游资源,但基础设施落后,宾馆业不配套,旅游发展受限。

[Important figures] David Granger: President. Born in the capital Georgetown on July 15, 1945. He studied at the University of Guyana and the University of the West Indies with a Bachelor’s degree in History, a Master’s degree in Political Science and a Master’s degree in International Relations. He joined the KDF in 1965, served as chief of staff of the National Defence Force from 1979 to 1990, and served as president of the National Security Adviser from 1990 to 1992. He was promoted and retired in 1994. Since 2011, he has been the leader of the opposition party in Parliament. In May 2015, the presidential election was elected.

Moses Nagamutu: First Vice President and Prime Minister. Born on November 30, 1947 in the area of ​​Cologne. He studied at the University of Guyana and the University of the West Indies. Former teacher, journalist, lawyer. Joined the party in 1964. From 1992 to 2000, he served as Minister of Information, Local Government and Minister of Regional Development. In October 2011, he left the party and joined the opposition reform alliance. After the May 2015 general election, he became the first vice president and prime minister.

[Economy] The Kyu economy is dominated by primary products, and bauxite, sugar and rice are the three pillars of the economy. In recent years, the Kyrgyz government has implemented a sound macroeconomic policy and a moderately expanded fiscal policy, increased investment in public facilities, and carried out large-scale sugar industry transformation, and the economy has risen steadily. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $3.591 billion

Per capita GDP: 4,662 US dollars

GDP growth rate: 3.5%

Inflation rate: 2.3%

Currency Name: Guyana Dollar

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 207 kyats

(Source: International Monetary Fund)

[Resources] Rich in natural resources. The deposits include bauxite, gold, diamonds, manganese, molybdenum, copper, antimony, tungsten, nickel, and uranium. Among them, bauxite is abundant, about 360 million tons. The forest area is 164,000 square kilometers, accounting for 83% of the national land area. Rich in water resources. Since 2015, a large amount of oil resources have been discovered in the Stasbruck block of the coastal area of ​​Kyu, and the recoverable reserves are about 4 billion barrels.

Industry is dominated by the mining industry and the sugar industry. It mainly produces bauxite, gold and diamonds.

Agriculture, forestry and fishery The output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery accounts for about 30% of the gross domestic product, and exports account for about half of the total export value of the country. Mainly planting rice and sugar cane, the output accounts for about half of the total agricultural output of the country, in addition to coconut, fruit, vegetables, tobacco and so on.

Tourism In recent years, Gui has attached great importance to the development of tourism resources, but the infrastructure is backward, the hotel industry is not matched, and tourism development is limited.

【交通运输】 公路及水运都集中在沿海地区。

铁路:有长约187公里的黄金运输专用铁路。

公路:全长7970公里,其中沥青路面约1300公里。

水运:有5900公里内河航道。首都乔治敦和新阿姆斯特丹为主要港口。

空运:主要为契迪·贾根国际机场,内地有数个小型简易机场。

财政金融 2017年圭政府财政收入2217.47亿圭元,财政支出2599.23亿圭元,外债总额3534.42亿圭元。(资料来源:国际货币基金组织)

对外贸易 主要出口黄金、糖、海产品、铝土、大米、木材等;进口燃油、润滑油和消费品等。主要贸易伙伴为美国、欧盟、加拿大和加共体国家。2017年,圭进出口总额30.98亿美元,其中出口14.60亿美元,进口16.38亿美元。(资料来源:2018年圭亚那经济季评)

经济团体 主要经济团体:

(1)乔治敦工商会(Georgetown Chamber of Commerce and Industry):成立于1889年。主席科默尔·拉姆诺斯(Komal Ramnauth)。地址:156 Waterloo Street, North Cummingsburg,Georgetown。

(2)圭亚那制造商协会(Guyana Manufacturers Association LTD):成立于1967年。会长诺曼·麦克莱恩(Norman McLean)。地址:157 Walterloo Street, North Cummingburg, Georgetown。

【人民生活】 国家为老人提供养老金,为工伤事故者提供抚恤金。2016年人均寿命68.6岁,人口增长率0.32%,出生率1.54%,死亡率0.74%。

【军事】 圭国防军有现役军人1600人,其中陆军1400人,海空军各100人。实行志愿兵役制,服役期3年。现任国防军参谋长帕特里克·韦斯特(Patrick West)准将,2017年1月就任。另外有预备役部队1500人。

【教育】 对6至15岁青少年实施免费义务教育。成人识字率约88.5%。

【新闻出版】 圭亚那三大日报:《圭亚那纪事报》(Guyana Chronicle),1881年由政府创办,官方报纸,日发行量6000份;《凯丘新闻报》(Kaieteur News),1997年由无党派私人企业家格兰·劳尔创办,目前日发行量居第一位,约 22900份;《斯塔布鲁克新闻报》(Stabroek News),1986年创办,私营报纸,日发行量14000份。

圭亚那共有14个电视频道和6家广播电台。圭亚那电视台(NCN)为国家电视台,主要转播英国BBC和美国CNN新闻,以及美国和印度电影。圭亚那广播公司(GBG)是唯一全国性广播电台,1979年成立。

《圭亚那评论》(Guyana Review)为唯一新闻性杂志,1993年创刊,发行量约2000份。

[Transportation] Both roads and waterways are concentrated in coastal areas.

Railway: There is a special railway for gold transportation with a length of about 187 kilometers.

Highway: The total length is 7970 kilometers, of which the asphalt road is about 1,300 kilometers.

Water transport: There are 5,900 kilometers of inland waterway. The capital Georgetown and New Amsterdam are the main ports.

Air transport: mainly Chedi Jagan International Airport, there are several small airstrips in the Mainland.

Finance and Finance In 2017, the government’s fiscal revenue was 221.747 billion yuan, the fiscal expenditure was 259.923 billion yuan, and the total external debt was 353.42 billion yuan. (Source: International Monetary Fund)

Foreign trade Mainly exports gold, sugar, seafood, bauxite, rice, wood, etc.; imported fuel, lubricants and consumer goods. The main trading partners are the United States, the European Union, Canada and the CARICOM countries. In 2017, the total import and export volume of Kyu was 3.098 billion U.S. dollars, of which exports were 1.46 billion U.S. dollars and imports were 1.638 billion U.S. dollars. (Source: 2018 Guyana Economic Quarterly Review)

Economic groups Main economic groups:

(1) Georgetown Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Established in 1889. Chairman Komal Ramnauth. Address: 156 Waterloo Street, North Cummingsburg, Georgetown.

(2) Guyana Manufacturers Association LTD: Established in 1967. President Norman McLean. Address: 157 Walterloo Street, North Cummingburg, Georgetown.

[People’s Life] The state provides pensions for the elderly and provides pensions for workers injured in work accidents. In 2016, the average life expectancy was 68.6 years, the population growth rate was 0.32%, the birth rate was 1.54%, and the mortality rate was 0.74%.

[Military] The KDF has 1,600 active military personnel, including 1,400 army members and 100 sea and air forces. The voluntary military service system is implemented and the service period is 3 years. Brigadier General Patrick West, the current Chief of Staff of the National Defence Force, took office in January 2017. There are also 1,500 reserve troops.

[Education] Free compulsory education for young people aged 6 to 15 years. The adult literacy rate is about 88.5%.

[Press and Publication] The three major daily newspapers in Guyana: Guyana Chronicle, founded by the government in 1881, the official newspaper, with a daily circulation of 6,000 copies; Kaieteur News, in 1997 by non-partisan The private entrepreneur, Gran Raul, founded the current daily circulation of about 22,900 copies; Stabroek News, founded in 1986, private newspaper, with a daily circulation of 14,000 copies.

Guyana has 14 TV channels and 6 radio stations. The Guyana Television (NCN) is a national television station that broadcasts British BBC and CNN news, as well as American and Indian films. The Guyana Broadcasting Corporation (GBG) is the only national radio station established in 1979.

The Guyana Review is the only news magazine, which was launched in 1993 and has a circulation of about 2,000 copies.

【对外关系】 奉行独立、不结盟的外交政策,与各国发展友好合作关系。目标是维护国家主权、领土完整和独立,促进国家经济和社会发展,塑造良好国际形象。

重视与加勒比国家和南美邻国的关系,努力使圭成为连接加勒比和南美国家的桥梁。把发展对美、欧关系作为外交政策的重点。主张与世界各国发展友好关系,积极参与不结盟运动、英联邦和联合国活动,倡导建立 “全球人类新秩序”,提高圭在国际政治舞台上的影响和地位。是加勒比共同体、加勒比开发银行、南美国家联盟和美洲开发银行成员。

同美国的关系 圭美1966年8月建交。美在基础设施建设、减贫、防治艾滋病、教育、打击犯罪等方面向圭提供经济和技术援助,并给予债务减免,在促进圭经济和社会发展方面起着举足轻重的作用。圭美签有加勒比盆地安全计划一揽子协议、《开放航空服务协定》、《毒品防控与执法议定书》等合作文件。

同委内瑞拉的关系 圭委1966年11月建交。圭委两国对埃塞奎博地区的归属问题有争执,争议地区占圭亚那领土面积三分之二。2011年,圭委就两国领土争端调停交换意见并签署共同声明,一致同意继续通过联合国秘书长代表斡旋双边领土纠纷。2015年5月,圭宣布在斯塔布鲁克区块发现油气资源后,两国争端有所加剧。2018年2月,联合国秘书长古特雷斯表示,鉴于一直以来联合国调解未果,根据圭委签署的《日内瓦协议》授予联合国秘书长的职权,选择将圭委领土争端提交国际法院仲裁,联合国将作为补充机制。2018年4月,圭向国际法院提交仲裁申请书。委对此强烈反对,坚持以双边谈判解决有关争端。

同苏里南的关系圭苏于1975年11月建交。圭苏之间存在领土纠纷,主要在科兰太因河上游地区的新河三角洲,涉及面积 1.7万平方公里。圭苏多次举行边界委员会会议,商讨在有争议的海域共同开发资源和新河三角洲非军事化问题。2004年,圭政府将两国海洋边界划分的争端提交国际海洋法法庭进行仲裁。2007年9月,国际海洋法法庭作出裁决,基本采用中间线原则划定两国海洋边界,争议水域略大于三分之二部分划归圭方。

同加勒比国家的关系 重视同加勒比国家的团结与合作,积极推动加勒比地区一体化进程。2006年1月正式加入加勒比单一市场。为加勒比共同体创始国之一,也是其秘书处所在地。

[External Relations] Pursue an independent and non-aligned foreign policy and develop friendly and cooperative relations with other countries. The goal is to safeguard national sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, promote national economic and social development, and shape a good international image.

Attach importance to relations with Caribbean countries and South American neighbors, and strive to make Guia a bridge connecting the Caribbean and South American countries. Develop the relationship between the United States and Europe as the focus of foreign policy. He advocates developing friendly relations with all countries in the world, actively participates in the activities of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth and the United Nations, advocates the establishment of a “new global human order”, and enhances the influence and status of Gui in the international political arena. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, the South American Union and the Inter-American Development Bank.

Relations with the United States Guimei established diplomatic relations in August 1966. The United States provides economic and technical assistance to Egypt in infrastructure construction, poverty alleviation, AIDS prevention, education, and crime prevention, and provides debt relief, which plays a pivotal role in promoting economic and social development of the country. Kyumei has signed cooperation documents such as the Caribbean Basin Security Plan Package, the Open Air Services Agreement, and the Drug Prevention and Control and Enforcement Protocol.

Relations with Venezuela The Commission established diplomatic relations in November 1966. The two countries have disputes over the ownership of the Essequibo area, which accounts for two-thirds of the territory of Guyana. In 2011, the KMT exchanged views on the mediation of the territorial disputes between the two countries and signed a joint statement, unanimously agreeing to continue to mediate bilateral territorial disputes through the UN Secretary-General’s representative. In May 2015, after the announcement of the discovery of oil and gas resources in the Stabruk block, the dispute between the two countries has intensified. In February 2018, UN Secretary-General Guterres said that in view of the unsuccessful United Nations mediation, according to the Geneva Agreement signed by the KMT, the UN Secretary-General was given the authority to submit the territorial dispute of the Kyrgyzstan to the International Court of Justice. As a complementary mechanism. In April 2018, Gui submitted an application for arbitration to the International Court of Justice. The Committee strongly opposed this and insisted on resolving the relevant disputes through bilateral negotiations.

Relations with Suriname Guisu established diplomatic relations in November 1975. There are territorial disputes between Guisu and Sukhoi, mainly in the New River Delta in the upper reaches of the Kelan Taiyin River, covering an area of ​​17,000 square kilometers. Guisu has held several meetings of the Boundary Commission to discuss the joint development of resources in the disputed waters and the demilitarization of the New River Delta. In 2004, the Kyrgyz government submitted the dispute over the maritime boundary between the two countries to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea for arbitration. In September 2007, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea made a ruling that basically used the middle line principle to delineate the maritime boundary between the two countries. The disputed waters were slightly larger than two-thirds and were classified as the squad.

Relations with Caribbean countries Focus on solidarity and cooperation with Caribbean countries and actively promote the integration process in the Caribbean. Formally joined the Caribbean Single Market in January 2006. One of the founding members of the Caribbean Community and the seat of its secretariat.