The Cook Islands 库克群岛

【国名】库克群岛(The Cook Islands)。

【面积】240平方公里,由15个小岛组成。

【人口】13100(2015年),均持新西兰护照。毛利人(属波利尼西亚人种)占92%,欧洲后裔占3%。居民69%信奉基督教新教,15%信奉罗马天主教。

【语言】通用库克群岛毛利语和英语。

【首都】阿瓦鲁阿(Avarua),位于拉罗汤加岛(Rarotonga)。

【国家元首】英国女王伊丽莎白二世。女王代表为汤姆·马斯特斯(Tom Marsters),2013年8月就职,2016年7月连任,任期3年。

【重要节日】宪法日(国庆日):8月4日

【简史】毛利人为原住民。1773年,英国海军上校库克船长探险到此地,以“库克”命名。1888年成为英国保护地。1901年6月成为新西兰属地。1964年在联合国监督下举行全民公决,通过宪法。1965年宪法生效,实行内部完全自治,享有完全的立法权和行政权,同新西兰保持自由联系,防务和外交由新西兰协助。1989年,新西兰政府致函联合国,声明库克群岛有完全的宪法能力自主处理其对外关系和签署国际协定,希国际社会将库克群岛作为主权国家对待。

【议会】一院制,由普选产生的24名议员组成立法会议,任期4年。目前议长为尼基·拉特尔(Niki Rattle),2018年9月连任。最近一次大选于2018年6月14日举行。此外,1966年成立酋长院,由代表各岛的20名酋长组成,就土地使用和传统习俗向议会和政府提出建议。现任院长为托乌·特拉维尔·阿里基(Tou Travel Ariki)。

【政府】由议会多数党组成。2010年11月、2014年7月,库克群岛分别举行大选,库克群岛党均胜选,该党领袖亨利·普那任总理。2018年6月14日,库克群岛举行新一届大选。9月,执政党库克群岛党争取到一个库克党和2名独立议员支持,组成新一届联合政府,普那连任总理。

【重要人物】亨利·普那:总理。生于1949年7月,新西兰奥克兰大学肄业,获澳大利亚塔斯马尼亚大学法律学士学位。2005年当选马尼希基选区议员,2006年出任库克群岛党领袖,同年落选议员职位。2009年连任库克群岛党领袖,2010年重新当选马尼希基选区议员并于同年12月出任库政府总理。2014年7月、2018年9月连任总理。

[Country name] The Cook Islands.

[Area] 240 square kilometers, consisting of 15 small islands.

[Population] 13100 (2015), all holding New Zealand passports. Maori (Polynesian) accounted for 92%, and European descent accounted for 3%. 69% of residents believe in Protestantism and 15% believe in Roman Catholicism.

[Language] General Cook Islands Maori and English.

[Capital] Avarua, located in Rarotonga.

[Head of State] Queen Elizabeth II of England. The Queen’s representative is Tom Marsters, who took office in August 2013 and re-elected in July 2016 for a three-year term.

[Important Festival] Constitution Day (National Day): August 4th

[A brief history] Maori people are aborigines. In 1773, Captain Cook, the British Navy Colonel, explored this place and named it “Cook.” In 1888, it became a British protected area. In June 1901, it became a New Zealand territory. In 1964, a referendum was held under the supervision of the United Nations to pass the Constitution. The 1965 Constitution came into force, with full internal autonomy, full legislative and executive powers, free ties with New Zealand, and defense and diplomacy assisted by New Zealand. In 1989, the New Zealand government sent a letter to the United Nations stating that the Cook Islands had full constitutional capacity to handle its foreign relations and sign international agreements, and that the international community treated the Cook Islands as a sovereign state.

[Parliament] The one-chamber system consists of 24 members elected by universal suffrage to form a legislative assembly for a term of four years. The current speaker is Niki Rattle, re-elected in September 2018. The most recent general election was held on June 14, 2018. In addition, the Chiefs’ Court was established in 1966 and consisted of 20 chiefs representing the islands, making recommendations to the Parliament and the Government on land use and traditional practices. The current dean is Tou Travel Ariki.

[Government] is composed of a majority party in the parliament. In November 2010 and July 2014, the Cook Islands held separate elections, and the Cook Islands party won the election. The leader of the party, Henry Pune, was prime minister. On June 14, 2018, the Cook Islands held a new general election. In September, the ruling Cook Islands Party won the support of a Cook Party and two independent members to form a new coalition government, Pune was re-elected as Prime Minister.

[Important] Henry Pune: Prime Minister. Born in July 1949, the University of Auckland, New Zealand, earned a bachelor’s degree in law from the University of Tasmania, Australia. In 2005, he was elected as a member of the Manihki Constituency. In 2006, he became the leader of the Cook Islands Party and was disqualified from the same year. In 2009, he was re-elected as the leader of the Cook Islands Party. In 2010, he was re-elected as a member of the Maniheki constituency and in December of the same year he became the prime minister of the Ku government. Re-elected as Prime Minister in July 2014 and September 2018.

【经济】2014年,国内生产总值(GDP)为2.972亿美元,人均GDP约1.95万美元。2016年,国内生产总值为4.14亿新元,人均国内生产总值约2万新元。使用新西兰货币,1新元约合0.68美元(2019年1月)。主要经济来源是旅游业。新西兰为最大客源国。

2012年,出口额为325.7万新元,进口额为3496.3万新元。主要出口商品为鱼类、珍珠、木瓜等,主要进口商品为燃料和化学品、机器设备、工业制成品、食品和活畜。2015年,前四大出口市场为日本、中国、澳大利亚、新西兰,前三大进口来源地为新西兰、美国、斐济、澳大利亚。

【交通】有阿瓦鲁阿国际机场,可起降波音747飞机。主要国际航线至奥克兰、洛杉矶和夏威夷等地。

【港口】90%的进口依靠海运,最大港口为阿瓦蒂乌港,可停泊3000吨货轮。

【外国援助】财政收入主要靠外援,接受外援的60%来自新西兰和澳大利亚。自2004年起,新、澳两国联合执行对库克群岛援助,由新西兰国际开发署负责协调。2014/2015财年,新西兰援助库克群岛1400万新元,澳大利亚援助库克群岛400万澳元。2015/2016财年,新西兰援助库克群岛2520万新元,澳大利亚援助库克群岛350万澳元。2016/2017财年,新西兰援助库克群岛1930万新元,澳大利亚援助库克群岛340万澳元。2018/2019财年,新西兰向库克群岛援助预算为1136万新元。

【军队和警察】防务由新西兰协助,不设军队。全国共有警察110人,不配枪支。

【教育】对4岁儿童进行学龄前教育,对6-15岁儿童实行义务教育。有39所中小学,学生5560人,教师300多人。有一所师范学院。南太平洋大学拉罗汤加分校进行成人高等教育和函授教学。全国受过高等教育的有400人。

【新闻】主要电台为库克群岛电台,用英语和毛利语广播,转播澳大利亚和新西兰电台的国际和地区新闻。拉罗汤加也有一家私人电台。库克群岛电信公司提供国际直拨电话及传真、电传、电报和互联网服务。

主要报纸:《库克群岛新闻》日报,用英文和毛利文出版;《库克群岛先驱报》,周六出版。

【卫生】实行免费医疗制。有8所政府医院,151张病床。

[Economy] In 2014, the gross domestic product (GDP) was $297.2 million, and the per capita GDP was about $19,500. In 2016, the gross domestic product was 414 million Singapore dollars, and the per capita GDP was about 20,000 Singapore dollars. In New Zealand currency, S$1 is approximately $0.68 (January 2019). The main source of income is tourism. New Zealand is the largest source country.

In 2012, the export value was S$3.257 million and the import value was S$35.363 million. The main export commodities are fish, pearls, papaya, etc. The main imported commodities are fuels and chemicals, machinery and equipment, industrial manufactured goods, food and live animals. In 2015, the top four export markets were Japan, China, Australia, and New Zealand. The top three import sources were New Zealand, the United States, Fiji, and Australia.

[Traffic] There is Avarua International Airport, which can take off and land Boeing 747 aircraft. Major international routes to Auckland, Los Angeles and Hawaii.

[Port] 90% of imports depend on shipping, and the largest port is Avatiu Port, which can park 3,000 tons of freighters.

[Foreign Aid] The fiscal revenue is mainly based on foreign aid, and 60% of foreign aid is from New Zealand and Australia. Since 2004, the New Zealand and Australia have jointly implemented assistance to the Cook Islands, coordinated by the New Zealand Agency for International Development. In the 2014/2015 fiscal year, New Zealand assisted the Cook Islands with S$14 million and Australia assisted the Cook Islands with A$4 million. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, New Zealand assisted the Cook Islands with S$20.2 million and Australia assisted the Cook Islands for A$3.5 million. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, New Zealand assisted the Cook Islands with S$19.3 million and Australia assisted the Cook Islands for A$3.4 million. In the fiscal year 2018/2019, New Zealand’s aid budget to the Cook Islands was S$11.36 million.

[Army and Police] Defense is assisted by New Zealand and does not have an army. There are 110 police officers in the country, and there are no guns.

[Education] Preschool education for 4-year-old children and compulsory education for children aged 6-15. There are 39 primary and secondary schools with 5,560 students and more than 300 teachers. There is a teacher’s college. The University of the South Pacific Rarotonga conducts adult higher education and correspondence teaching. There are 400 people with higher education in the country.

[News] The main station is the Cook Islands Radio, which broadcasts in English and Maori, and broadcasts international and regional news from Radio Australia and New Zealand. Rarotonga also has a private radio station. Cook Islands Telecom provides international direct dialing and fax, telex, telex and internet services.

Main newspaper: The Cook Islands News Daily, published in English and Maori; The Cook Islands Herald, published on Saturday.

[Health] Implement a free medical system. There are 8 government hospitals and 151 beds.

【对外关系】

库克群岛不是联合国成员国,与中国、新西兰、澳大利亚、日本、法国、德国、印度、意大利、西班牙、葡萄牙、瑞士、波黑、斐济、伊朗、马来西亚、以色列、瑙鲁、挪威、巴布亚新几内亚、南非、梵蒂冈、泰国、比利时、古巴、牙买加、摩纳哥、东帝汶、土耳其、捷克、菲律宾、韩国等国及欧盟建立外交关系。驻外外交机构有:驻新西兰高专署、驻奥克兰总领馆、驻悉尼名誉领事、驻夏威夷名誉领事、驻奥斯陆名誉总领事。目前,除新西兰向库克群岛派常驻高专外,澳大利亚、中国、斐济、法国、印度、马来西亚、挪威、巴布亚新几内亚、南非向库克群岛派有兼任大使或高专,法国、德国、英国和瑙鲁在库克群岛设名誉领事。库克群岛是联合国开发署、联合国粮农组织、联合国教科文组织、世界卫生组织、世界气象组织、国际民航组织、国际海事组织、亚洲开发银行、国际红十字会等国际组织的成员,是英联邦和联合国亚太经社会联系成员国,是太平洋共同体、太平洋岛国论坛、论坛渔业局、非加太集团等地区组织的成员。

库克群岛与新西兰签有防务、民航等协定,与韩国、挪威签有渔业协定,与美国、法国签有海域边界条约,与法国签有友好合作协定,与斐济签有双边贸易协定。库克群岛每年参加太平洋岛国论坛会议,还参与所罗门地区干预行动和地区反恐合作。2000年6月,库克群岛加入“非加太集团”,与欧盟15国在贝宁签署经济贸易伙伴关系文件“科托努协定”(原“洛美协定”)。为加强与欧盟关系,库克群岛任命首任驻欧盟特别代表。8月,库克群岛正式签署《中西太渔业公约》。2004年4月、8月,库克群岛总理温顿先后出席新西兰召开的太平洋岛国论坛首脑特别会议、萨摩亚召开的论坛年度首脑会议。2005年1月、10月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷先后出席在毛里求斯举行的“小岛屿发展中国家可持续发展国际会议”、在巴新举行的太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2006年5月、6月、10月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷先后出席在日本冲绳举行的第四届“日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议”、在法国巴黎举行的第二届“法国-大洋洲峰会”、在斐济楠迪举行的第37届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。8月,新西兰总督卡特赖特出席库克群岛自治40周年宪法日庆祝仪式。9月,库克群岛女王代表古德温赴汤加出席图普四世国王的葬礼。2007年5月、10月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷先后出席在华盛顿举行的太平洋岛国核心伙伴会议、在汤加举行的第38届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。7月,第38届南太共同议会协会大会在库克群岛召开。8月,新西兰总督萨特亚南德访问库克群岛。2008年2月、8月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷访问所罗门群岛、出席在纽埃举行的第39届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2009年1月、5月、8月、12月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷先后出席在巴布亚新几内亚召开的太平洋岛国论坛首脑特别会议、在日本北海道召开的日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议、在澳大利亚凯恩斯举行的第40届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议、在丹麦哥本哈根举行的联合国气候变化大会。7月,新西兰总理约翰·基访问库克群岛。9月,库克群岛成功举办南太小型运动会。2010年8月,库克群岛总理马鲁雷出席在瓦努阿图举行的第41届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。国际电信联盟在库克群岛拉罗汤加岛举行太平洋地区会议。2011年6月,库克群岛总理普那访问日本,两国正式建立外交关系。8月,库克群岛总理普那访问新西兰并出席第42届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。11月,库克群岛总理普那先后出席在新喀里多尼亚举行的太平洋共同体第七次会议、在夏威夷举行的太平洋岛国领导人会议和在萨摩亚举行的波利尼西亚次区域国家领导人会议。12月,库克群岛与菲律宾建交。2012年1月,库克群岛总理普那出席在阿联酋阿布扎比举行的太平洋岛国领导人会议。2月,新西兰外长麦卡利访问库克群岛。5月,库克群岛总理普那先后出席在巴巴多斯举行的联合国小岛屿发展中国家能源可持续发展会议和在日本冲绳举行的日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。6月,库克群岛总理普那出席萨摩亚独立50周年庆祝活动。8月,库克群岛举办第43届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。11月,库克群岛总理普那赴巴布亚新几内亚主持非加太集团太平洋岛国领导人特别会议。2013年2月,库克群岛总理普那、财政部长布朗和海洋资源部长毕晓普在新西兰皇后镇同新西兰外长麦卡利举行两国第二届联合部长级论坛。3月,库克群岛总理普那赴汤加和新西兰出席太平洋岛国领导人能源峰会和太平洋能源峰会。2014年2月,新西兰外长麦卡利访问库克群岛,出席新西兰、中国、库克群岛三方合作供水项目开工仪式。5月,太平洋岛国论坛峰会在库克群岛首都拉罗汤加举行。2015年2月,库克群岛总理普那访问新西兰。3月,澳大利亚外长毕晓普访库。2015年5月,新西兰外长麦卡利访库。8月,库克群岛总理普那访问新西兰。2016年4月,库克群岛总理普那访问新西兰,考察当地渔业。2017年2月,库克群岛总理普那访问新加坡,新西兰外长麦卡利访库。6月,新西兰总理英格利希访库。同月,库克群岛签署《太平洋更紧密经济关系协定》。2018年3月,新西兰总理阿德恩访问库克群岛。

[External Relations]

Cook Islands is not a member of the United Nations, with China, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Fiji, Iran, Malaysia, Israel, Nauru, Norway, Papua New Guinea Diplomatic relations were established between South Africa, the Vatican, Thailand, Belgium, Cuba, Jamaica, Monaco, East Timor, Turkey, the Czech Republic, the Philippines, South Korea and the European Union. Foreign diplomatic agencies include: the New Zealand High Commission, the Consulate General in Auckland, the Honorary Consul in Sydney, the Honorary Consul in Hawaii, and the Honorary Consul General in Oslo. At present, in addition to New Zealand’s resident high school to the Cook Islands, Australia, China, Fiji, France, India, Malaysia, Norway, Papua New Guinea, and South Africa have appointed ambassadors or junior colleges to the Cook Islands, France, Germany, The United Kingdom and Nauru have honorary consuls in the Cook Islands. The Cook Islands is a member of the United Nations Development Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, UNESCO, the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization, the Asian Development Bank, the International Red Cross, and other international organizations. Member States affiliated with UNESCAP are members of regional organizations such as the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the ACP Group.

The Cook Islands has signed defense and civil aviation agreements with New Zealand, signed fisheries agreements with South Korea and Norway, signed maritime border treaties with the United States and France, signed friendly cooperation agreements with France, and signed bilateral trade agreements with Fiji. The Cook Islands participates in the Pacific Islands Forum meeting each year and participates in Solomon regional interventions and regional counter-terrorism cooperation. In June 2000, the Cook Islands joined the “ACP Group” and signed the “Cotonou Agreement” (formerly the “Lome Agreement”) on the economic and trade partnership document with the EU-15 in Benin. To strengthen relations with the EU, the Cook Islands appointed the first special representative to the European Union. In August, the Cook Islands officially signed the “Chinese-Western Tai Fisheries Convention.” In April and August 2004, Prime Minister Winton of the Cook Islands attended the special summit of the Pacific Islands Forum held in New Zealand and the annual summit of the forum held in Samoa. In January and October 2005, Prime Minister Marule of the Cook Islands attended the “International Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States” held in Mauritius and the Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Papua New Guinea. In May, June and October 2006, Cook Islands Prime Minister Marului attended the 4th “Japan-Pacific Island Countries Summit” held in Okinawa, Japan, and the second “France-Oceania” in Paris, France. Summit, the 37th Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Nadi, Fiji. In August, New Zealand Governor Cartwright attended the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the Cook Islands Autonomy. In September, the Queen of Cook Islands represented Goodwin to Tonga to attend the funeral of King Tupou IV. In May and October 2007, Cook Islands Prime Minister Marului attended the Pacific Islands Countries Core Partners Conference in Washington, DC, and the 38th Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Tonga. In July, the 38th Nantai Common Parliament Association Conference was held in the Cook Islands. In August, New Zealand Governor Satyanand visited the Cook Islands. In February and August 2008, Cook Islands Prime Minister Maroure visited Solomon Islands and attended the 39th Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Niue. In January, May, August and December 2009, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, Marule, attended the special summit of the Pacific Islands Forum held in Papua New Guinea and the Japan-Pacific Island Forum Summit in Hokkaido, Japan. The 40th Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Cairns, Australia, and the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark. In July, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key visited the Cook Islands. In September, the Cook Islands successfully hosted the South Pacific Small Games. In August 2010, Cook Islands Prime Minister Maroure attended the 41st Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Vanuatu. The International Telecommunication Union holds a Pacific Regional Conference in Rarotonga, Cook Islands. In June 2011, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands visited Japan and the two countries formally established diplomatic relations. In August, Cook Islands Prime Minister Pune visited New Zealand and attended the 42nd Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In November, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands attended the seventh meeting of the Pacific Community in New Caledonia, the Pacific Island Leaders Meeting in Hawaii and the Polynesian Subregional Leaders Meeting in Samoa. In December, the Cook Islands established diplomatic relations with the Philippines. In January 2012, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands attended the Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In February, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the Cook Islands. In May, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands attended the United Nations Conference on Energy Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States in Barbados and the Japan-Pacific Island Countries Summit in Okinawa, Japan. In June, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands attended the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Samoan’s independence. In August, the Cook Islands hosted the 43rd Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In November, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands went to Papua New Guinea to host the special meeting of the leaders of the ACP Pacific Island Countries. In February 2013, Cook Islands Prime Minister Pune, Finance Minister Brown and Ocean Resources Minister Bishop held the second joint ministerial forum between the two countries in Queenstown, New Zealand, with New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely. In March, Cook Islands Prime Minister Pune went to Tonga and New Zealand to attend the Pacific Island Leaders Energy Summit and the Pacific Energy Summit. In February 2014, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the Cook Islands to attend the groundbreaking ceremony for the three-way cooperative water supply project in New Zealand, China and Cook Islands. In May, the Pacific Islands Forum Summit was held in Rarotonga, the capital of the Cook Islands. In February 2015, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands visited New Zealand. In March, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the library. In May 2015, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the library. In August, Cook Islands Prime Minister Pune visited New Zealand. In April 2016, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands visited New Zealand to inspect the local fishery. In February 2017, Prime Minister Pune of the Cook Islands visited Singapore, and New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the library. In June, New Zealand Prime Minister Inglich visited the library. In the same month, the Cook Islands signed the Agreement on Closer Economic Relations in the Pacific. In March 2018, New Zealand Prime Minister Aden visited the Cook Islands.