The Commonwealth of Australia 澳大利亚联邦

【国名】澳大利亚联邦(The Commonwealth of Australia)。

【面积】769.2万平方公里。

【人口】2520.9万(2019年1月)。74%为英国及爱尔兰裔,5.6%为华裔,2.8%为土著人口,其他族裔主要有意大利裔、德裔和印度裔等。官方语言为英语,汉语为除英语外第二大使用语言。约63.9%的居民信仰基督教,5.9%的居民信仰佛教、伊斯兰教、印度教等其他宗教。无宗教信仰或宗教信仰不明人口占30.2%。

【首都】堪培拉(Canberra)

【国家元首】英国女王伊丽莎白二世。总督为女王代表,任期5年。总督彼得·科斯格罗夫(Peter Cosgrove),2014年3月28日就任。

【重要节日】澳大利亚日(澳国庆日):1月26日。

【简况】位于南太平洋和印度洋之间,由澳大利亚大陆、塔斯马尼亚岛等岛屿和海外领土组成。东濒太平洋的珊瑚海和塔斯曼海,北、西、南三面临印度洋及其边缘海。海岸线长36735公里。北部属热带,大部分属温带。年平均气温北部27℃,南部14℃。

【简史】最早居民为土著人。1770年英国航海家詹姆斯·库克抵澳东海岸,宣布英国占有这片土地。1788年1月26日英国流放到澳的第一批犯人抵悉尼湾,英开始在澳建立殖民地,后来这一天被定为澳国庆日。1900年7月,英议会通过“澳大利亚联邦宪法”和“不列颠自治领条例”。1901年1月1日,澳各殖民区改为州,成立澳大利亚联邦。1931年成为英联邦内的独立国家。1986年,英议会通过“与澳大利亚关系法”,澳获得完全立法权和司法终审权。

【议会】澳联邦议会成立于1901年,由女王(澳总督为其代表)、众议院和参议院组成。议会实行普选。众议院有150名议员,按人口比例选举产生,任期3年。参议院有76名议员,6个州每州12名,2个地区各2名。各州参议员任期6年,每3年改选一半,各地区参议员任期3年。2016年7月,澳举行联邦大选,产生新一届议会。现任众议长托尼·史密斯(Tony Smith,自由党),参议长斯科特·瑞恩(Scott Ryan,自由党)。

[Country name] The Commonwealth of Australia.

[Area] 7,692,200 square kilometers.

[Population] 25.290 million (January 2019). 74% are British and Irish, 5.6% are Chinese, 2.8% are indigenous, and other ethnic groups are mainly Italian, German and Indian. The official language is English, and Chinese is the second largest language except English. About 63.9% of the residents believe in Christianity, and 5.9% of the residents believe in Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and other religions. The population without religious belief or religious belief is 30.2%.

[Capital] Canberra

[Head of State] Queen Elizabeth II of England. The Governor is a representative of the Queen for a term of five years. Governor Peter Cosgrove, took office on March 28, 2014.

[Important Festival] Australia Day (Australian Day): January 26.

[Profile] Located between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean, it consists of islands such as the Australian mainland and Tasmania and overseas territories. The Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea in the eastern Pacific Ocean face the Indian Ocean and its marginal seas in the north, west and south. The coastline is 36,735 kilometers long. The northern part is tropical and most of it is temperate. The annual average temperature is 27°C in the north and 14°C in the south.

[A brief history] The earliest inhabitants were indigenous. In 1770, the British navigator James Cook arrived on the east coast of Australia and announced that the British possessed the land. On January 26, 1788, the first prisoners exiled to Australia in the United Kingdom arrived in Sydney Bay. The British began to establish a colony in Australia. Later, this day was designated as the Australian National Day. In July 1900, the British Parliament passed the “Australian Federal Constitution” and the “British Self-Government Regulations.” On January 1, 1901, the Australian colonies were changed to states and the Commonwealth of Australia was established. In 1931 it became an independent country within the Commonwealth. In 1986, the British Parliament passed the “Agriculture Relations Act”, and Australia obtained full legislative power and judicial final adjudication power.

[Parliament] The Australian Federal Parliament was established in 1901 and consists of the Queen (the representative of Australia), the House of Representatives and the Senate. The parliament implements universal suffrage The House of Representatives has 150 members elected for a three-year term. There are 76 members in the Senate, 12 in each of the six states, and two in each of the two regions. The state senators are elected for a six-year term and are re-elected every three years. The district senators are elected for a three-year term. In July 2016, Australia held a federal election to produce a new parliament. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives, Tony Smith (Liberty Party), Senate President Scott Ryan (Liberty Party).

【议会】澳联邦议会成立于1901年,由女王(澳总督为其代表)、众议院和参议院组成。议会实行普选。众议院有150名议员,按人口比例选举产生,任期3年。参议院有76名议员,6个州每州12名,2个地区各2名。各州参议员任期6年,每3年改选一半,各地区参议员任期3年。2016年7月,澳举行联邦大选,产生新一届议会。现任众议长托尼·史密斯(Tony Smith,自由党),参议长斯科特·瑞恩(Scott Ryan,自由党)。

【政府】联邦政府由众议院多数党或政党联盟组成,该党领袖任总理,各部部长由总理任命。政府一般任期3年。2013年9月,自由党—国家党联盟赢得联邦大选并组建新政府,自由党领袖托尼·阿博特(Tony Abott)出任总理。2015年9月,前通讯部长马尔科姆·特恩布尔(Malcolm Turnbull)取代阿博特成为自由党领袖,并就任澳联邦总理。2016年7月,澳大利亚举行联邦大选,自由党—国家党联盟以微弱多数蝉联执政,特恩布尔连任总理。2018年8月24日,原国库部长斯科特·莫里森(Scott Morrison)在自由党内部选举中取代特恩布尔当选该党领袖,并出任澳新一届总理。目前,澳内阁主要成员有:总理斯科特·莫里森,副总理兼基础设施、交通和地区发展部长迈克尔·麦科马克(Michael McCormack),外长玛丽斯·佩恩(Marise Payne),财政和公共服务、政府驻参议院领袖兼行政委员会主席马赛厄斯·科尔曼(Mathias Cormann),国库部长兼自由党副领袖乔希·弗莱登伯格(Josh Frydenberg),国防部长兼众议院领袖克里斯托弗·派恩(Christopher Pyne),国防工业部长史蒂文·乔博(Steven Ciobo),内政部长彼得·达顿(Peter Dutton),总检察长克里斯琴·波特(Christian Porter),贸易、旅游与投资部长兼政府驻参议院副领袖西蒙·伯明翰(Simon Birmingham)。

【行政区划】全国划分为6个州和两个地区。6个州分别是新南威尔士、维多利亚、昆士兰、南澳大利亚、西澳大利亚、塔斯马尼亚;两个地区分别是北方领土地区和首都地区。

【司法机构】联邦高等法院是澳最高司法机构,对其他各级法院具有上诉管辖权,并对涉及宪法解释的案件做出决定,由1名首席大法官和6名大法官组成。现任首席大法官苏珊·基菲尔(Susan Kiefel),2017年1月就职。各州设最高法院、区法院和地方法院。首都地区和北领地区只设最高法院和地方法院。

【政党】澳主要政党有:

(1)自由党(Liberal Party):1944年成立,前身是1931年成立的澳大利亚联合党。主要代表工商业主利益,曾多次执政。2016年7月,自由党—国家党联盟在澳联邦大选胜出蝉联执政。现任领袖斯科特·莫里森。

(2)国家党(National Party):成立于1918年,原称乡村党,后称国家乡村党,1982年改用现名。其势力范围主要在农村地区,代表农场主利益,1996年至2007年与自由党联合执政,2013年、2016年与自由党再度联合执政。现任领袖迈克尔·麦科马克。

(3)澳大利亚工党(Australian Labor Party):成立于1891年,为澳最大政党,同工会关系密切,工会会员多为其集体党员。自1940年以来曾11次执政。最近一次执政时期为2007年11月至2013年9月。现任领袖比尔·肖顿(Bill Shorten)。

其他小党有绿党、单一民族党和澳大利亚共产党等。

[Parliament] The Australian Federal Parliament was established in 1901 and consists of the Queen (the representative of Australia), the House of Representatives and the Senate. The parliament implements universal suffrage The House of Representatives has 150 members elected for a three-year term. There are 76 members in the Senate, 12 in each of the six states, and two in each of the two regions. The state senators are elected for a six-year term and are re-elected every three years. The district senators are elected for a three-year term. In July 2016, Australia held a federal election to produce a new parliament. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives, Tony Smith (Liberty Party), Senate President Scott Ryan (Liberty Party).

[Government] The federal government is composed of a majority party or a coalition of political parties. The leader of the party is the prime minister and the ministers are appointed by the prime minister. The government usually has a term of three years. In September 2013, the Liberal Party-National Party Alliance won the federal election and formed a new government. Liberal Party leader Tony Abott became prime minister. In September 2015, former communications minister Malcolm Turnbull replaced Abbott as the leader of the Liberal Party and became the Prime Minister of Australia. In July 2016, Australia held a general election. The Liberal Party-National Party Alliance was governed by a weak majority, and Turnbull was re-elected as Prime Minister. On August 24, 2018, former Treasury Secretary Scott Morrison replaced Turnbull as the leader of the party in the Liberal Party’s internal elections and became the Prime Minister of Australia and New Zealand. At present, the main members of the Australian cabinet are: Prime Minister Scott Morrison, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development Michael McCormack, Foreign Minister Marise Payne, Finance And public services, the government’s Senate Leader and Executive Committee Chairman Mathias Cormann, Treasury Secretary and Liberal Party deputy leader Josh Frydenberg, Secretary of Defense and House Leader Christopher Christopher Pyne, Secretary of Defense Industry Steven Ciobo, Interior Minister Peter Dutton, Attorney General Christian Porter, Trade, Tourism and Simon Birmingham, Minister of Investment and Deputy Chief of the Government in the Senate.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into six states and two regions. The six states are New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania; the two regions are the Northern Territory and the Capital Region.

[Judiciary] The Federal High Court is the highest judicial body in Australia. It has jurisdiction over appeals to other courts at all levels and decides on cases involving constitutional interpretation. It consists of one Chief Justice and six Chief Justices. The current Chief Justice, Susan Kiefel, took office in January 2017. Each state has a Supreme Court, a District Court and a District Court. The Supreme Court and the District Court are only available in the Capital Region and the Northern Territory.

[Party] The main political parties in Australia are:

(1) Liberal Party: Established in 1944, the predecessor was the Australian United Party established in 1931. Mainly on behalf of the interests of industrial and commercial owners, has been in power for many times. In July 2016, the Liberal Party-National Party Alliance won the election in the Australian Commonwealth. Current leader Scott Morrison.

(2) National Party: Founded in 1918, it was originally called the Rural Party, later called the National Village Party. In 1982, it changed its current name. Its sphere of influence is mainly in rural areas, representing the interests of farmers. From 1996 to 2007, it joined forces with the Liberal Party, and in 2013 and 2016, it rejoined with the Liberal Party. The current leader, Michael McCormack.

(3) Australian Labor Party: Established in 1891, it is the largest political party in Australia and has close ties with trade unions. Most of its trade union members are collective members. He has been in power for 11 times since 1940. The most recent administration period was from November 2007 to September 2013. Current leader Bill Shorten.

Other small parties include the Green Party, the Single National Party, and the Australian Communist Party.

【重要人物】彼得·科斯格罗夫:总督。1947年7月生于澳大利亚悉尼,毕业于澳皇家军事学院。1968年参加越南战争。1997年任澳皇家军事学院院长。1999年出任联合国东帝汶多国维和部队最高指挥官。2001年任澳陆军司令。2002年升任澳国防军总司令。2005年退役。2014年3月就任澳第26任联邦总督。

斯科特·莫里森:总理。1968年5月出生于澳大利亚悉尼市,新南威尔士大学荣誉理学学士。曾任澳大利亚旅游局常务董事。2007年当选澳大利亚联邦众议员。2013年9月起历任移民与边境保护部长、社会服务部长、国库部长。2018年8月当选自由党领袖,并出任澳总理。

【经济】澳大利亚是一个工业化国家,农牧业发达,自然资源丰富,盛产羊、牛、小麦和蔗糖,同时也是世界重要的矿产品生产和出口国。农牧业、采矿业为澳传统产业,制造业和高科技产业发展迅速,服务业已成为国民经济主导产业。上世纪70年代以来,进行了一系列经济改革,大力发展对外贸易,经济保持较快增长。1991年至2008年,经济年均增长率为3.5%,在经合组织国家中名列前茅。近年来,随着国际大宗商品价格下降,澳矿业繁荣消退,公共财政压力上升,经济增长有所放缓。但澳金融体系稳健,监管严格,宏观经济政策调整空间大,在国际金融危机中表现好于其他西方国家。迄今澳经济已连续27年保持正增长。

主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(2017/2018财年):1.74万亿澳元。

经济增长率(2017/2018财年):2.9%。

人均国内生产总值(2017/2018财年):约7.3万澳元。

货币:澳元(1澳元≈0.71美元,2019年1月)。

失业率:5.2%(2018年9月)。

进出口总额(2017/2018财年):7986.41亿澳元,同比增长8.4%。其中,出口4032.41亿澳元,同比增长7.9%;进口3954亿澳元,同比增长9%。贸易顺差78.41亿澳元。

外汇储备:763亿澳元(2018年12月)。

【资源】矿产资源丰富,至少有70余种。其中铅、镍、银、铀、锌、钽的探明经济储量居世界首位。澳是世界上最大的铝矾土、氧化铝、钻石、钽生产国,黄金、铁矿石、煤、锂、锰矿石、镍、银、铀、锌的产量也居世界前列。澳还是世界最大的烟煤、铝矾土、钻石、锌精矿出口国,第二大氧化铝、铁矿石、铀矿出口国,第三大铝和黄金出口国。已探明的有经济开采价值的矿产蕴藏量包括:铝矾土约53亿吨,铁矿砂146亿吨,黑煤403亿吨,褐煤300亿吨,铅2290万吨,镍2260万吨,银4.14万吨,钽40835吨,锌4100万吨,黄金5570吨。原油储量2270亿升,天然气储量2.2万亿立方米。森林覆盖率21%,天然森林面积约1.63亿公顷(2/3为桉树)。渔业资源丰富,捕鱼区面积比国土面积多16%,是世界上第三大捕鱼区,有3000多种海水和淡水鱼以及3000多种甲壳及软体类水产品,其中已进行商业捕捞的约600种。最主要的水产品有对虾、龙虾、鲍鱼、金枪鱼、扇贝、牡蛎等。

[Important] Peter Cosgrove: Governor. Born in Sydney, Australia in July 1947, he graduated from the Royal Military Academy of Australia. Participated in the Vietnam War in 1968. In 1997, he served as Dean of the Royal Australian Military Academy. In 1999, he became the highest commander of the United Nations Multinational Peacekeeping Force in East Timor. In 2001, he served as commander of the Australian Army. In 2002, he was promoted to commander-in-chief of the Australian Defence Force Retired in 2005. In March 2014, he became the 26th federal governor of Australia.

Scott Morrison: Prime Minister. Born in May 1968 in Sydney, Australia, Bachelor of Science with Honours from the University of New South Wales. Former director of the Australian Tourism Board. In 2007, he was elected to the Australian Federal Assembly. Since September 2013, he has served as Minister of Immigration and Border Protection, Minister of Social Services, and Minister of Treasury. In August 2018, he was elected to be the leader of the party and became the prime minister of Australia.

[Economy] Australia is an industrialized country with developed agriculture and animal husbandry, abundant natural resources, rich in sheep, cattle, wheat and sugar. It is also an important producer and exporter of mineral products in the world. The agriculture, animal husbandry and mining industries are traditional Australian industries, and the manufacturing and high-tech industries are developing rapidly. The service industry has become the leading industry of the national economy. Since the 1970s, a series of economic reforms have been carried out to vigorously develop foreign trade, and the economy has maintained rapid growth. From 1991 to 2008, the economy grew at an average annual rate of 3.5%, ranking among the top in the OECD countries. In recent years, with the decline in international commodity prices, the Australian mining boom has subsided, public finance pressures have risen, and economic growth has slowed. However, the Australian financial system is sound, the supervision is strict, and the macroeconomic policy adjustment space is large, and it is better than other Western countries in the international financial crisis. The Australian economy has maintained positive growth for 27 consecutive years.

The main economic data are as follows:

Gross Domestic Product (FY2017/2018): A$1.74 trillion.

Economic growth rate (2017/2018 fiscal year): 2.9%.

Per capita GDP (FY2017/2018): Approximately 73,000 Australian dollars.

Currency: Australian dollar (1 Australian dollar ≈ 0.71 US dollars, January 2019).

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (September 2018).

Total import and export volume (2017/2018 fiscal year): 798.641 billion Australian dollars, an increase of 8.4%. Among them, exports were 403.241 billion Australian dollars, up 7.9% year-on-year; imports were 395.4 billion Australian dollars, up 9% year-on-year. The trade surplus was A$7.841 billion.

Foreign exchange reserves: A$76.3 billion (December 2018).

[Resources] There are at least 70 kinds of mineral resources. Among them, the proven economic reserves of lead, nickel, silver, uranium, zinc and antimony rank first in the world. Australia is the world’s largest producer of bauxite, alumina, diamonds and tantalum. The production of gold, iron ore, coal, lithium, manganese ore, nickel, silver, uranium and zinc is also among the highest in the world. Australia is also the world’s largest exporter of bituminous coal, bauxite, diamonds and zinc concentrates, the second largest exporter of alumina, iron ore and uranium, and the third largest exporter of aluminum and gold. The proven mineral reserves with economic exploitation value include: 5.3 billion tons of bauxite, 14.6 billion tons of iron ore, 40.3 billion tons of black coal, 30 billion tons of lignite, 22.9 million tons of lead and 22.6 million tons of nickel. Silver is 41,400 tons, 钽40835 tons, zinc 41 million tons, and gold 5570 tons. The crude oil reserves are 227 billion liters and the natural gas reserves are 2.2 trillion cubic meters. The forest coverage rate is 21%, and the natural forest area is about 163 million hectares (2/3 is eucalyptus). Rich in fishery resources, the fishing area is 16% larger than the national land area. It is the third largest fishing area in the world. There are more than 3,000 kinds of seawater and freshwater fish and more than 3,000 kinds of shellfish and soft-type aquatic products, of which commercial fishing has been carried out. About 600 species. The main aquatic products are shrimp, lobster, abalone, tuna, scallops, oysters and so on.

【工业】以制造业、建筑业和矿业为主。2016/2017财年,澳矿业产值为2149.84亿澳元,同比增长13.4%;建筑业产值为3783.06亿澳元,同比增长0.9%;制造业产值为3639.69亿澳元,同比下降2.3%。

【农牧业】农牧业发达,在国民经济中占有重要地位,是世界上最大的羊毛和牛肉出口国。2015/2016财年,澳农牧业产值952.8亿澳元,占同期GDP的5.7%。主要农作物为小麦、大麦、棉花、高粱等,主要畜牧产品为牛肉、牛奶、羊肉、羊毛、家禽等。

【服务业】服务业为澳经济最重要和发展最快的部门。经过30余年的经济结构调整,已成为国民经济支柱产业。主要以批发业、零售业和科技服务业为主。2016/2017财年,批发业产值5024.34亿澳元,同比增长4.9%。零售业产值4175.87亿澳元,同比增长2.7%。科技服务业产值2107.79亿澳元,同比增长6.6%。2015/2016财年,对外服务贸易产值1460亿澳元,占澳外贸总量22.1%。

【旅游业】2016/2017财年,澳旅游业产值为552.83亿澳元,占同期GDP的3.2%。近年来,海外游客人数呈上升趋势,但国内游客仍是旅游业的主力军。2016/2017财年,国内游客消费983.02亿澳元,海外游客在澳消费372.0亿澳元。旅游资源丰富,著名的旅游城市和景点有悉尼、墨尔本、布里斯班、阿德莱德、珀斯、黄金海岸、达尔文、大堡礁、艾尔斯岩(乌鲁鲁)等。

【交通运输】国际海、空运输业发达。悉尼是南太平洋主要交通运输枢纽。交通运输情况如下:

铁路:自20世纪90年代以来,铁路行业进行了公司化和私有化改革。截至2018年11月,全国铁路总长度约33221公里,其中10%为电气化线路。2016/2017财年,铁路系统共运送货物13亿吨,城市铁路系统运送乘客9.3亿人次。

公路:全国公路总长87.7万公里。2018年全国注册机动车辆总数约1920万辆,客车占74.7%。其中,汽油动力车辆占74.6%,柴油动力车辆占23.4%。

水运:港口97个,墨尔本为全国第一大港。2015/2016财年,全国港口货物吞吐量约16亿吨,同比增长3.1%。

空运:截至2013年6月,注册飞机15060架,各类机场和跑道约2000个,常旅客机场约250个,其中12个国际机场。2017/2018财年,运行国内航班63.5万架次,运送国内旅客6076万人次;运行国际航班20.1万架次,运送国际旅客4062万人。澳航空业务主要由“快达”(Qantas)、“维珍澳洲”(Virgin Australia)和“捷星”(Jetstar)航空公司主导。客流量排名前十的机场为:悉尼、墨尔本、布里斯班、珀斯、阿德莱德、黄金海岸、凯恩斯、堪培拉、霍巴特和达尔文。

[Industrial] is mainly based on manufacturing, construction and mining. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the Australian mining output value was 214.984 billion Australian dollars, up 13.4% year-on-year; the construction industry output value was 378.306 billion Australian dollars, up 0.9% year-on-year; the manufacturing output value was 363.969 billion Australian dollars, down 2.3% year-on-year.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] The agriculture and animal husbandry industry is developed and plays an important role in the national economy. It is the world’s largest exporter of wool and beef. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the output value of Australian agriculture and animal husbandry was 95.28 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 5.7% of GDP during the same period. The main crops are wheat, barley, cotton, sorghum, etc. The main livestock products are beef, milk, lamb, wool, poultry and so on.

[Service Industry] The service industry is the most important and fastest-growing sector of the Australian economy. After more than 30 years of economic restructuring, it has become a pillar industry of the national economy. Mainly in the wholesale, retail and technology services industries. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the wholesale industry’s output value was 502.434 billion Australian dollars, an increase of 4.9%. The retail output value was 417.857 billion Australian dollars, an increase of 2.7%. The output value of the technology services industry was 217.79 billion Australian dollars, a year-on-year increase of 6.6%. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the external service trade value was 146 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 22.1% of Australia’s foreign trade.

[Tourism] In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the Australian tourism industry had an output value of 55.283 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 3.2% of GDP during the same period. In recent years, the number of overseas tourists has shown an upward trend, but domestic tourists are still the main force of tourism. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, domestic tourists spent A$98.302 billion, and overseas tourists spent A$37.20 billion in Australia. The tourism resources are rich, and the famous tourist cities and attractions include Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, Gold Coast, Darwin, Great Barrier Reef, Ayers Rock (Uluru) and so on.

[Transportation] The international sea and air transportation industry is developed. Sydney is a major transportation hub in the South Pacific. The transportation situation is as follows:

Railway: Since the 1990s, the railway industry has undergone corporatization and privatization reforms. As of November 2018, the total length of the national railway is about 33,221 kilometers, of which 10% are electrified lines. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the railway system transported 1.3 billion tons of cargo and the urban railway system transported 930 million passengers.

Highway: The total length of the national highway is 877,000 kilometers. In 2018, the total number of registered motor vehicles nationwide was about 19.2 million, and passenger cars accounted for 74.7%. Among them, gasoline-powered vehicles accounted for 74.6%, and diesel-powered vehicles accounted for 23.4%.

Water transport: 97 ports, Melbourne is the country’s largest port. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the national port cargo throughput was approximately 1.6 billion tons, an increase of 3.1% year-on-year.

Air transport: As of June 2013, there were 15060 registered aircraft, about 2,000 airports and runways, and about 250 frequent flyer airports, including 12 international airports. In the fiscal year 2017/2018, 635,000 domestic flights were operated, 60.76 million passengers were transported domestically; 201,000 international flights were operated, and 40.62 million international passengers were transported. The Australian airline business is dominated by Qantas, Virgin Australia and Jetstar. The top ten airports for passenger traffic are: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Cairns, Canberra, Hobart and Darwin.

【财政金融】财政年度为每年7月1日至次年6月30日。2017/2018财年,政府财政赤字大幅缩减至101亿澳元,经济增长率2.9%,通货膨胀率1.8%。

金融业成熟完善,监管严格。拥有全球第五大金融体系和资本市场。澳储备银行(RBA)为中央银行。国民银行、联邦银行、西太银行、澳新银行为最主要的四大银行,总资产占全部银行资产的50%以上。金融监管框架由澳审慎金融监管局(APRA)、澳证券和投资委员会(ASIC)、澳储备银行三大独立机构组成。

股票市场发达,由澳股票交易所(ASX)运作,三种传统主要股票指数包括综合普通股指数(All Ordinaries)、综合工业股指数(All Industrials)和综合资源股指数(All Resources)。自2000年4月起,澳证券交易市场重要股指以标准普尔(S&P)为基准。目前,主要股指包括S&P/ASX300、S&P/ASX200、S&P/ASX100、S&P/ASX50和S&P/ASX20,其中S&P/ASX200代表了本地市场82%的市场份额(2017年3月),被认为是衡量澳股票市场运行状况的最重要指标。

【对外贸易】澳对国际贸易依赖较大。澳主要贸易伙伴依次为中国、日本、美国、韩国、印度、新西兰、英国、新加坡、泰国、德国、马来西亚等。

澳主要出口商品为铁矿石、煤、教育与旅行服务、黄金、原油、天然气、小麦、铝矾土、铜矿、牛肉、铜、羊毛制品等。主要进口商品为原油、摩托车、精炼油、航空器材、药物、通讯器材、计算机、公交车、货车、黄金等。

【对外投资】20世纪80年代以来,澳在海外投资持续增长。 截至2017年12月,澳在海外投资累计达2.28万亿澳元。主要投资对象为美国、英国、新西兰、日本、中国等。

【对外援助】澳对外援助主要集中于巴布亚新几内亚等南太平洋岛国和东南亚国家。

【外国资本】截至2017年12月,外国在澳累计投资达3.26万亿澳元。主要来自美国、英国、比利时、日本、新加坡和国际资本市场。外国对澳投资主要集中在金融保险、制造、采矿等行业。

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【著名公司】澳主要上市企业有:

1、国民银行(National Australia Bank Ltd.):澳最大的商业银行,成立于1858年。1893年公司化,1984年成为有限公司。2015年,总资产9550.5亿澳元,雇佣员工3.5万人。董事会主席肯尼瑟·亨利(Kenneth Henry),首席执行官安德鲁·索伯恩(Andrew Thorburn)。

2、澳大利亚联邦银行(Commonwealth Bank of Australia):澳第二大商业银行,也是澳客户人数最多的银行。成立于1912年。2015年,总资产8734.5亿澳元,雇佣员工5.2万人。董事会主席凯瑟琳·利文斯通(Catherine Livingstone),首席执行官伊安·纳里夫(Ian Narev)。

3、西太银行(Westpac Banking Corporation):澳大利亚最老的银行。前身新南威尔士银行(Bank of New South Wales)成立于1817年,1982年更名。2015年,总资产约为8122亿澳元,雇用员工3.3万人。董事会主席林德赛·马克思泰德(Lindsay Maxsted),首席执行官布莱恩·哈泽尔(Brian Hartzer)。

4、澳新银行(ANZ BANK):澳主要商业银行之一,创始于1835年。2015年,总资产8899亿澳元,雇佣员工5万余人。董事会主席大卫·冈斯基(David Gonski),首席执行官廖贤志(Shayne Elliott)。

5、必和必拓公司(BHP BILLITON LTD.-Broken Hill Proprietary Billiton Ltd.):以经营石油和矿产为主的著名跨国公司。BHP于1885年在墨尔本成立。Billiton于1860年成立。2001年6月,两公司合并。2015年,总资产1450.7亿美元,雇佣员工约3万人。董事会主席肯·麦肯齐(Ken MacKenzie), 首席执行官安德鲁·麦肯齐(Andrew Mackenzie)。

6、麦格里集团(Macquarie Group Limited):成立于1969年,是一家多元化国际金融机构,提供银行、金融顾问及投资服务。2017年,净利润22亿澳元,雇用员工1.35万人。董事会主席皮特·沃纳(Peter Warne),首席执行官尼古拉斯·穆尔 (Nicholas Moore)。

7、澳电信公司(TELSTRA):澳最大电信企业,成立于1901年,1991年成为有限公司。澳政府分别于1997年、1999年和2006年出售该公司股票,逐渐将其私有化,目前澳政府持股17%。2016年,总资产432.86亿澳元,雇用员工3.45万人。董事会主席约翰·马伦(John Mullen),首席执行官安迪·潘(Andrew Penn)。

8、西农集团(Wesfarmers Limited):澳最大的零售公司之一。前身为西澳州农民合作社,成立于1914年,1984年上市。业务涉及零售、家装、煤矿、保险等广泛领域,2007年收购当时澳最大的零售公司科尔斯公司(Coles)。2016年,总资产407.83亿澳元。雇用员工22万人,是澳雇员人数最多的私人企业。董事会主席迈克尔·钱尼(Michael Chaney),首席执行官理查德·戈伊德(Richard Goyder)。

9、力拓集团(Rio Tinto Group):世界第二大矿业公司,成立于1873年。在全球拥有60多家子公司。2016年,总资产892.6亿美元,雇佣员工5万人。董事会主席简·杜·普莱西斯(Jan du Plessis),首席执行官让-塞巴斯蒂安•雅克(Jean-Sébastien Jacques)。集团包括力拓股票上市公司(Rio Tinto plc,总部在英国伦敦)和力拓有限公司(Rio Tinto Limited,总部在墨尔本)。

[Industrial] is mainly based on manufacturing, construction and mining. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the Australian mining output value was 214.984 billion Australian dollars, up 13.4% year-on-year; the construction industry output value was 378.306 billion Australian dollars, up 0.9% year-on-year; the manufacturing output value was 363.969 billion Australian dollars, down 2.3% year-on-year.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] The agriculture and animal husbandry industry is developed and plays an important role in the national economy. It is the world’s largest exporter of wool and beef. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the output value of Australian agriculture and animal husbandry was 95.28 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 5.7% of GDP during the same period. The main crops are wheat, barley, cotton, sorghum, etc. The main livestock products are beef, milk, lamb, wool, poultry and so on.

[Service Industry] The service industry is the most important and fastest-growing sector of the Australian economy. After more than 30 years of economic restructuring, it has become a pillar industry of the national economy. Mainly in the wholesale, retail and technology services industries. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the wholesale industry’s output value was 502.434 billion Australian dollars, an increase of 4.9%. The retail output value was 417.857 billion Australian dollars, an increase of 2.7%. The output value of the technology services industry was 217.79 billion Australian dollars, a year-on-year increase of 6.6%. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the external service trade value was 146 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 22.1% of Australia’s foreign trade.

[Tourism] In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the Australian tourism industry had an output value of 55.283 billion Australian dollars, accounting for 3.2% of GDP during the same period. In recent years, the number of overseas tourists has shown an upward trend, but domestic tourists are still the main force of tourism. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, domestic tourists spent A$98.302 billion, and overseas tourists spent A$37.20 billion in Australia. The tourism resources are rich, and the famous tourist cities and attractions include Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, Gold Coast, Darwin, Great Barrier Reef, Ayers Rock (Uluru) and so on.

[Transportation] The international sea and air transportation industry is developed. Sydney is a major transportation hub in the South Pacific. The transportation situation is as follows:

Railway: Since the 1990s, the railway industry has undergone corporatization and privatization reforms. As of November 2018, the total length of the national railway is about 33,221 kilometers, of which 10% are electrified lines. In the 2016/2017 fiscal year, the railway system transported 1.3 billion tons of cargo and the urban railway system transported 930 million passengers.

Highway: The total length of the national highway is 877,000 kilometers. In 2018, the total number of registered motor vehicles nationwide was about 19.2 million, and passenger cars accounted for 74.7%. Among them, gasoline-powered vehicles accounted for 74.6%, and diesel-powered vehicles accounted for 23.4%.

Water transport: 97 ports, Melbourne is the country’s largest port. In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the national port cargo throughput was approximately 1.6 billion tons, an increase of 3.1% year-on-year.

Air transport: As of June 2013, there were 15060 registered aircraft, about 2,000 airports and runways, and about 250 frequent flyer airports, including 12 international airports. In the fiscal year 2017/2018, 635,000 domestic flights were operated, 60.76 million passengers were transported domestically; 201,000 international flights were operated, and 40.62 million international passengers were transported. The Australian airline business is dominated by Qantas, Virgin Australia and Jetstar. The top ten airports for passenger traffic are: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Gold Coast, Cairns, Canberra, Hobart and Darwin.

【教育】教育主要由州政府负责。各州设教育部,主管本州的大、中、小学和技术教育学院。联邦政府负责给全澳大学和高等教育学院提供经费、制定和协调教育政策。学校分公立、私立和天主教学校三种,实行学龄前教育、中小学12年义务教育和高等教育,广泛推行职业教育,重视师资队伍建设,科技教育发展迅速。2017年,全国有9444所学校,384.9万学生,约65.6%的学生在公立学校就读。教职工约28万人。澳共有37所公立大学,2所私立大学。著名高等院校有澳国立大学、莫纳什大学、阿德莱德大学、墨尔本大学、新南威尔士大学、昆士兰大学、悉尼大学、西澳大利亚大学等。

【新闻出版】澳有4大报业集团:《先驱报》和《时代周刊》杂志集团、默多克新闻公司、费尔法克斯公司和帕克新闻联合控股公司。其中,默多克新闻公司发展最快,近年来还买下了英国的《泰晤士报》和美国的《纽约邮报》,已成为国际性报业集团。主要报刊有:《澳大利亚人报》,发行量约41万份;《悉尼先驱晨报》,发行量约26万份;《世纪报》,发行量约20.2万份;《金融评论报》,发行量约8.5万份;《堪培拉时报》,发行量约4万份。澳有期刊1400多种,《澳大利亚妇女周刊》是发行量最大的刊物,达80多万份。《公报》周刊(1880年创刊)是最老的刊物之一。澳联合新闻社(AAP)是澳最大通讯社,总部在悉尼,1964年起与路透社结为联社。

澳有3个广播电视管理机构。(1)澳大利亚广播公司(ABC):有4个电台网,通过州和地区首府的制作传送设备向全国播放非商业性广播和电视节目,并为边远地区提供卫星服务;澳大利亚广播电台(Radio Australia)和澳大利亚国际电视台(Australian Television International)向海外播放。年度预算大部分由联邦议会拨款。(2)澳大利亚通讯和媒体局(Australian Communications and Media Authority):管理电信、互联网、商业性电台和社区广播,收费并发放许可。全国共有商业电台274家,商业电视台55家。(3)澳大利亚特别节目广播事业局(Special Broadcasting Service, SBS):主管SBS电视台和SBS广播电台,由联邦政府资助。SBS电视台是一个多元文化电视台,1980年10月24日联合国日开始工作,除新闻、体育和部分记录片用英语播送外,其余节目均用澳各移民族裔的语言配英文字幕播送,为非英语背景人士提供了解世界的媒体渠道。

【人民生活】澳是一个高福利国家,福利的种类多而齐全,主要包括:失业救济金、退伍军人及家属优抚金、残疾人救济金、退休金以及家庭补贴等。所有永久居民享受澳全国性的医疗保健待遇,其资金来源于政府税收收入。近年来,澳政府积极鼓励扩大私人医疗保险。2014年至2015年,约57.1%的人参加各种私人医疗保险。截至2018年5月,全职成年职工人均周工资1586.2澳元。

【军事】澳总督为武装部队总司令。国防部为军队行政管理机构。国防委员会为三军最高决策机构,主席由国防部长担任。国防军司令为国防部长的首席军事顾问。现任国防军司令马克·宾斯金(Mark Binskin)上将。

澳实行志愿兵役制。国防军由陆、海、空三军组成。2016年,澳国防系统总人数9.67万人,其中现役5.92万人,预备役约1.91万人,文职人员1.84万人。常规军中,陆军3.04万人,编成第一师司令部(Headquarters 1st Division)、部队司令部(Forces Command)和特种作战司令部(Special Operations Command)三个司令部;海军1.44万人,编成舰队、战略两个司令部,下辖14个主要海军基地;空军1.44万人,下辖11个主要空军基地,装备F/A-18、F-111、AP-3C等各类飞机。

[Education] Education is mainly the responsibility of the state government. Each state has a Ministry of Education that is responsible for the state’s primary, secondary, primary, and technical education colleges. The federal government is responsible for funding and developing and coordinating education policies for universities and higher education institutions across Australia. The school is divided into three types: public, private and Catholic schools. It implements pre-school education, 12-year compulsory education and higher education in primary and secondary schools, widely promotes vocational education, attaches great importance to the construction of teaching staff, and develops science and technology education rapidly. In 2017, there were 9444 schools across the country, 3.849 million students, and about 65.6% of students were enrolled in public schools. There are about 280,000 faculty members. There are 37 public universities and 2 private universities in Australia. Famous universities include the Australian National University, Monash University, the University of Adelaide, the University of Melbourne, the University of New South Wales, the University of Queensland, the University of Sydney, and the University of Western Australia.

[Press and Publication] There are four major newspaper groups in Australia: Herald and Time Magazine magazine, Murdoch News, Fairfax and Parker News. Among them, Murdoch News Corporation has the fastest development. In recent years, it has also bought the British “Times” and the United States “New York Post”, has become an international newspaper group. The main newspapers are: “Australian Newspaper”, with a circulation of about 410,000 copies; “Sydney Morning Herald”, with a circulation of about 260,000 copies; “Century Century”, with a circulation of about 202,000 copies; “Financial Review”, circulation About 85,000 copies; Canberra Times, with a circulation of about 40,000 copies. There are more than 1,400 journals in Australia, and Australian Women’s Weekly is the largest circulation publication with more than 800,000 copies. The Bulletin Weekly (founded in 1880) is one of the oldest publications. The Australian Joint News Agency (AAP) is the largest news agency in Australia and is headquartered in Sydney. Since 1964, it has been affiliated with Reuters.

There are three radio and television management agencies in Australia. (1) Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC): There are four radio networks that broadcast non-commercial radio and television programs throughout the country through state and regional capital production transmission equipment, and provide satellite services to remote areas; Radio Australia ) and Australian Television International (Australian Television International) to broadcast overseas. Most of the annual budget is funded by the federal parliament. (2) Australian Communications and Media Authority: Manage telecommunications, the Internet, commercial radio and community radio, charge and license. There are 274 commercial radio stations and 55 commercial TV stations nationwide. (3) Special Broadcasting Service (SBS): Supervisor SBS and SBS Radio, funded by the federal government. SBS TV is a multicultural television station. It started work on the United Nations Day on October 24, 1980. Except for news, sports and some documentaries broadcast in English, the rest of the programs are broadcast in English with subtitles in English. Background people provide media channels to understand the world.

[People’s Life] Australia is a high-welfare country with a wide range of benefits, including unemployment benefits, veterans and family benefits, disability benefits, pensions, and family allowances. All permanent residents enjoy Australian national health care benefits, which are funded by government tax revenue. In recent years, the Australian government has actively encouraged the expansion of private medical insurance. From 2014 to 2015, about 57.1% of people participated in various private medical insurance. As of May 2018, the average weekly salary of full-time adult workers was 1586.2 Australian dollars.

[Military] The Governor of Australia is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Ministry of National Defense is the military administrative agency. The National Defense Commission is the highest decision-making body of the three armed forces, and the chairman is the Minister of Defense. The Defence Force Commander is the Chief Military Adviser to the Secretary of Defense. The current Defence Force Commander, General Mark Binskin.

Australia implements a voluntary military service system. The National Defence Force consists of the army, the sea and the air. In 2016, the total number of Australian defense systems was 96,700, of which 59,200 were active, about 19,100 were reserved, and 18,400 were civilians. In the conventional army, the army had 30,400 people, and was organized into three headquarters: Headquarters 1st Division, Forces Command, and Special Operations Command. The Navy was 14,400. It has two major naval bases, including the command of the F-A-18, F-111, and AP-3C. It has 14 major naval bases and 14 air force bases. It has 11 major air bases.

【对外关系】在坚持巩固澳美同盟、发挥联合国作用以及拓展与亚洲联系三大传统外交政策的基础上,通过积极参与全球和地区热点问题提升国际影响力,着力推进“积极的有创造力的中等大国外交”。签署并批准全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定(CPTPP)。

【同美国的关系】澳美于1940年3月6日建交。1951年澳、新(西兰)、美三国签订《澳新美安全条约》后,澳美结成同盟关系。“9·11”事件后,澳启动《澳新美安全条约》,派兵参加美对阿富汗和伊拉克战争。近年来澳总理、外交部长、国防部长多次访美。2014年6月,澳总理阿博特访美。8月,美国国务卿克里、国防部长哈格尔访澳,与澳外长毕晓普、国防部长约翰斯顿举行第28次年度双部长会议。11月,美国总统奥巴马访澳并参加二十国集团峰会。2015年1月,澳外长毕晓普访美。10月,澳美外交、国防双部长磋商在美举行。11月,澳总理特恩布尔与美国总统奥巴马在亚太经合组织(APEC)领导人非正式会议期间举行会见。2016年1月,澳总理特恩布尔访美。7月,美副总统拜登访澳。7月、9月,澳外长毕晓普访美。2017年1月、2月、5月、7月、9月,澳外长毕晓普访美。4月,美副总统彭斯访澳。5月,澳总理特恩布尔访美。6月,澳美外交、国防双部长磋商在澳举行。2018年1月,澳外长毕晓普访美。2月,澳总理特恩布尔访美。10月,澳外长佩恩在纽约出席第73届联合国一般性辩论期间与美国务卿蓬佩奥会面。

澳美经贸关系密切。2004年5月,澳美正式签署双边自由贸易协定(FTA)。该协定于2005年1月正式生效。2017/2018财年,澳美双边贸易额为701.7亿澳元。美是澳第三大贸易伙伴。

【同日本的关系】自1996年起,澳日开始年度首脑会晤并建立“政治、军事”年度磋商机制。2006年3月,日外相麻生太郎访澳期间,两国宣布建立“全面战略关系”,商定今后每年各举行一次外长会晤、副外长级政策对话和高官级战略磋商。2013年1月,日外相岸田文雄访澳。2013年10月,澳外长毕晓普访日。2014年4月,澳总理阿博特访日。6月,澳、日外长和防长在日举行第5次双部长年度磋商。2014年7月,日本首相安倍晋三访澳。11月,日本首相安倍晋三访澳并参加二十国集团峰会。2015年5月,澳外长毕晓普访日。11月,澳、日外长和防长在澳举行第6次双部长年度磋商。12月,澳总理特恩布尔访日。2017年1月,日首相安倍晋三访澳。4月,澳、日外长和防长在日举行第7次双部长年度磋商。2018年1月,澳总理特恩布尔访日。10月,澳日外长和防长在澳举行第8次双部长年度磋商。11月,日首相安倍晋三访澳。

2003年7月,澳日签署了双边贸易与经济框架协定。2007年4月,澳日启动双边自由贸易协定谈判。2014年7月,日本首相安倍晋三访澳期间,与澳总理阿博特签署经济伙伴关系协定(EPA),即两国之间的自由贸易协定。2017/2018财年,澳日双边贸易额为775.9亿澳元。日是澳第二大贸易伙伴。

[External Relations] On the basis of adhering to the consolidation of the Australia-US alliance, playing the role of the United Nations and expanding the three traditional foreign policy of connecting with Asia, we will promote “active and creative” by actively participating in global and regional hotspot issues to enhance international influence. Medium-sized country diplomacy.” Sign and approve the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (CPTPP).

[Relationship with the United States] Australia and the United States established diplomatic relations on March 6, 1940. After the signing of the “Australia, New Zealand and the United States Security Treaty” by Australia, New Zealand (Westland) and the United States in 1951, Australia and the United States formed an alliance. After the “9.11” incident, Australia launched the “Australia and New Zealand Security Treaty” and sent troops to participate in the US war against Afghanistan and Iraq. In recent years, the Australian Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and Defense Minister have visited the United States several times. In June 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited the United States. In August, US Secretary of State Kerry and Defense Minister Hagel visited Australia and held the 28th annual double ministerial meeting with Australian Foreign Minister Bishop and Defense Minister Johnston. In November, US President Barack Obama visited Australia and participated in the G20 summit. In January 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the United States. In October, the Australian-US diplomatic and defense ministerial consultations were held in the United States. In November, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull and US President Barack Obama met during the informal leadership meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). In January 2016, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited the United States. In July, US Vice President Biden visited Australia. In July and September, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the United States. In January, February, May, July and September 2017, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the United States. In April, US Vice President Peng Si visited Australia. In May, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited the United States. In June, the Australian-US diplomatic and defense ministerial consultations were held in Australia. In January 2018, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the United States. In February, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited the United States. In October, Australian Foreign Minister Payne met with US Secretary of State Pompeo during the 73rd UN General Debate in New York.

Australia and the United States have close economic and trade relations. In May 2004, Australia and the United States formally signed a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA). The agreement entered into force in January 2005. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and the United States was A$70.17 billion. The United States is Australia’s third largest trading partner.

[Relationship with Japan] Since 1996, Australia and Japan have started their annual summit meeting and established a “political and military” annual consultation mechanism. In March 2006, during the Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Aso’s visit to Australia, the two countries announced the establishment of a “comprehensive strategic relationship” and agreed to hold a foreign ministers’ meeting, deputy foreign minister-level policy dialogue and high-level strategic consultations each year. In January 2013, Japanese Foreign Minister Kishida Woncho visited Australia. In October 2013, Australian Foreign Minister Bi Xiaopu visited Japan. In April 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited Japan. In June, the Australian and Japanese foreign ministers and defense chiefs held the fifth annual bi-consultant consultation on the same day. In July 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Australia. In November, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Australia and participated in the G20 summit. In May 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Japan. In November, the Australian and Japanese foreign ministers and defense chiefs held the sixth annual bi-consultant consultation in Australia. In December, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Japan. In January 2017, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Australia. In April, the Australian and Japanese foreign ministers and defense chiefs held the 7th annual meeting of the two ministers in Japan. In January 2018, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Japan. In October, the Australian and Japanese Foreign Ministers and Defense Ministers held the 8th annual meeting of the two ministers in Australia. In November, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited Australia.

In July 2003, Australia and Japan signed a bilateral trade and economic framework agreement. In April 2007, Australia and Japan initiated negotiations on bilateral free trade agreements. In July 2014, during the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to Australia, he signed an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with Australian Prime Minister Abbott, a free trade agreement between the two countries. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and Japan was 77.59 billion Australian dollars. Japan is Australia’s second largest trading partner.

【同朝鲜及韩国的关系】澳朝曾于1974年建交,次年断交。2000年5月复交。2010年5月、11月,“天安号”事件、延坪岛炮击事件发生后,澳除执行联合国对朝制裁外,还实施推迟对朝援助等单方面制裁措施。金正日去世后,澳呼吁朝保持冷静和克制,以符合本国人民利益的方式行事,同国际社会保持建设性接触。2012年12月,朝鲜发射卫星后,澳发表声明对朝予以谴责。2013年2月朝进行核试验后,澳支持并执行联合国安理会第2094、2270号决议决定的对朝制裁。近年来,澳支持并执行联合国安理会历次决议决定的对朝制裁。

2000年5月,澳与韩国宣布建立外长和贸易部长年度会晤机制。2003年7月,澳总理霍华德访韩。2006年12月,韩国总统卢武铉访澳。2009年3月,韩国总统李明博访澳。2011年4月,澳总理吉拉德访韩。12月,韩国国防部长官金宽镇访澳。2013年10月,澳外长毕晓普访韩。2014年4月,澳总理阿博特访韩,期间双方签署自由贸易协定(FTA)。2015年5月,澳外长毕晓普访韩。9月,澳韩外长、防长双部长会议在悉尼举行。2016年8月,澳总理特恩布尔与韩总统朴槿惠在老挝东亚峰会期间会晤。2017年2月,澳外长毕晓普访韩。10月,澳外长毕晓普、国防部长佩恩与韩外交部长官康京和、国防部长官宋永武在首尔举行年度澳韩外长、防长双部长会议。2017/2018财年,澳韩双边贸易额为523亿澳元。韩是澳第四大贸易伙伴。

【同印尼的关系】2005年4月,印尼总统苏西洛访澳,与澳签署全面发展两国伙伴关系框架协议。2006年6月,澳总理霍华德访问印尼。11月,澳外长唐纳访问印尼,并与印尼外长维拉尤达共同签署《澳大利亚—印尼安全合作框架协定》。2008年6月,澳总理陆克文访问印尼。2009年7月,澳外长史密斯访问印尼。10月,澳总理陆克文访问印尼。2010年3月,印尼总统苏西洛访澳。11月,澳总理吉拉德访问印尼。2011年2月,印尼外长纳塔莱加瓦访澳。11月,首届澳—印尼年度领导人会晤在印尼巴厘岛举行。2012年3月,首届澳—印尼外交国防双部长会议在澳举行。7月,印尼总统苏西洛访问澳达尔文,与吉拉德举行澳印领导人峰会,并发表联合公报,重申两国“全面战略伙伴关系”。2013年10月,澳总理阿博特访印尼,并出席在印尼巴厘岛举行的亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议。2014年6月,澳总理阿博特访印尼。2014年8月,澳外长毕晓普访问印尼期间,双方就恢复两国间情报与军事合作签署谅解备忘录。2015年11月,澳总理特恩布尔访问印尼。12月,澳印尼外长、防长双部长会议在澳举行。2016年3月,澳外长毕晓普访问印尼。10月,澳印尼外长、防长双部长会议在印尼举行。2017年2月,印尼总统佐科访澳。3月,澳总理特恩布尔和外长毕晓普赴印尼出席环印度洋联盟峰会和外长会。2018年8月,澳外长毕晓普访问印尼。同月,澳总理莫里森访问印尼。2017/2018财年,澳与印尼双边贸易额为167.7亿澳元。印尼是澳第十三大贸易伙伴,是澳主要的发展援助接受国之一。

[Relationship with North Korea and South Korea] The Australian-DPRK established diplomatic relations in 1974 and broke diplomatic relations the following year. Re-invented in May 2000. In May and November 2010, after the “Cheonan” incident and the shelling incident in Yeonpyeong Island, in addition to implementing the UN sanctions against the DPRK, Australia also implemented unilateral sanctions such as postponing assistance to the DPRK. After Kim Jong Il’s death, Australia called on the DPRK to remain calm and restrained, to act in a manner consistent with the interests of its own people, and to maintain constructive contacts with the international community. After North Korea launched its satellite in December 2012, Australia issued a statement condemning the DPRK. After the nuclear test in February 2013, Australia supported and implemented the sanctions against the DPRK decided by UN Security Council Resolutions 2094 and 2270. In recent years, Australia has supported and implemented the sanctions against the DPRK decided by the UN Security Council resolutions.

In May 2000, Australia and South Korea announced the establishment of an annual meeting mechanism for foreign ministers and trade ministers. In July 2003, Australian Prime Minister Howard visited South Korea. In December 2006, South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun visited Australia. In March 2009, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak visited Australia. In April 2011, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited South Korea. In December, South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwan-soo visited Australia. In October 2013, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited South Korea. In April 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited South Korea, during which the two sides signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). In May 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited South Korea. In September, the meeting of ministers of foreign ministers and defense ministers in Australia and South Korea was held in Sydney. In August 2016, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull and South Korean President Park Geun-hye met during the Laos East Asia Summit. In February 2017, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited South Korea. In October, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop, Defense Minister Payne and South Korean Foreign Minister Kang Jinghe, and Defense Minister Song Yongwu held the annual meeting of foreign ministers and defense ministers in Seoul. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and South Korea was A$52.3 billion. Han is Australia’s fourth largest trading partner.

[Relationship with Indonesia] In April 2005, Indonesian President Susilo visited Australia and signed a framework agreement on comprehensive development of bilateral partnership with Australia. In June 2006, Australian Prime Minister Howard visited Indonesia. In November, Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer visited Indonesia and signed the “Australia-Indonesia Security Cooperation Framework Agreement” with Indonesian Foreign Minister Wira Yoda. In June 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd visited Indonesia. In July 2009, Australian Foreign Minister Smith visited Indonesia. In October, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd visited Indonesia. In March 2010, Indonesian President Susilo visited Australia. In November, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited Indonesia. In February 2011, Indonesian Foreign Minister Natalegawa visited Australia. In November, the first annual Australia-Indonesia Leaders Meeting was held in Bali, Indonesia. In March 2012, the first Australian-Indonesian Diplomatic and Defense Ministerial Conference was held in Australia. In July, Indonesian President Susilo visited Australia Darwin, held the Australian-Indian Leaders Summit with Gillard, and issued a joint communique to reaffirm the “comprehensive strategic partnership” between the two countries. In October 2013, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited Indonesia and attended the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting in Bali, Indonesia. In June 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited Indonesia. In August 2014, during the visit of Australian Foreign Minister Bishop to Indonesia, the two sides signed a memorandum of understanding on resuming intelligence and military cooperation between the two countries. In November 2015, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Indonesia. In December, the Australian and Indonesian Foreign Ministers and Defense Ministers Meeting was held in Australia. In March 2016, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Indonesia. In October, the Australian and Indonesian Foreign Ministers and Defense Ministers Meeting was held in Indonesia. In February 2017, Indonesian President Zoco visited Australia. In March, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull and Foreign Minister Bishop went to Indonesia to attend the Indian Ocean Alliance Summit and Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In August 2018, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Indonesia. In the same month, Australian Prime Minister Morrison visited Indonesia. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and Indonesia was 16.77 billion Australian dollars. Indonesia is Australia’s 13th largest trading partner and one of Australia’s major recipients of development assistance.

【同东盟其他国家的关系】澳于1974年同东盟正式建立对话伙伴关系,并先后与马来西亚、新加坡和印尼等主要东盟国家签订了双边或多边安全防务条约。巴厘岛爆炸事件后,澳与东南亚国家加强反恐合作,与印尼、马来西亚、泰国签订反恐协定,并与印尼主办了地区反恐会议。

2005年,澳加入《东南亚友好合作条约》。2006年10月,柬埔寨首相洪森访澳。11月,澳总理霍华德出席在越南河内举行的亚太经合组织(APEC)第十四次领导人非正式会议,并于会后对越进行访问。同月底,澳总理霍华德访问马来西亚。2007年8月,澳总督杰弗里访问马来西亚,并出席马独立50周年庆祝活动。2009年10月,澳总理陆克文出席在泰国举行的第四届东亚峰会。2010年1月,东盟-澳大利亚-新西兰自贸协定正式生效。10月,澳总理吉拉德出席在越南河内举行的第五届东亚峰会。2011年5月,澳外长陆克文访问泰国,6月访问缅甸,7月访问印尼、东帝汶。10月,澳宣布向泰国、柬埔寨、越南、老挝、菲律宾等遭受洪灾的国家提供价值515万澳元的人道主义援助。11月,澳总理吉拉德出席在印尼巴厘岛举行的第六届东亚峰会。2012年3月,澳外长卡尔访问柬埔寨、越南和新加坡。6月,澳外长卡尔访问缅甸。11月,澳总理吉拉德出席在柬埔寨金边举行的第七届东亚峰会。2013年10月,澳总理阿博特出席在文莱斯里巴加湾市举行的第八届东亚峰会。2014年10月,澳总理阿博特出席在缅甸内比都市举行的第九届东亚峰会。2015年3月,越南总理阮晋勇访澳,双方决定加强全面伙伴关系。5月,澳外长毕晓普访问泰国、新加坡。7月,阿博特总理访问新加坡。11月,澳总理特恩布尔赴菲律宾马尼拉出席亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十三次领导人非正式会议,赴马来西亚吉隆坡出席第十届东亚峰会。2016年3月,澳、新加坡在悉尼举行第9届部长级委员会。2016年9月,澳总理特恩布尔赴老挝河内出席东亚峰会。10月,新加坡总理李显龙访澳。11月,澳越南签署双边行动计划,旨在深化双方全面伙伴关系。2017年3月,澳外长毕晓普访问新加坡、马来西亚、菲律宾。6月,澳总理特恩布尔访问新加坡并出席香格里拉对话会。8月,澳外长毕晓普访问泰国,并赴菲律宾马尼拉出席东亚合作系列外长会;同月,澳外长毕晓普、国防部长佩恩、贸易、旅游与投资部长乔博赴新加坡举行第10届澳新(加坡)部长级委员会;11月,澳总理特恩布尔赴越南出席亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十五次领导人非正式会议,并赴菲律宾马尼拉出席东亚峰会。2018年3月,东盟—澳大利亚特别峰会在悉尼举行。5月,澳外长毕晓普访问越南。11月,澳总理莫里森赴新加坡出席东亚峰会。12月,澳外长佩恩访问缅甸、印尼。2019年1月,澳外长佩恩访问泰国、印度。

澳与东盟的经贸关系发展良好,签署了《紧密经济伙伴关系》协议。2003年3月,澳与新加坡正式签订双边自由贸易协定(FTA)。2004年7月,澳与泰国正式签订双边自由贸易协定(FTA)。2017/2018财年,澳与东盟双边贸易额为1101.1亿澳元。

[Relationship with other ASEAN countries] Australia officially established a dialogue partnership with ASEAN in 1974 and has signed bilateral or multilateral security defense treaties with major ASEAN countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. After the Bali bombings, Australia and Southeast Asian countries strengthened anti-terrorism cooperation, signed anti-terrorism agreements with Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, and hosted regional counter-terrorism conferences with Indonesia.

In 2005, Australia joined the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. In October 2006, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen visited Australia. In November, Australian Prime Minister John Howard attended the 14th APEC Economic Leaders’ Informal Meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, and visited Vietnam after the meeting. At the end of the same month, Australian Prime Minister Howard visited Malaysia. In August 2007, Australian Governor Jeffrey visited Malaysia and attended the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Ma’s independence. In October 2009, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd attended the 4th East Asia Summit in Thailand. In January 2010, the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement came into force. In October, Australian Prime Minister Gillard attended the Fifth East Asia Summit in Hanoi, Vietnam. In May 2011, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd visited Thailand, visited Myanmar in June, and visited Indonesia and East Timor in July. In October, Australia announced a $5.15 million grant of humanitarian assistance to flood-affected countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and the Philippines. In November, Australian Prime Minister Gillard attended the 6th East Asia Summit in Bali, Indonesia. In March 2012, Australian Foreign Minister Carl visited Cambodia, Vietnam and Singapore. In June, Australian Foreign Minister Karl visited Myanmar. In November, Australian Prime Minister Gillard attended the 7th East Asia Summit in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. In October 2013, Australian Prime Minister Abbot attended the 8th East Asia Summit in Bandar Seri Begawan. In October 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot attended the 9th East Asia Summit in Nebi City, Myanmar. In March 2015, Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung visited Australia and the two sides decided to strengthen the comprehensive partnership. In May, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Thailand and Singapore. In July, Prime Minister Abbot visited Singapore. In November, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Manila, Philippines to attend the 23rd APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting and went to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to attend the 10th East Asia Summit. In March 2016, Australia and Singapore held the 9th Ministerial Committee in Sydney. In September 2016, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull attended the East Asia Summit in Hanoi, Laos. In October, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong visited Australia. In November, Australia and Vietnam signed a bilateral action plan aimed at deepening the comprehensive partnership between the two sides. In March 2017, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. In June, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Singapore and attended the Shangri-La Dialogue. In August, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Thailand and went to Manila, Philippines to attend the East Asian Cooperation Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In the same month, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop, Defense Minister Payne and Minister of Trade, Tourism and Investment Qiao Bo went to Singapore to hold the 10th Australia-New Zealand (Gaipo) Ministerial Committee; In November, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Vietnam to attend the twenty-fifth informal leadership meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and went to Manila, Philippines to attend the East Asia Summit. In March 2018, the ASEAN-Australia Special Summit was held in Sydney. In May, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Vietnam. In November, Australian Prime Minister Morrison went to Singapore to attend the East Asia Summit. In December, Australian Foreign Minister Payne visited Myanmar and Indonesia. In January 2019, Australian Foreign Minister Payne visited Thailand and India.

The economic and trade relations between Australia and ASEAN have developed well and signed the Agreement on Close Economic Partnership. In March 2003, Australia and Singapore formally signed a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA). In July 2004, Australia and Thailand officially signed a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA). In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and ASEAN was 110.11 billion Australian dollars.

【同太平洋岛国的关系】澳认为维护南太地区稳定、促进岛国经济发展符合其利益。2003年7月应所罗门群岛政府要求,澳与新西兰及部分南太岛国对所罗门进行联合军事干预。2003年12月与巴新签署一揽子援助方案,协助巴新政府整治经济、治安等。2004年2月与瑙鲁签署谅解备忘录,协助瑙摆脱危机。澳还提出“联合地区管理”等主张,推动建立南太地区联合航线和设立地区警察培训中心等。同年,联合新西兰推出旨在实现地区和平、和谐、安全与繁荣的“太平洋计划”。所罗门群岛和东帝汶分别于2006年4月和5月发生骚乱后,澳联合地区国家向两国派遣部队和警察以稳定局势。12月,斐济发生政变,澳与新西兰等国对斐济实施制裁。2007年底澳工党政府就任后表示将加大对岛国援助力度,投入10亿澳元实施“南太伙伴计划”,设立“南太民事和军事伙伴中心”,并积极修复与所罗门、巴新等岛国关系,重申加强地区援所团(RAMSI)和对东帝汶的安全承诺。2009年8月,第40届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议在澳凯恩斯举行,通过《凯恩斯契约》。2010年8月,澳总理吉拉德出席在瓦努阿图举办的第41届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。10月,澳外长陆克文访问巴新,巴新总理奥尼尔访澳。2012年3月,澳总督布赖斯赴汤加出席汤加国王图普五世的葬礼,并顺访萨摩亚、图瓦卢、基里巴斯等8个太平洋岛国。8月,澳总理吉拉德赴库克群岛拉罗汤加岛出席第43届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议,并宣布澳将在10年内拨款3.2亿澳元帮助太平洋岛国促进男女平等。2013年3月,澳总理吉拉德访问巴布亚新几内亚,两国发表《巴布亚新几内亚澳大利亚新伙伴关系联合声明》。2014年11月,澳外长毕晓普访问巴新。2015年1月,巴新总理奥尼尔访澳。3月,澳外长毕晓普访问瓦努阿图、库克群岛、基里巴斯和汤加。2016年3月,第24届澳-巴新部长级会议在堪培拉举行。同月,澳外长毕晓普访问斐济。9月,澳总理特恩布尔赴密克罗尼西亚出席第47届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2017年3月,第25届澳-巴新部长级会议在巴新举行。4月,澳总理特恩布尔访问巴新。6月,澳总督科斯格罗夫赴瓦努阿图出席瓦总统葬礼。8月,所罗门群岛总理索加瓦雷访澳。同月,澳外长毕晓普赴斐济出席第二届太平洋岛国论坛外长会议。9月,澳总理特恩布尔赴萨摩亚出席第48届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2018年4月,第26届澳-巴新部长级会议在布里斯班举行。6月,澳外长毕晓普访问帕劳、密克罗尼西亚联邦和马绍尔群岛。同月,所罗门群岛总理霍尼普韦拉、瓦努阿图总理萨尔维访澳。9月,澳外长佩恩赴瑙鲁参加第49届太平洋岛国论坛。10月,澳外长佩恩访问巴新。11月,澳外长佩恩赴巴新出席亚太经合组织(APEC)部长级会议。同月,澳总理莫里森赴巴新出席亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十六次领导人非正式会议。2019年1月,澳总理莫里森访问斐济和瓦努阿图。

【同新西兰的关系】新西兰是澳盟国,两国领导人有半年度定期互访机制,安全和经贸关系密切。1983年3月,澳新签订《进一步密切经济关系协定》(CER)。1990年建立澳新自由贸易区。2009年3月,新总理约翰·基访澳。6月,澳外长史密斯访新。8月,新总理约翰·基访澳。同月,澳、新举行年度“进一步密切经济关系”(CER)部长级会议。2010年2月,新外长麦卡利访澳。11月,澳外长陆克文与新外长麦卡利举行部长级对话。2011年2月,澳总理吉拉德访新。6月,新总理约翰·基访澳。2012年3月,澳外长卡尔访新。7月,新总理约翰·基访澳。2013年2月,澳总理吉拉德访新。2014年2月,澳总理阿博特访新。2015年2月,澳总理阿博特访新,外长毕晓普访新。4月,澳总理阿博特再次访新。6月,澳外长毕晓普访新。10月,澳总理特恩布尔访新。2016年10月,澳外长毕晓普访新。2017年2月,澳总理特恩布尔访新。11月,新总理阿德恩访澳。2018年3月,新总理阿德恩访澳并举行两国领导人年度会晤。2017/2018财年,澳新双边贸易额为282.7亿澳元,新是澳第六大贸易伙伴。

[Relationship with Pacific Island Countries] Australia believes that it is in its interest to maintain stability in the South Pacific region and promote the economic development of the island countries. In July 2003, at the request of the Solomon Islands Government, Australia and New Zealand and some South Pacific island countries conducted joint military intervention against Solomon. In December 2003, he signed a package of assistance programs with Papua New Guinea to assist the Papua New Guinea government in rectifying the economy and law and order. A memorandum of understanding was signed with Nauru in February 2004 to help Nao get out of the crisis. Australia also put forward the “joint regional management” and other propositions, promote the establishment of joint routes in the South Pacific region and the establishment of regional police training centers. In the same year, United New Zealand launched the Pacific Plan to achieve regional peace, harmony, security and prosperity. After the riots in Solomon Islands and East Timor in April and May 2006, the countries of the United Arab Emirates sent troops and police to the two countries to stabilize the situation. In December, a coup d’état occurred in Fiji, and countries such as Australia and New Zealand imposed sanctions on Fiji. After the appointment of the Australian Labor Party government at the end of 2007, it indicated that it will increase its assistance to the island countries, invest 1 billion Australian dollars to implement the “Southern Pacific Partnership Program”, establish the “South Pacific Civil and Military Partner Center”, and actively repair the relationship with Solomon, Papua and other island countries. Reaffirm the strengthening of the Regional Aid Group (RAMSI) and its commitment to security in East Timor. In August 2009, the 40th Pacific Islands Forum Summit was held in Cairns, Australia, through the Cairns Compact. In August 2010, Australian Prime Minister Gillard attended the 41st Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Vanuatu. In October, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd visited Papua New Guinea and Papua New Guinea O’Neill visited Australia. In March 2012, Australian Governor Bryce went to Tonga to attend the funeral of King Tupper V of Tonga and visited eight Pacific island countries including Samoa, Tuvalu and Kiribati. In August, Australian Prime Minister Gillard went to the 43rd Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and announced that Australia would allocate 320 million Australian dollars in 10 years to help Pacific island countries promote gender equality. In March 2013, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited Papua New Guinea and the two countries issued the “Papua New Guinea Australia New Partnership Joint Statement.” In November 2014, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Papua New Guinea. In January 2015, Papua New Guinea O’Neill visited Australia. In March, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Kiribati and Tonga. In March 2016, the 24th Australia-Pakistani Ministerial Conference was held in Canberra. In the same month, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Fiji. In September, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Micronesia to attend the 47th Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In March 2017, the 25th Australia-Pakistan Ministerial Meeting was held in Papua New Guinea. In April, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited PNG. In June, Australian Governor Cosgrove went to Vanuatu to attend the funeral of President V. In August, Solomon Islands Prime Minister Sogawari visited Australia. In the same month, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop went to Fiji to attend the Second Pacific Island Countries Forum Foreign Ministers Meeting. In September, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Samoa to attend the 48th Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In April 2018, the 26th Australia-Pakistan Ministerial Conference was held in Brisbane. In June, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. In the same month, Prime Minister of Honolulu, Solomon Islands and Prime Minister Salvador of Vanuatu visited Australia. In September, Australian Foreign Minister Payne went to Nauru to attend the 49th Pacific Islands Forum. In October, Australian Foreign Minister Payne visited Papua New Guinea. In November, Australian Foreign Minister Payne went to Papua New Guinea to attend the APEC Ministerial Meeting. In the same month, Australian Prime Minister Morrison went to PNG to attend the twenty-sixth informal leadership meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). In January 2019, Australian Prime Minister Morrison visited Fiji and Vanuatu.

[Relationship with New Zealand] New Zealand is an Australian allies. The leaders of the two countries have a semi-annual regular exchange of visits, and their security and economic and trade relations are close. In March 1983, Australia and New Zealand signed the Agreement on Further Closed Economic Relations (CER). In 1990, the Australian-Autonomous Free Trade Zone was established. In March 2009, new Prime Minister John Key visited Australia. In June, Australian Foreign Minister Smith visited the new. In August, new Prime Minister John Key visited Australia. In the same month, Australia and New Zealand held the annual Ministerial Conference on “Closer Economic Relations” (CER). In February 2010, New Foreign Minister McAlely visited Australia. In November, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd held a ministerial dialogue with the new foreign minister, McCulley. In February 2011, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited the new. In June, new Prime Minister John Key visited Australia. In March 2012, Australian Foreign Minister Karl visited the new. In July, new Prime Minister John Key visited Australia. In February 2013, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited New Zealand. In February 2014, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited the new. In February 2015, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited New Zealand and Foreign Minister Bi Xiaopu visited the new. In April, Australian Prime Minister Abbott visited New Zealand again. In June, Australian Foreign Minister Bi Xiaopu visited the new. In October, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited the new. In October 2016, Australian Foreign Minister Bi Xiaopu visited the new. In February 2017, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited the new. In November, New Prime Minister Adeen visited Australia. In March 2018, New Prime Minister Adeen visited Australia and held an annual meeting of leaders of the two countries. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, Australia-Singapore bilateral trade volume was 28.27 billion Australian dollars, and New is Australia’s sixth largest trading partner.

【同欧盟的关系】澳与欧盟有传统的经济、安全和人文联系。欧盟是澳重要贸易伙伴,澳最大的投资来源地和第二大投资目的地。欧盟对澳投资占澳外资总额的1/3,澳对外投资的1/4在欧洲。2008年4月,澳总理陆克文访问欧盟,与欧盟主席巴罗佐就建立澳欧伙伴关系框架达成共识。同月,陆访问英国,并与法国总统萨科齐在北约峰会期间会晤。6月,澳外长史密斯访英。2011年5月,澳外长陆克文访问芬兰、挪威。9月,法国外长朱佩访澳,欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐访澳。10月,英国女王伊丽莎白二世夫妇访澳。11月,澳总理吉拉德赴法国戛纳出席二十国集团峰会。2012年4月,澳外长卡尔访问英国、比利时、马耳他、土耳其。11月,英国王储查尔斯夫妇访澳。2014年4月,英国威廉王子夫妇访澳。11月,法国总统奥朗德、英国首相卡梅伦、德国总理默克尔赴澳参加二十国集团峰会。2015年1月,挪威国王访澳。4月,澳总理阿博特访法,澳外长毕晓普访问法国、德国和比利时。4月,英国哈里王子访澳。7月英国威尔士亲王访澳。11月,澳总理特恩布尔访德,赴土耳其出席二十国集团峰会。12月,澳总理特恩布尔赴法国出席气候变化大会。2016年9月,澳外长毕晓普访问德国,并举行澳德外长、防长双部长会议。11月,荷兰国王威廉·亚历山大夫妇访澳。2017年2月,澳外长毕晓普访问英国、爱尔兰。4月,澳外长毕晓普访问爱沙尼亚。7月,澳总理特恩布尔赴德国出席二十国集团峰会,并访问法国、英国。同月,澳、英外长和防长在澳举行第9次双部长会议。同月,澳外长毕晓普访问克罗地亚。8月,克罗地亚总统基塔罗维奇访澳。同月,澳、欧盟签署深化合作的框架协议。10月,爱尔兰总统希金斯访澳。2018年4月,澳总理特恩布尔访问英国、德国、比利时、法国。5月,法国总统马克龙访澳。10月,英国哈里王子夫妇访澳。10月,澳外长佩恩赴布鲁塞尔出席第12届亚欧首脑会议。2017/2018财年,澳与欧盟双边贸易额为1060.6亿澳元。

【同俄罗斯的关系】重视与俄罗斯的关系,在能源开发、防扩散等领域与俄合作。2006年6月,澳俄就俄加入世界贸易组织(WTO)签署双边协议。2007年,俄罗斯总统普京访澳并出席亚太经合组织领导人峰会,此为俄国家元首首次访澳。期间双方签署利用核能源合作协议。2012年2月,俄外长拉夫罗夫访澳。2013年9月,澳外长卡尔代表澳政府出席俄罗斯圣彼得堡二十国集团峰会。2014年11月,俄罗斯总统普京出席澳大利亚布里斯班二十国集团峰会。2015年11月,澳总理特恩布尔与俄总统普京在土耳其安塔利亚出席二十国集团峰会期间简短交谈。

[Relationship with the EU] Australia and the EU have traditional economic, security and humanities links. The EU is Australia’s important trading partner, Australia’s largest source of investment and the second largest investment destination. The EU’s investment in Australia accounts for one-third of the total foreign investment in Australia, and one-fourth of Australia’s foreign investment is in Europe. In April 2008, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd visited the EU and reached a consensus with EU President Barroso on establishing a framework for Australia-Europe partnership. In the same month, Lu visited the UK and met with French President Nicolas Sarkozy during the NATO summit. In June, Australian Foreign Minister Smith visited the UK. In May 2011, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd visited Finland and Norway. In September, French Foreign Minister Juppe visited Australia and European Commission President Barroso visited Australia. In October, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom visited Australia. In November, Australian Prime Minister Gillard went to Cannes, France to attend the G20 summit. In April 2012, Australian Foreign Minister Carl visited the United Kingdom, Belgium, Malta and Turkey. In November, the British Crown Prince Charles and his wife visited Australia. In April 2014, the British Prince William and his wife visited Australia. In November, French President Hollande, British Prime Minister David Cameron and German Chancellor Merkel went to Australia to attend the G20 summit. In January 2015, the Norwegian King visited Australia. In April, Australian Prime Minister Abbot visited France, and Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited France, Germany and Belgium. In April, Prince Harry of the United Kingdom visited Australia. In July, the British Prince of Wales visited Australia. In November, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Germany and went to Turkey to attend the G20 summit. In December, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to France to attend the climate change conference. In September 2016, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Germany and held a meeting of ministers of foreign ministers and defense ministers. In November, the Dutch King William Alexander visited Australia. In February 2017, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the UK and Ireland. In April, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Estonia. In July, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Germany to attend the G20 summit and visited France and the United Kingdom. In the same month, the Australian and British foreign ministers and defense chiefs held the 9th double ministerial meeting in Australia. In the same month, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Croatia. In August, Croatian President Kitarovich visited Australia. In the same month, Australia and the EU signed a framework agreement for deepening cooperation. In October, Irish President Higgins visited Australia. In April 2018, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Britain, Germany, Belgium and France. In May, French President Mark Long visited Australia. In October, Prince Harry of England visited Australia. In October, Australian Foreign Minister Payne went to Brussels to attend the 12th ASEM Summit. In the 2017/2018 fiscal year, the bilateral trade volume between Australia and the EU was A$106.06 billion.

[Relationship with Russia] Attach importance to relations with Russia and cooperate with Russia in the fields of energy development and non-proliferation. In June 2006, Australia and Russia signed a bilateral agreement on Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Australia and attended the APEC Leaders Summit, which was the first visit by a Russian head of state to Australia. During the period, the two sides signed an agreement to use nuclear energy cooperation. In February 2012, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov visited Australia. In September 2013, Australian Foreign Minister Karl represented the Australian government at the G20 summit in St. Petersburg, Russia. In November 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the Brisbane G20 Summit in Australia. In November 2015, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull and Russian President Vladimir Putin held a brief conversation during the G20 summit in Antalya, Turkey.

【同中东国家关系】关注中东安全问题,派兵参与海湾战争、伊拉克战争。希阿以通过和平方式结束冲突。反对伊朗发展核武。工党政府上台后,澳于2008年6月从伊拉克撤出500多名作战部队。2009年3月,伊拉克总理马利基访澳。7月,澳驻伊部队完成在伊军事任务,除80人继续留在伊负责澳使馆安全保卫外,其余全部撤离。2008年5月,澳总督杰弗里访问以色列。6月,外长史密斯访问阿联酋和科威特。2011年2月至3月,澳外长陆克文先后访问南非、突尼斯、埃及、约旦、以色列、巴勒斯坦、沙特、阿联酋、阿曼等国。11月,澳总理吉拉德访问阿富汗,出席澳驻阿使馆落成仪式。2012年6月,澳外长卡尔访问阿尔及利亚、沙特、阿曼、利比亚等国。2015年1月,伊拉克外长贾法里访澳。2016年1月,澳总理特恩布尔访问阿富汗、伊拉克并慰问澳驻伊士兵。11月,澳外长毕晓普访问卡塔尔。同月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世访澳。2017年2月,以色列总理内塔尼亚胡访澳,成为首位访澳的以色列总理。10月,澳总理特恩布尔访问以色列。2018年12月,澳政府承认西耶路撒冷为以色列首都,但决定暂时不把澳驻以使馆迁至西耶路撒冷。

澳重视中东市场潜力,积极推动农牧产品和制成品向中东地区出口,沙特和阿联酋是澳在中东的主要贸易伙伴。

【同拉美国家关系】近年来积极加强同拉美国家在政治、经贸、人文等领域的交流合作与以及在联合国、二十国集团等多边机制中的协调。2008年至2009年,澳外长史密斯先后访问墨西哥、秘鲁、巴西、智利、古巴、特拉尼达和多巴哥等国,智利、巴西、哥伦比亚外长访澳。2009年,澳与墨西哥、智利、古巴等三国签署政治合作谅解备忘录。同年,与智利自由贸易协定生效。同年11月,与加勒比共同体的15个成员国签署谅解备忘录。2010年12月,澳外长陆克文出席在巴西举行的南方共同市场领导人会议并发表演讲,宣布将在4年内向拉美提供1亿澳元发展援助。2012年6月,澳总理吉拉德访问巴西,出席“里约+20可持续发展会议”,并会见巴西总统罗塞夫。2014年12月,澳贸易部长罗布访问巴西、秘鲁、智利。2015年6月,澳外长毕晓普访问智利、秘鲁、巴西。2016年11月,澳总理特恩布尔赴秘鲁出席亚太经合组织第二十四次领导人非正式会议。2017年6月底7月初,澳外长毕晓普访问阿根廷、哥伦比亚、古巴、格林纳达、巴拿马。11月,澳总理特恩布尔在出席越南岘港亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十五次领导人非正式会议期间会见秘鲁总理库琴斯基,两国签署自由贸易协定。2018年11月,澳总理莫里森出席在阿根廷举行的二十国集团领导人第十三次峰会。

[Relationship with Middle East Countries] Concerned about security issues in the Middle East and sending troops to participate in the Gulf War and the Iraq War. Xia ended the conflict by peaceful means. Oppose Iran’s development of nuclear weapons. After the Labor government came to power, Australia withdrew more than 500 combat troops from Iraq in June 2008. In March 2009, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki visited Australia. In July, the Australian troops stationed in Iraq completed their military mission in Iraq. Except for 80 people who remained in Iraq and were responsible for the security of the Australian Embassy, ​​all others were evacuated. In May 2008, Australian Governor Jeffrey visited Israel. In June, Foreign Minister Smith visited the UAE and Kuwait. From February to March 2011, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd visited South Africa, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Oman. In November, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited Afghanistan to attend the inauguration ceremony of the Australian Embassy in Afghanistan. In June 2012, Australian Foreign Minister Karl visited Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Libya and other countries. In January 2015, Iraqi Foreign Minister Jaafari visited Australia. In January 2016, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Afghanistan, Iraq and consoled the Australian soldiers in Iraq. In November, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Qatar. In the same month, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Australia. In February 2017, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu visited Australia and became the first Israeli Prime Minister to visit Australia. In October, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull visited Israel. In December 2018, the Australian government recognized West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, but decided not to temporarily move the Australian embassy to West Jerusalem.

Australia attaches great importance to the potential of the Middle East market and actively promotes the export of agricultural and livestock products and manufactured products to the Middle East. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are Australia’s major trading partners in the Middle East.

[Relationship with Latin American countries] In recent years, we have actively strengthened exchanges and cooperation with Latin American countries in the fields of politics, economy, trade, and humanities, as well as coordination among multilateral mechanisms such as the United Nations and the G20. From 2008 to 2009, Australian Foreign Minister Smith visited Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Tranida and Tobago, and Chile, Brazil and Colombia visited Macao. In 2009, Australia signed a memorandum of understanding on political cooperation with Mexico, Chile and Cuba. In the same year, the Chilean Free Trade Agreement entered into force. In November of the same year, a memorandum of understanding was signed with 15 member States of the Caribbean Community. In December 2010, Australian Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd attended the Southern Common Market Leaders’ Meeting in Brazil and delivered a speech, announcing that he would provide A$100 million in development assistance to Latin America within four years. In June 2012, Australian Prime Minister Gillard visited Brazil to attend the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development and met with Brazilian President Rousseff. In December 2014, Australian Trade Minister Rob visited Brazil, Peru and Chile. In June 2015, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Chile, Peru and Brazil. In November 2016, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull went to Peru to attend the 24th APEC Economic Leaders’ Informal Meeting. At the end of June and early July 2017, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Grenada and Panama. In November, Australian Prime Minister Turnbull met with Peruvian Prime Minister Kuczynski during the twenty-fifth informal leadership meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Vietnam. The two countries signed a free trade agreement. In November 2018, Australian Prime Minister Morrison attended the Thirteenth Summit of the G20 Leaders in Argentina.