The Burkina Faso 布基纳法索
【国名】布基纳法索（The Burkina Faso, Le Burkina Faso）。
【国家元首】罗克·马克·克里斯蒂安·卡博雷（Roch Marc Christian KABORE），2015年11月29日当选总统，12月29日宣誓就职。
[Country name] The Burkina Faso (Le Burkina Faso).
[Area] 274,122 square kilometers.
[Population] 19.19 million. There are more than 60 tribes, divided into two families, Walter and Mande. The Walter family accounts for about 70% of the country’s population, mainly Moxi, Gulongxi, Gulman, Bobo and Lobi. The Mangda family accounts for about 28% of the country’s population, mainly Samo, Marka, Busan, Serufu and Diula. In the northern region there are also some Pall people who are engaged in nomadic farming and business people in Hausa. The official language is French. The main national languages are Moses, Diwula and Phar. 50% of the residents believe in primitive religion, 30% believe in Islam, and 20% believe in Catholicism.
[Capital] Ouagadougou, with a population of 1.63 million and a temperature of 16 to 39 °C.
[Head of State] Roch Marc Christian KABORE, elected president on November 29, 2015, sworn in on December 29.
[Important Festival] Independence Day: August 5th; National Day: December 11.
公元9世纪建立了以莫西族为主的王国，15世纪莫西人首领建立亚腾加和瓦加杜古王国。1904年沦为法国殖民地。1957年成为半自治共和国。1958年12月成为法兰西共同体内的自治共和国。1960年8月5日宣告独立，定国名为上沃尔特共和国。莫里斯·亚梅奥果（Maurice Yaméogo）当选总统。1966年，军队接管政权，陆军参谋长阿布巴卡尔·桑古尔·拉米扎纳（Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana）出任总统。1980年11月，塞耶·泽博（Saye Zerbo）上校发动政变上台，任军事委员会主席兼国家元首。1982年11月，让－巴蒂斯特·韦德拉奥果（Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo）少校和托马斯·桑卡拉（Thomas Sankara）上尉联合发动政变，韦德拉奥果任“拯救人民临时委员会”主席兼国家元首，桑卡拉任总理。1983年8月，桑卡拉发动政变，任全国革命委员会主席兼国家元首。1984年8月4日改国名为布基纳法索。1987年10月，总统府国务部长兼司法部长布莱斯·孔波雷（Blaise Compaoré）发动政变，解散全国革命委员会，成立人民阵线，自任人民阵线主席、国家元首兼政府首脑。
【政治】孔波雷上台后，对前政权过激的内外政策进行调整，于1990年实行多党制。1991年，通过选举成为合法民选总统，并于1998年11月、2005年11月、2010年11月三次蝉联。2014年10月底，孔强推修宪谋求连任，引发“宪政危机”。以原总统卫队副指挥官雅各巴·伊萨克·齐达(Yacouba Isaac Zida)为首的布军方接管国家权力，孔被迫辞职，流亡科特迪瓦。经国际社会多方斡旋，布各方推举前外长米歇尔·卡凡多(Michel Kafando)为临时总统，卡任命齐达为总理。11月23日，布过渡政府成立，过渡期1年。2015年9月，总统卫队发动政变失败。11月29日，总统选举顺利举行，追求进步人民运动党候选人卡博雷在首轮投票中以53.5%的得票率获胜，当选总统，并于12月29日宣誓就职。
[profile] A landlocked country located in western Africa. The northeast is adjacent to Niger, the southeast is connected to Benin, the south is bordered by Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, and the west and the north are bordered by Mali. It has a savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 27 °C.
In the 9th century, the kingdom dominated by the Moxi people was established. In the 15th century, the leaders of the Mosi people established the Yatengjia and Ouagadougou kingdoms. In 1904 he became a French colony. In 1957 became a semi-autonomous republic. In December 1958, it became an autonomous republic in the French Community. On August 5, 1960, it declared independence, and the country was named the Upper Volt Republic. Maurice Yaméogo was elected president. In 1966, the army took over the regime, and the Army Chief of Staff, Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana, became president. In November 1980, Colonel Saye Zerbo launched a coup and took office as the chairman of the Military Commission and head of state. In November 1982, Major Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and Captain Thomas Sankara jointly launched a coup, and Vedrao was appointed as the “Interim Committee for the Salvation of People”. Chairman and head of state, Sankara is the prime minister. In August 1983, Sankara launched a coup, serving as chairman of the National Revolutionary Committee and head of state. On August 4, 1984, the country was renamed Burkina Faso. In October 1987, Blaise Compaoré, Minister of State and Minister of Justice of the Presidential Office, launched a coup, dissolved the National Revolutionary Committee, established the Popular Front, and served as Chairman of the Popular Front, Head of State and Head of Government.
[Politics] After Conbore took office, he adjusted the excessive internal and external policies of the former regime and implemented a multi-party system in 1990. In 1991, he became a legally elected president through elections, and was re-elected three times in November 1998, November 2005, and November 2010. At the end of October 2014, Kong Qiang revised the constitution and sought re-election, which triggered a “constitutional crisis.” The Bushan, headed by the former Presidential Guard’s deputy commander, Yacouba Isaac Zida, took over the state power, and Kong was forced to resign and exiled to Côte d’Ivoire. After many mediations by the international community, the parties elected Michel Kafando, the former foreign minister, as the interim president, and the card appointed Zidda as the prime minister. On November 23, the transitional government was established and the transition period was one year. In September 2015, the presidential guards failed to launch a coup. On November 29th, the presidential election was successfully held. The pursuit of the Progressive People’s Movement Party candidate Kabo Lei won the first round of the vote with a 53.5% vote, was elected president, and was sworn in on December 29.
[Constitution] On June 2, 1991, the referendum passed the fourth constitution since independence. The Constitution stipulates that cloth is a democratic, unified, non-religious country. Implement separation of powers and multi-party system. The President of the Republic is the head of state, the chairman of the Council of Ministers, the chairman of the Supreme Judicial Council, the supreme commander of the armed forces, and must be directly elected from Burkina Faso citizens who are 35 years of age or older. In April 2000, the National Assembly passed a constitutional amendment, stipulating that the president’s term of office is five years and can be re-elected once. When the President temporarily or ultimately fails to exercise his powers, the President will act on his behalf. When the National Assembly is dissolved, the President needs to consult with the Speaker.
【议会】2002年1月，布国民议会修改宪法，撤消代表院，将议会两院制改为一院制。国民议会有127个议席，行使立法权，每年举行两次例会，议员经直接普选产生，任期5年。本届议会于2015年11月29日选举产生。议长萨利夫·迪亚洛（Salifou DIALLO），2016年1月就任，2017年8月突发心脏病死亡。新任议长阿拉萨内·巴拉·萨康德（Alassane Bala Sakandé）, 2017年9月就任。议会主要政党议席如下：追求进步人民运动（MPP）55席、进步变革联盟（UPC)33席、争取民主和进步大会（CDP）18席。
总理克里斯托弗·约瑟夫·马里·达比雷（Christophe Joseph DABIRE），国防和退伍军人国务部长穆米纳·谢里夫·西（Moumina Chériff SY）,国土管理、权力下放和社会和解国务部长西梅翁·萨瓦多戈（Siméon SAWADOGO），外交与合作部长阿尔法·巴里（Alpha BARRY），安全部长乌塞尼·孔波雷（Ousséni COMPAORE），司法、掌玺部长贝索勒·勒内·巴戈罗（Bessolé René BAGORO），非洲一体化和海外侨民部长保罗·罗伯特·蒂恩德雷贝奥戈（Paul Robert TIENDREBEOGO),国民教育、扫盲和民族语言推广部长斯坦尼斯拉斯·瓦罗（Stanislas OUARO），卫生部长莱奥妮·克劳迪娜·卢盖（Léonie Claudine LOUGUE，女），经济、财政与发展部长拉萨内·卡博雷（Lassané KABORE），高等教育、科研和创新部长阿尔卡苏姆·马伊加（Alkassoum MAIGA），公职、劳动和社会保障部长塞尼·韦德拉奥戈（Seyni OUEDRAOGO），数字经济发展和邮政部长哈吉娅·法蒂玛塔·瓦塔拉（Hadja Fatimata OUATTARA，女），新闻及与议会关系部长雷米·菲尔让斯·当吉努（Rémis Fulgence DANDJINOIL），农业及农业水利治理部长萨利夫·韦德拉奥戈（Salif OUEDRAOGO），水资源和清洁部长尼乌加·安布鲁瓦兹·韦德拉奥戈（Niouga Ambroise OUEDRAOGO），基础设施部长埃里克·文登马内加·布古马（Eric Wendenmanegha BOUGOUMA），能源部长贝希尔·伊斯梅尔·韦德拉奥戈（Bachir Ismaël OUEDRAOGO），矿业和采石业部长奥马鲁·伊达尼（Oumarou IDANI），交通、城市疏导和道路安全部长樊尚·廷宾迪·达比古（Vincent Timbindi DABILGOU），妇女、国家团结、家庭和人道主义行动部长埃莱娜·玛丽·洛朗丝·伊布多（Hélène Marie Laurence ILBOUDO née MARCHAL，女），商业、工业与手工业部长哈鲁纳·卡博雷（Harouna KABORE），畜牧业和渔业部长索马诺戈·库图（Sommanogo KOUTOU），青年和青年创业促进部长萨利弗·蒂姆托雷（Salifo TIEMTORE），城市规划和住房部长莫里斯·迪厄多内·博纳内（Maurice Dieudonné BONANET），、人权和公民发展部长玛米娜塔·瓦塔拉（Maminata OUATTARA，女），环境、绿色经济和气候变化部长巴蒂奥·巴西埃（Batio BASSIERE），文化、艺术和旅游部长阿卜杜勒·卡里姆·桑戈（Abdoul Karim SANGO），体育和娱乐部长达乌达·阿祖皮乌（Daouda AZOUPIOU）。
[Parliament] In January 2002, the National Assembly of Buju revised the Constitution, removed the House of Representatives, and changed the two-institution of the House of Representatives into a one-chamber system. The National Assembly has 127 seats, exercises legislative power, and holds two regular meetings each year. Members are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years. The current parliament was elected on November 29, 2015. Speaker Salifou DIALLO, who took office in January 2016, died of a heart attack in August 2017. The new speaker, Alassane Bala Sakandé, took office in September 2017. The main political parties of the parliament are as follows: 55 seats for the Progressive People’s Movement (MPP), 33 for the Progressive Change Alliance (UPC), and 18 for the Conference on Democracy and Progress (CDP).
[Government] The current government was reorganized in January 2019 with a total of 33 members. The main members are as follows:
Prime Minister Christophe Joseph DABIRE, Minister of State for National Defence and Veterans, Moumina Chériff SY, Minister of State Administration, Decentralization and Social Reconciliation, Simeon Sa Siméon SAWADOGO, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Alpha BARRY, Minister of Security Ousséni COMPAORE, Minister of Justice and Palm, Besole Rene Bagoro Bessolé René BAGORO), Minister of African Integration and Overseas Residents, Paul Robert TIENDREBEOGO, Stanislas OUARO, Minister of National Education, Literacy and National Language Promotion, Health Minister Léonie Claudine LOUGUE (woman), Minister of Economy, Finance and Development Lassané KABORE, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, Alkasum Ma Alkassoum MAIGA, Minister of Public Service, Labor and Social Security Seyni OUEDRAOGO, figures Economic Development and Postal Minister Hadja Fatimata OUATTARA (female), Minister of Information and Parliamentary Relations Rémis Fulgence DANDJINOIL, Agriculture and Salif OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Agriculture and Water Management, Niouga Ambroise OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Water Resources and Cleanliness, Minister of Infrastructure Eric Eric Wendenmanegha BOUGOUMA, Energy Minister Bachir Ismaël OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Mining and Quarrying, Oumarou IDANI), Minister of Transport, Urban Guidance and Road Safety, Vincent Timbindi DABILGOU, Elena Marie Lorenz Ibrahim, Minister of Women, National Solidarity, Family and Humanitarian Action Hélène Marie Laurence ILBOUDO née MARCHAL, female, Minister of Commerce, Industry and Handicrafts Harouna KABORE, Minister of Livestock and Fisheries Somanogo Kutu Sommanogo KOUTOU), Minister of Youth and Youth Entrepreneurship Promotion, Salifo TIEMTORE, Minister of Urban Planning and Housing, Maurice Dieudonné BONANET, Human Rights and Citizenship Minister Maminata OUATTARA (female), Minister of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change Batio BASSIERE, Minister of Culture, Art and Tourism Abdul Karim Abdoul Karim SANGO, Minister of Sports and Entertainment Daouda AZOUPIOU.
（1）人民进步运动党（Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès）：执政党，2014年1月成立。2014年1月，前争取民主和进步大会党（CDP)主席、现任总统卡博雷因不满孔波雷任人唯亲和谋求修宪连任，联合该党重量级人物萨利夫·迪亚洛、前瓦加杜古市长西蒙·孔波雷等70多名高层人员脱离CDP，并创立争取民主进步运动。现任代主席为西蒙·孔波雷（Simon COMPAORE）。
（2）进步变革联盟(Union pour le progrès et le changement)：2010年3月成立。其宗旨系通过推动布进行政治、经济和社会变革给布基纳法索人民带来进步。主席泽菲兰·迪亚布雷(Zéphirin Diabré)。
（3）争取民主和进步大会（Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès）：1996年2月成立。以孔波雷领导的争取人民民主组织－劳动运动为主体，联合其他10多个政党组建而成。临时主席阿希尔·塔普索巴（Achille Tapsoba）。
（4）争取民主和联合同盟—非洲民主联盟（Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération—Rassemblement Démocratique Africain）：1998年5月成立。2003年6月出现分裂，原主席埃尔曼·亚梅奥果（Hermann Yameogo）退出该党，另立争取民主和发展全国联盟（UNDD）。曾为布最大反对党，2005年加入总统阵营联盟支持孔波雷竞选。主席吉尔贝·韦德拉奥果（Gilbert Ouédraogo）。
（5）争取复兴同盟/桑卡拉运动（Union pour la Renaissance / Mouvement Sankariste）：2000年成立，系从桑卡拉泛非公约党（CPS）分裂而来。主席本纳温德·斯塔尼斯拉斯·桑卡拉（Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara）。
[Administrative Division] The country was originally divided into 30 provinces and 300 counties. In 1996, it carried out administrative reforms and governed 13 major regions, 45 provinces and 301 municipalities. The capital, Ouagadougou, is the capital of Kadiogo.
[Judiciary] In July 2002, Bu did a major reform of the judicial system. The National Supreme Judicial Council is the highest judicial body, the chairman is the head of state, and the Minister of Justice is the vice chairman. Cancel the Supreme Court and establish the High Court, the Administrative Court, the Audit Court and the Constitutional Council. The High Court is the highest judicial body and consists of four courts: civil, commercial, social and criminal. The administrative court mainly deals with disputes between state administrative organs and citizens’ complaints against administrative organs. There are two courts. The Audit Court is the highest specialized agency that supervises the implementation of the state’s financial affairs. It handles financial and economic violations by state enterprises, central and local administrative agencies, and has three courts. The Constitutional Council oversees and guarantees the implementation of the Constitution and interprets the Constitution.
[Party] There are more than 40 legal parties, mainly including:
(1) Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès: The ruling party, established in January 2014. In January 2014, the former President of the Democratic Progress and Progress Party (CDP) and the current President Kaborein were dissatisfied with Compaure’s kinship and seeking re-election, and united with the party’s heavyweight Salif Diallo and former Waga. More than 70 senior officials, including Mayor of Dugu, Simon Compaore, left the CDP and created a campaign for democracy and progress. The current acting chairman is Simon COMPAORE.
(2) Union pour le progrès et le changement: established in March 2010. Its purpose is to bring progress to the people of Burkina Faso by promoting political, economic and social change. Chairman Zéphirin Diabré.
(3) Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès: Established in February 1996. Take the People’s Democratic Organization-Labor Movement led by Compapoli as the main body and unite with more than 10 other political parties. Temporary Chairman Achille Tapsoba.
(4) Alliance for Democracy and United Democrats (Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération – Rassemblement Démocratique Africain): Established in May 1998. In June 2003, the division took place, and the former President Hermann Yameogo withdrew from the party and established the National Alliance for Democracy and Development (UNDD). He was the biggest opposition party in Buddhism. In 2005, he joined the presidential camp to support the Compapoli campaign. Chairman Gilbert Ouédraogo.
(5) Unification pour la Renaissance / Mouvement Sankariste: Established in 2000, it was split from the Sankara Pan African Convention Party (CPS). Chairman Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara.
Other political parties include: the Union of the Republic (UPR), the Alliance of Democratic Forces (CFD), the Democratic and Socialist Party-Builders’ Party, the Bukken Development Alliance (RDB), the Sangkara Party Alliance (UPS), the Socialist Democratic Movement. (PDS), the African Independent Party (PAI), etc.
[Important] Rock Marc Christian Kaboré: President. Born on April 25, 1957. The Moxi people believe in Catholicism. Received a master’s degree in management from Dijon University, France. He served as Minister of Transport of Burkina Faso, Minister of State and Minister of Financial Planning, Prime Minister, Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly, and Speaker. Formerly an important member of the Congress for the Democratic and Progressive Party led by former President Compaore, he served as the party’s national executive secretary and chairman. In January 2014, he retired from the party and founded the People’s Progressive Movement Party. On November 29, 2015, he was elected as the party’s candidate and was sworn in on December 29.
Christopher Joseph Mali Dabile: Prime Minister, Head of Government. Master of Economics. He began his political career in 1992 and has served as Minister of Health, Minister of Higher Education and Research, Chairman of the National Assembly Finance and Budget Committee, and Coordinator of the West African Economic and Monetary Union. In January 2019, he was appointed President of the government by President Kabore.
[Economy] One of the least developed countries announced by the United Nations. The economy is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry. Cotton is the main cash crop and export earning product. The industrial base is weak and resources are scarce.
The main economic data of the 2018 cloth are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $14.8 billion.
Per capita GDP: $771.
GDP growth rate: 5.9%.
Currency Name: African Financial Community Franc, referred to as the African Franc.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 555.7 African francs.
Inflation rate: 1.3%.
(Source: London Quarterly Review of the First Quarter of 2019)
[Resources] Proved deposits: 17.7 million tons of manganese, 250 million tons of phosphate, 10 million tons of zinc-silver synthetic ore and 6 million tons of limestone.
【农 牧 业】全国84％的劳动力从事农牧业生产。2017年农牧业产值约占国内生产总值的31％。全国有耕地327万公顷，可灌溉土地150万公顷。主要粮食作物有稻米、小米、玉米和木薯，主要经济作物有棉花、腰果、花生和芝麻等。2018年棉花产量约42.3万吨。
【旅 游 业】全国共有旅馆40多家，旅游从业人员1.5万人。年平均收入超过4000万美元。主要旅游点有阿尔利、波城和国家公园。
[Industrial] 5% of the country’s labor force is engaged in industrial production. In 2017, industrial output accounted for about 27% of GDP. Mainly for the processing of agricultural and animal products and light industry, including textile, slaughter, sugar, leather, beer, plastic products and a small amount of electricity, machinery industry. In 2018, the output of cloth gold was 55 tons. There are 24 existing mining companies, including 11 foreign-funded companies, 8 joint-venture companies, and 5 domestic-owned companies. The construction industry is developing rapidly. Since 1991, 44 state-owned enterprises have been privatized.
[Agriculture and animal husbandry] 84% of the country’s labor force is engaged in agricultural and livestock production. In 2017, the output value of agriculture and animal husbandry accounted for about 31% of GDP. There are 3.27 million hectares of arable land and 1.5 million hectares of irrigable land. The main food crops are rice, millet, corn and cassava. The main cash crops are cotton, cashew nuts, peanuts and sesame. Cotton production in 2018 was about 423,000 tons.
[Travel Industry] There are more than 40 hotels in the country and 15,000 tourists. The average annual income exceeds 40 million US dollars. The main tourist spots are Arles, Pau and National Parks.
[Transportation] With the development of the economy, the status of transportation in the national economy is becoming more and more important.
Railway: 622 kilometers in length. 45% of the country’s import and export goods are transported by rail. Due to poor management and other reasons, the railway operation is not good. In order to get rid of the difficulties, in 1994 the government and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire and the French company Bololai decided to jointly set up the African International Transportation Company, which was privatized, and the cloth and branch respectively accounted for 15% of the shares. It was officially opened in August 1995. In 2001, Bu and Branch jointly set up a railway investment fund, and planned to invest 2 billion non-lang annually to improve railway infrastructure and train speed. In 2001, the freight volume of cloth railway reached 313,000 tons. After the outbreak of the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire in September 2002, the Cobb border was closed and the railway was shut down. It resumed operation in September 2003. At present, the African International Transportation Company is responsible for repairing the entire railway line. The commencement ceremony of the railway repair project in December 2017 was held in Abidjan.
Highway: The total length is about 14,000 kilometers, including 2,300 kilometers of asphalt roads, 3,299 kilometers of national highways, 1,446 kilometers of provincial highways, and 1,524 kilometers of regional highways. Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire are currently actively promoting the Abidjan-Wagadugou Expressway project, which is currently under construction at the 400-kilometer section of the Ouagadougou-Bobo Dioulasso. The Abidjan-Yamousukro Expressway in Côte d’Ivoire was officially opened to traffic at the end of 2013, and the 250-kilometer section of Yamoussoukro-Ferkesedugu has entered the feasibility study stage.
Air transport: Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso each have an international airport for large aircraft such as Boeing 747. There is a joint venture aviation company “Burkina Airlines”, which has a Fokker 28 aircraft and an Airbus A319. Currently, Air France flies from Paris to Ouagadougou three times a week.
[Financial Finance] In 2002, the cloth reached the completion point of the “heavily indebted poor countries debt reduction initiative”. In December 2005, the International Monetary Fund decided to waive all of its debts. In 2018, the total external debt was 3.4 billion US dollars, and the foreign exchange reserve was 50 million US dollars.
[Foreign Trade] In 2018, the total trade volume was US$7.51 billion, with exports of US$3.589 billion and imports of US$3.921 billion. The main exporting countries are Switzerland, India, South Africa and Côte d’Ivoire; the main importing countries are China, Côte d’Ivoire, the United States and Thailand. It mainly exports gold, cotton and cashew nuts, and imports the production materials, petroleum products and foods required for the production of industrial products.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is the main source of construction funds and the budget deficit. The main donor countries and international organizations are France, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Japan and the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European Union, the African Development Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme.
[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Programme’s 2018 Human Development Report, it ranks 183th among 188 countries. There are currently 39,000 public officials with an average monthly salary of about 130,000 CFA francs. The legal minimum wage is 143 CFA francs per hour. There are 8 hospitals across the country, 11 regional medical centers, 53 county-level, and 677 primary health clinics. On average, there are 1 doctor per 30,000 people and 1 bed for every 1823 people. The neonatal mortality rate is 60.9‰, the average life expectancy is 59 years old, and the daily income is less than 1.9 US dollars, accounting for 43.7% of the national population. Less than 30% of residents enjoy clean drinking water. It has about 1 million mobile phones, 100,000 fixed telephones and 64,600 Internet users.
[Military] Army was built on November 1, 1960. The national armed forces are composed of regular and paramilitary forces. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. There are 6,600 regular troops, including 6,400 Army, 200 Air Forces, 4,200 police forces, and 45,000 militia. There are 10 aircraft of various types.
[Cultural Education] There are 3,368 primary schools with 705,927 students and 293 secondary schools with 146,850 students. There are 3 institutions of higher learning, namely Ouagadougou University, Bobo University of Technology and Kudugu High Normal School, of which Ouagadougou University is a comprehensive university with about 10,000 registered students. In addition to national students, there are hundreds of international students from nine countries in Africa. The adult literacy rate is 36%.
In addition, there are 3978 literacy and training centers, and about 110,000 people study.
[Press and Publication] There are more than 40 newspapers and magazines in the country, most of which are private publications. The main official newspapers include the Hedvaya newspaper (with a circulation of 10,000 copies), the African Crossroads and the Hedvaya Pictorial. The main private newspapers include: daily newspaper “Palga Observer” (10,000 copies), “Country” (8000 copies), “Evening News” (2500 copies), etc.; weekly “Thursday News” (10,000 copies), “Independent” 》(5000 copies) and so on. Most newspapers have an electronic version.
Burkina News Agency: The official news agency, founded in 1964. Two issues of the Daily News are published weekly.
Burkina National Radio: Completed in 1959. It is broadcast in French and national languages for about 19 hours a day.
Burkina National Television: Built in 1963. The color TV program was broadcasted in 1978, and it was broadcast for about 8 hours a day, and the broadcast time was increased on the weekend. The TV festival covered the whole country at the end of 2006. There are also three private TV stations.
In March 1995, television stations and radio stations founded by the Federation of Religious and Missionary Groups began broadcasting.
[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of peace, development and full openness, emphasizing pragmatic economic diplomacy. Maintain close ties with Western countries, especially France; in recent years, focus on strengthening exchanges with the United States and Asian countries in order to gain more foreign aid; actively participate in regional affairs, and strive to mediate the crisis in Togo, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, and to China and Africa , Mali and other countries sent peacekeeping troops. In January 2016, August 2017 and March 2018, three terrorist attacks occurred in the capital city of Ouagadougou. Since then, there have been repeated terrorist attacks in the eastern and northern border areas, and the security cooperation with the international community and neighboring countries has been further strengthened. Actively send troops to participate in the joint forces of the Sahel Five Group.
[Relationship with France] The law is the former sovereign state, the largest trading partner and the donor country. Conboré has visited the law many times. In November 2004, French President Jacques Chirac visited and attended the 10th Francophone Summit in Budai. In 2010, Compao went to France to attend the 25th French-African Summit and the French National Day. In 2011, the French reception minister and the prime minister visited. In 2012, French Foreign Minister Juppe, Chief of the Army Ji Yue and Foreign Minister Fabius visited respectively. After the “constitutional crisis” in October 2014, France actively participated in mediation and supported the transition process. In 2015, the interim President Kafando paid a working visit to France and met with leaders such as French President Hollande. In September, after the coup d’état, France actively mediated and pressured. In 2016, Kabolai visited France and received French Prime Minister Vals’ visit. In January 2017, Kabore went to Mali to attend the 27th France-Africa Summit. In April, Kabolai visited France and met with French President Hollande. In November, French President Mark Long visited Bud and held bilateral talks with Kabore. In March 2018, French Foreign Minister Ledrien visited Bu, and Kabore met. In December, Kabolai visited France and met with French President Mark Long.
[Relationship with the United States] In 1962, the cooperation agreement between the United States and the United States was signed. The United States provides about 18 million U.S. dollars a year to support the economic development of the cloth industry, and has held joint military exercises with the cloth several times. In 2012, Commander of the US Army’s African Command, Carter, visited the country. In 2013, the US military commander of the African Command, Rodriguez, visited the United States. During the 68th session of the United Nations General Assembly, Conbory met with US Defense Minister Hagel. In 2014, Compao went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. After the “constitutional crisis” in October, the United States actively participated in mediation and supported the transition process. In May 2017, President Kaboré went to Riyadh to attend the Arab-Islamic-American Summit. In September, Kabore briefly met with US President Trump during his attendance at the UN General Assembly in New York. In April 2018, Kabore met with the U.S. Senate delegation. In the same month, the United States held a joint military exercise with the “Flying Guns” in eight African countries, including Burkina Faso.
[Relationship with the EU] Cloth maintains a good cooperative relationship with the EU. The EU has provided substantial assistance to the DP in the areas of poverty reduction, education, infrastructure construction, justice, national defense and security system reform. In 2013, the EU announced that it will provide 623 million euros in aid to Brazil from 2014 to 2020. In 2015, the interim President Kafando went to Belgium to participate in the 26th Klein and Montana forum, met with EU leaders and Belgian Prime Minister Michel, and the EU decided to provide 120 million euros of financial assistance for the 2015-2016 period. In 2017, the Director General of International Cooperation and Development of the European Commission, Stefano Mansell Visi, visited Bubo and met with Kabore and announced that the European Union plans to provide 117 million euros in financial assistance to the cloth. In October 2018, the Deputy Secretary-General of the European Union’s Foreign Action Agency, Beria, visited the country and met with President Kabore.
[Relationship with neighboring countries and other African countries] During Compapoli’s administration, Mr. Bu actively participated in mediating hot issues in Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, and maintained close contacts with West African countries such as Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. In 2015, the Senegalese President visited Buddhism. The interim President Kafando visited Côte d’Ivoire, Togo and Nigeria, went to Benin to attend the summit of the West African National Economic and Trade Union, went to Ethiopia to attend the AU summit, and went to Ghana to attend the 47th Community of the West African States. At the summit, he went to Benin to attend the religious and cultural dialogue for peace and development education conference and went to Senegal to attend the ECOWAS summit. The Prime Minister of the Interim Government, Qida, visited Morocco, Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal and went to South Africa to attend the AU summit. In September, after the coup d’état, the AU and ECOWAS strongly condemned the ECOW presidency, Senegalese President Saale, Niger President Isuf, Benin’s President Yayi, and Togo’s President Foley. Mediation. In 2016, President Kaboré visited Niger and Côte d’Ivoire and went to Ethiopia to attend the AU summit. Benin’s President Yayi and Chad’s President Daibi visited Bu. In 2017, President Kabore visited Sudan, Egypt, Senegal and other countries, went to Ethiopia to attend the 28th and 29th AU summits, went to Mali to attend the special summit of the Sahel Group of Five, and went to Liberia and Nigeria to attend the Western Communist Party. The 51st and 52nd summits; the President of Côte d’Ivoire Ouattara, the President of Ghana, Akuf Aedo, the President of Guinea, Conte, the President of Mali, Keita, and the President of Benin, Tallon, first visited the country. In 2018, President Kaboré went to Liberia to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Vijay, went to Niger to attend the 4th Summit of the Sahel Group, went to Togo to attend the special summit of leaders of the ECOWAS countries, and went to Côte d’Ivoire to attend the 7th The Cobb Friendship and Cooperation Agreement Summit and Togo attended the ECOWAS and CPC Joint Summit; Mali Prime Minister Maiga, Sao Tome and Principe’s then Prime Minister Trovatada visited China.