The Burkina Faso 布基纳法索

【国名】布基纳法索(The Burkina Faso, Le Burkina Faso)。

【面积】274122平方公里。

【人口】1919万。共有60多个部族,分为沃尔特和芒戴两个族系。沃尔特族系约占全国人口的70%,主要有莫西族、古隆西族、古尔芒则族、博博族和洛比族。芒戴族系约占全国人口的28%,主要有萨莫族、马尔卡族、布桑塞族、塞努福族和迪乌拉族。在北部地区还有一些从事游牧业的颇尔人和经商的豪萨人。官方语言为法语。主要民族语言有莫西语、迪乌拉语和颇尔语。50%的居民信奉原始宗教,30%信奉伊斯兰教,20%信奉天主教。

【首都】瓦加杜古(Ouagadougou),人口163万,气温16~39℃。

【国家元首】罗克·马克·克里斯蒂安·卡博雷(Roch Marc Christian KABORE),2015年11月29日当选总统,12月29日宣誓就职。

【重要节日】独立日:8月5日;国庆日:12月11日。

[Country name] The Burkina Faso (Le Burkina Faso).

[Area] 274,122 square kilometers.

[Population] 19.19 million. There are more than 60 tribes, divided into two families, Walter and Mande. The Walter family accounts for about 70% of the country’s population, mainly Moxi, Gulongxi, Gulman, Bobo and Lobi. The Mangda family accounts for about 28% of the country’s population, mainly Samo, Marka, Busan, Serufu and Diula. In the northern region there are also some Pall people who are engaged in nomadic farming and business people in Hausa. The official language is French. The main national languages are Moses, Diwula and Phar. 50% of the residents believe in primitive religion, 30% believe in Islam, and 20% believe in Catholicism.

[Capital] Ouagadougou, with a population of 1.63 million and a temperature of 16 to 39 °C.

[Head of State] Roch Marc Christian KABORE, elected president on November 29, 2015, sworn in on December 29.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: August 5th; National Day: December 11.

【简况】位于非洲西部的内陆国。东北与尼日尔为邻,东南与贝宁相连,南与科特迪瓦、加纳、多哥交界,西、北与马里接壤。属热带草原气候,年平均气温27℃。

公元9世纪建立了以莫西族为主的王国,15世纪莫西人首领建立亚腾加和瓦加杜古王国。1904年沦为法国殖民地。1957年成为半自治共和国。1958年12月成为法兰西共同体内的自治共和国。1960年8月5日宣告独立,定国名为上沃尔特共和国。莫里斯·亚梅奥果(Maurice Yaméogo)当选总统。1966年,军队接管政权,陆军参谋长阿布巴卡尔·桑古尔·拉米扎纳(Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana)出任总统。1980年11月,塞耶·泽博(Saye Zerbo)上校发动政变上台,任军事委员会主席兼国家元首。1982年11月,让-巴蒂斯特·韦德拉奥果(Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo)少校和托马斯·桑卡拉(Thomas Sankara)上尉联合发动政变,韦德拉奥果任“拯救人民临时委员会”主席兼国家元首,桑卡拉任总理。1983年8月,桑卡拉发动政变,任全国革命委员会主席兼国家元首。1984年8月4日改国名为布基纳法索。1987年10月,总统府国务部长兼司法部长布莱斯·孔波雷(Blaise Compaoré)发动政变,解散全国革命委员会,成立人民阵线,自任人民阵线主席、国家元首兼政府首脑。

【政治】孔波雷上台后,对前政权过激的内外政策进行调整,于1990年实行多党制。1991年,通过选举成为合法民选总统,并于1998年11月、2005年11月、2010年11月三次蝉联。2014年10月底,孔强推修宪谋求连任,引发“宪政危机”。以原总统卫队副指挥官雅各巴·伊萨克·齐达(Yacouba Isaac Zida)为首的布军方接管国家权力,孔被迫辞职,流亡科特迪瓦。经国际社会多方斡旋,布各方推举前外长米歇尔·卡凡多(Michel Kafando)为临时总统,卡任命齐达为总理。11月23日,布过渡政府成立,过渡期1年。2015年9月,总统卫队发动政变失败。11月29日,总统选举顺利举行,追求进步人民运动党候选人卡博雷在首轮投票中以53.5%的得票率获胜,当选总统,并于12月29日宣誓就职。

【宪法】1991年6月2日,全民投票通过独立以来第四部宪法。宪法规定:布是一个民主、统一、非宗教的国家。实行三权分立和多党制。共和国总统是国家元首、部长会议主席、最高司法委员会主席、武装力量最高统帅,须从年满35岁的布基纳法索公民中直选产生。2000年4月,国民议会大会通过宪法修正案,规定总统任期5年,可连任一次。总统临时或最终不能行使职权时,由议长代行。解散国民议会时,总统需与议长协商。

[profile] A landlocked country located in western Africa. The northeast is adjacent to Niger, the southeast is connected to Benin, the south is bordered by Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, and the west and the north are bordered by Mali. It has a savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 27 °C.

In the 9th century, the kingdom dominated by the Moxi people was established. In the 15th century, the leaders of the Mosi people established the Yatengjia and Ouagadougou kingdoms. In 1904 he became a French colony. In 1957 became a semi-autonomous republic. In December 1958, it became an autonomous republic in the French Community. On August 5, 1960, it declared independence, and the country was named the Upper Volt Republic. Maurice Yaméogo was elected president. In 1966, the army took over the regime, and the Army Chief of Staff, Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana, became president. In November 1980, Colonel Saye Zerbo launched a coup and took office as the chairman of the Military Commission and head of state. In November 1982, Major Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and Captain Thomas Sankara jointly launched a coup, and Vedrao was appointed as the “Interim Committee for the Salvation of People”. Chairman and head of state, Sankara is the prime minister. In August 1983, Sankara launched a coup, serving as chairman of the National Revolutionary Committee and head of state. On August 4, 1984, the country was renamed Burkina Faso. In October 1987, Blaise Compaoré, Minister of State and Minister of Justice of the Presidential Office, launched a coup, dissolved the National Revolutionary Committee, established the Popular Front, and served as Chairman of the Popular Front, Head of State and Head of Government.

[Politics] After Conbore took office, he adjusted the excessive internal and external policies of the former regime and implemented a multi-party system in 1990. In 1991, he became a legally elected president through elections, and was re-elected three times in November 1998, November 2005, and November 2010. At the end of October 2014, Kong Qiang revised the constitution and sought re-election, which triggered a “constitutional crisis.” The Bushan, headed by the former Presidential Guard’s deputy commander, Yacouba Isaac Zida, took over the state power, and Kong was forced to resign and exiled to Côte d’Ivoire. After many mediations by the international community, the parties elected Michel Kafando, the former foreign minister, as the interim president, and the card appointed Zidda as the prime minister. On November 23, the transitional government was established and the transition period was one year. In September 2015, the presidential guards failed to launch a coup. On November 29th, the presidential election was successfully held. The pursuit of the Progressive People’s Movement Party candidate Kabo Lei won the first round of the vote with a 53.5% vote, was elected president, and was sworn in on December 29.

[Constitution] On June 2, 1991, the referendum passed the fourth constitution since independence. The Constitution stipulates that cloth is a democratic, unified, non-religious country. Implement separation of powers and multi-party system. The President of the Republic is the head of state, the chairman of the Council of Ministers, the chairman of the Supreme Judicial Council, the supreme commander of the armed forces, and must be directly elected from Burkina Faso citizens who are 35 years of age or older. In April 2000, the National Assembly passed a constitutional amendment, stipulating that the president’s term of office is five years and can be re-elected once. When the President temporarily or ultimately fails to exercise his powers, the President will act on his behalf. When the National Assembly is dissolved, the President needs to consult with the Speaker.

【议会】2002年1月,布国民议会修改宪法,撤消代表院,将议会两院制改为一院制。国民议会有127个议席,行使立法权,每年举行两次例会,议员经直接普选产生,任期5年。本届议会于2015年11月29日选举产生。议长萨利夫·迪亚洛(Salifou DIALLO),2016年1月就任,2017年8月突发心脏病死亡。新任议长阿拉萨内·巴拉·萨康德(Alassane Bala Sakandé), 2017年9月就任。议会主要政党议席如下:追求进步人民运动(MPP)55席、进步变革联盟(UPC)33席、争取民主和进步大会(CDP)18席。

【政府】本届政府于2019年1月改组,共33名成员,主要成员名单如下:

总理克里斯托弗·约瑟夫·马里·达比雷(Christophe Joseph DABIRE),国防和退伍军人国务部长穆米纳·谢里夫·西(Moumina Chériff SY),国土管理、权力下放和社会和解国务部长西梅翁·萨瓦多戈(Siméon SAWADOGO),外交与合作部长阿尔法·巴里(Alpha BARRY),安全部长乌塞尼·孔波雷(Ousséni COMPAORE),司法、掌玺部长贝索勒·勒内·巴戈罗(Bessolé René BAGORO),非洲一体化和海外侨民部长保罗·罗伯特·蒂恩德雷贝奥戈(Paul Robert TIENDREBEOGO),国民教育、扫盲和民族语言推广部长斯坦尼斯拉斯·瓦罗(Stanislas OUARO),卫生部长莱奥妮·克劳迪娜·卢盖(Léonie Claudine LOUGUE,女),经济、财政与发展部长拉萨内·卡博雷(Lassané KABORE),高等教育、科研和创新部长阿尔卡苏姆·马伊加(Alkassoum MAIGA),公职、劳动和社会保障部长塞尼·韦德拉奥戈(Seyni OUEDRAOGO),数字经济发展和邮政部长哈吉娅·法蒂玛塔·瓦塔拉(Hadja Fatimata OUATTARA,女),新闻及与议会关系部长雷米·菲尔让斯·当吉努(Rémis Fulgence DANDJINOIL),农业及农业水利治理部长萨利夫·韦德拉奥戈(Salif OUEDRAOGO),水资源和清洁部长尼乌加·安布鲁瓦兹·韦德拉奥戈(Niouga Ambroise OUEDRAOGO),基础设施部长埃里克·文登马内加·布古马(Eric Wendenmanegha BOUGOUMA),能源部长贝希尔·伊斯梅尔·韦德拉奥戈(Bachir Ismaël OUEDRAOGO),矿业和采石业部长奥马鲁·伊达尼(Oumarou IDANI),交通、城市疏导和道路安全部长樊尚·廷宾迪·达比古(Vincent Timbindi DABILGOU),妇女、国家团结、家庭和人道主义行动部长埃莱娜·玛丽·洛朗丝·伊布多(Hélène Marie Laurence ILBOUDO née MARCHAL,女),商业、工业与手工业部长哈鲁纳·卡博雷(Harouna KABORE),畜牧业和渔业部长索马诺戈·库图(Sommanogo KOUTOU),青年和青年创业促进部长萨利弗·蒂姆托雷(Salifo TIEMTORE),城市规划和住房部长莫里斯·迪厄多内·博纳内(Maurice Dieudonné BONANET),、人权和公民发展部长玛米娜塔·瓦塔拉(Maminata OUATTARA,女),环境、绿色经济和气候变化部长巴蒂奥·巴西埃(Batio BASSIERE),文化、艺术和旅游部长阿卜杜勒·卡里姆·桑戈(Abdoul Karim SANGO),体育和娱乐部长达乌达·阿祖皮乌(Daouda AZOUPIOU)。

[Parliament] In January 2002, the National Assembly of Buju revised the Constitution, removed the House of Representatives, and changed the two-institution of the House of Representatives into a one-chamber system. The National Assembly has 127 seats, exercises legislative power, and holds two regular meetings each year. Members are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years. The current parliament was elected on November 29, 2015. Speaker Salifou DIALLO, who took office in January 2016, died of a heart attack in August 2017. The new speaker, Alassane Bala Sakandé, took office in September 2017. The main political parties of the parliament are as follows: 55 seats for the Progressive People’s Movement (MPP), 33 for the Progressive Change Alliance (UPC), and 18 for the Conference on Democracy and Progress (CDP).

[Government] The current government was reorganized in January 2019 with a total of 33 members. The main members are as follows:

Prime Minister Christophe Joseph DABIRE, Minister of State for National Defence and Veterans, Moumina Chériff SY, Minister of State Administration, Decentralization and Social Reconciliation, Simeon Sa Siméon SAWADOGO, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Alpha BARRY, Minister of Security Ousséni COMPAORE, Minister of Justice and Palm, Besole Rene Bagoro Bessolé René BAGORO), Minister of African Integration and Overseas Residents, Paul Robert TIENDREBEOGO, Stanislas OUARO, Minister of National Education, Literacy and National Language Promotion, Health Minister Léonie Claudine LOUGUE (woman), Minister of Economy, Finance and Development Lassané KABORE, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, Alkasum Ma Alkassoum MAIGA, Minister of Public Service, Labor and Social Security Seyni OUEDRAOGO, figures Economic Development and Postal Minister Hadja Fatimata OUATTARA (female), Minister of Information and Parliamentary Relations Rémis Fulgence DANDJINOIL, Agriculture and Salif OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Agriculture and Water Management, Niouga Ambroise OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Water Resources and Cleanliness, Minister of Infrastructure Eric Eric Wendenmanegha BOUGOUMA, Energy Minister Bachir Ismaël OUEDRAOGO, Minister of Mining and Quarrying, Oumarou IDANI), Minister of Transport, Urban Guidance and Road Safety, Vincent Timbindi DABILGOU, Elena Marie Lorenz Ibrahim, Minister of Women, National Solidarity, Family and Humanitarian Action Hélène Marie Laurence ILBOUDO née MARCHAL, female, Minister of Commerce, Industry and Handicrafts Harouna KABORE, Minister of Livestock and Fisheries Somanogo Kutu Sommanogo KOUTOU), Minister of Youth and Youth Entrepreneurship Promotion, Salifo TIEMTORE, Minister of Urban Planning and Housing, Maurice Dieudonné BONANET, Human Rights and Citizenship Minister Maminata OUATTARA (female), Minister of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change Batio BASSIERE, Minister of Culture, Art and Tourism Abdul Karim Abdoul Karim SANGO, Minister of Sports and Entertainment Daouda AZOUPIOU.

【行政区划】全国原分为30个省, 300个县。1996年进行行政改革,下辖13个大区、45个省和301个市镇。首都瓦加杜古是卡迪奥果省(Kadiogo)首府。

【司法机构】2002年7月,布对司法制度进行了重大改革。国家最高司法委员会为最高司法机构,主席由国家元首兼任,司法部长为副主席。取消最高法院,设立高等法院、行政法院、审计法院和宪法委员会。高等法院为最高司法机构,由民事、商事、社会和犯罪4个法庭组成。行政法院主要审理国家行政机关之间的纠纷和公民对行政机关的控告,下设两个法庭。审计法院是对国家财政执行情况进行监督的最高专门机构,审理国家企业、中央和地方行政机关财经违法案件,下设三个法庭。宪法委员会监督和保障宪法的实施,解释宪法。

【政党】现有合法政党40余个,主要有:

(1)人民进步运动党(Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès):执政党,2014年1月成立。2014年1月,前争取民主和进步大会党(CDP)主席、现任总统卡博雷因不满孔波雷任人唯亲和谋求修宪连任,联合该党重量级人物萨利夫·迪亚洛、前瓦加杜古市长西蒙·孔波雷等70多名高层人员脱离CDP,并创立争取民主进步运动。现任代主席为西蒙·孔波雷(Simon COMPAORE)。

(2)进步变革联盟(Union pour le progrès et le changement):2010年3月成立。其宗旨系通过推动布进行政治、经济和社会变革给布基纳法索人民带来进步。主席泽菲兰·迪亚布雷(Zéphirin Diabré)。

(3)争取民主和进步大会(Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès):1996年2月成立。以孔波雷领导的争取人民民主组织-劳动运动为主体,联合其他10多个政党组建而成。临时主席阿希尔·塔普索巴(Achille Tapsoba)。

(4)争取民主和联合同盟—非洲民主联盟(Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération—Rassemblement Démocratique Africain):1998年5月成立。2003年6月出现分裂,原主席埃尔曼·亚梅奥果(Hermann Yameogo)退出该党,另立争取民主和发展全国联盟(UNDD)。曾为布最大反对党,2005年加入总统阵营联盟支持孔波雷竞选。主席吉尔贝·韦德拉奥果(Gilbert Ouédraogo)。

(5)争取复兴同盟/桑卡拉运动(Union pour la Renaissance / Mouvement Sankariste):2000年成立,系从桑卡拉泛非公约党(CPS)分裂而来。主席本纳温德·斯塔尼斯拉斯·桑卡拉(Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara)。

其他政党有:争取共和国联盟(UPR)、民主力量联盟(CFD)、民主和社会主义党-建设者党、争取布基纳发展同盟(RDB)、桑卡拉党联盟(UPS)、社会主义民主运动(PDS)、非洲独立党(PAI)等。

[Administrative Division] The country was originally divided into 30 provinces and 300 counties. In 1996, it carried out administrative reforms and governed 13 major regions, 45 provinces and 301 municipalities. The capital, Ouagadougou, is the capital of Kadiogo.

[Judiciary] In July 2002, Bu did a major reform of the judicial system. The National Supreme Judicial Council is the highest judicial body, the chairman is the head of state, and the Minister of Justice is the vice chairman. Cancel the Supreme Court and establish the High Court, the Administrative Court, the Audit Court and the Constitutional Council. The High Court is the highest judicial body and consists of four courts: civil, commercial, social and criminal. The administrative court mainly deals with disputes between state administrative organs and citizens’ complaints against administrative organs. There are two courts. The Audit Court is the highest specialized agency that supervises the implementation of the state’s financial affairs. It handles financial and economic violations by state enterprises, central and local administrative agencies, and has three courts. The Constitutional Council oversees and guarantees the implementation of the Constitution and interprets the Constitution.

[Party] There are more than 40 legal parties, mainly including:

(1) Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès: The ruling party, established in January 2014. In January 2014, the former President of the Democratic Progress and Progress Party (CDP) and the current President Kaborein were dissatisfied with Compaure’s kinship and seeking re-election, and united with the party’s heavyweight Salif Diallo and former Waga. More than 70 senior officials, including Mayor of Dugu, Simon Compaore, left the CDP and created a campaign for democracy and progress. The current acting chairman is Simon COMPAORE.

(2) Union pour le progrès et le changement: established in March 2010. Its purpose is to bring progress to the people of Burkina Faso by promoting political, economic and social change. Chairman Zéphirin Diabré.

(3) Congrès pour la Démocratie et le Progrès: Established in February 1996. Take the People’s Democratic Organization-Labor Movement led by Compapoli as the main body and unite with more than 10 other political parties. Temporary Chairman Achille Tapsoba.

(4) Alliance for Democracy and United Democrats (Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération – Rassemblement Démocratique Africain): Established in May 1998. In June 2003, the division took place, and the former President Hermann Yameogo withdrew from the party and established the National Alliance for Democracy and Development (UNDD). He was the biggest opposition party in Buddhism. In 2005, he joined the presidential camp to support the Compapoli campaign. Chairman Gilbert Ouédraogo.

(5) Unification pour la Renaissance / Mouvement Sankariste: Established in 2000, it was split from the Sankara Pan African Convention Party (CPS). Chairman Bénéwendé Stanislas Sankara.

Other political parties include: the Union of the Republic (UPR), the Alliance of Democratic Forces (CFD), the Democratic and Socialist Party-Builders’ Party, the Bukken Development Alliance (RDB), the Sangkara Party Alliance (UPS), the Socialist Democratic Movement. (PDS), the African Independent Party (PAI), etc.

【重要人物】罗克·马克·克里斯蒂安·卡博雷:总统。1957年4月25日生。莫西族,信奉天主教。获法国第戎大学管理学硕士学位。曾任布基纳法索交通运输部长、国务部长兼财政计划部长、总理、国民议会副议长、议长等职。原为前总统孔波雷领导的争取民主和进步大会党重要成员,曾任该党全国执行书记、主席。2014年1月退党并创立人民进步运动党,2015年11月29日作为该党候选人当选总统,并于12月29日宣誓就职。

克里斯托弗·约瑟夫·马里·达比雷:总理,政府首脑。经济学硕士。1992年开始从政,历任卫生部长、中高等教育及科研部长、国民议会财政和预算委员会主席以及西非经济货币联盟合作专员。2019年1月被总统卡博雷任命为政府总理。

【经济】联合国公布的最不发达国家之一。经济以农牧业为主。棉花是布主要经济作物和出口创汇产品。工业基础薄弱,资源较为贫乏。

2018年布主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:148亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:771美元。

国内生产总值增长率:5.9%。

货币名称: 非洲金融共同体法郎,简称非洲法郎。

汇率: 1美元=555.7非洲法郎。

通货膨胀率:1.3%。

(资料来源: 2019年第一季度《伦敦经济季评》)

【资源】已探明的矿藏:锰1770万吨,磷酸盐2.5亿吨,锌银合成矿1000万吨,石灰石600万吨。

[Important] Rock Marc Christian Kaboré: President. Born on April 25, 1957. The Moxi people believe in Catholicism. Received a master’s degree in management from Dijon University, France. He served as Minister of Transport of Burkina Faso, Minister of State and Minister of Financial Planning, Prime Minister, Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly, and Speaker. Formerly an important member of the Congress for the Democratic and Progressive Party led by former President Compaore, he served as the party’s national executive secretary and chairman. In January 2014, he retired from the party and founded the People’s Progressive Movement Party. On November 29, 2015, he was elected as the party’s candidate and was sworn in on December 29.

Christopher Joseph Mali Dabile: Prime Minister, Head of Government. Master of Economics. He began his political career in 1992 and has served as Minister of Health, Minister of Higher Education and Research, Chairman of the National Assembly Finance and Budget Committee, and Coordinator of the West African Economic and Monetary Union. In January 2019, he was appointed President of the government by President Kabore.

[Economy] One of the least developed countries announced by the United Nations. The economy is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry. Cotton is the main cash crop and export earning product. The industrial base is weak and resources are scarce.

The main economic data of the 2018 cloth are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $14.8 billion.

Per capita GDP: $771.

GDP growth rate: 5.9%.

Currency Name: African Financial Community Franc, referred to as the African Franc.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 555.7 African francs.

Inflation rate: 1.3%.

(Source: London Quarterly Review of the First Quarter of 2019)

[Resources] Proved deposits: 17.7 million tons of manganese, 250 million tons of phosphate, 10 million tons of zinc-silver synthetic ore and 6 million tons of limestone.

【工业】全国5%的劳动力从事工业生产。2017年工业产值约占国内生产总值的27%。主要为农牧产品加工和轻工业,包括纺织、屠宰、制糖、皮革、啤酒、塑料制品及少量电力、机械工业等。2018年布黄金产量为55吨。现有矿业公司24家,其中外资公司11家,合资公司8家,本国独资公司5家。建筑业发展迅速。自1991起,44家国有企业实行私有化。

【农 牧 业】全国84%的劳动力从事农牧业生产。2017年农牧业产值约占国内生产总值的31%。全国有耕地327万公顷,可灌溉土地150万公顷。主要粮食作物有稻米、小米、玉米和木薯,主要经济作物有棉花、腰果、花生和芝麻等。2018年棉花产量约42.3万吨。

【旅 游 业】全国共有旅馆40多家,旅游从业人员1.5万人。年平均收入超过4000万美元。主要旅游点有阿尔利、波城和国家公园。

【交通运输】随着经济的发展,交通运输在国民经济中的地位越来越重要。

铁路:全长622公里。全国45%的进出口货物依靠铁路运输。由于管理不善等原因,铁路运营状况不佳。为摆脱困境,1994年布政府同科特迪瓦政府和法国博洛莱公司决定共同组建非洲国际交通运输公司,实行私有化,布和科分别占有15%的股份。1995年8月正式运营。2001年,布与科共同设立铁路投资基金,计划每年投资20亿非郎用于改善铁路基础设施和火车提速。2001年,布铁路货运量达31.3万吨。2002年9月科特迪瓦危机爆发后,科布边界关闭,铁路停运。2003年9月恢复运行。目前,非洲国际交通运输公司负责对铁路全线进行修缮,2017年12月铁路修复项目开工仪式在阿比让举行。

公路:总长约1.4万公里,其中沥青路2300公里,国家级公路3299公里、省级公路1446公里、地区级公路1524公里。目前布基纳法索和科特迪瓦正在积极推进阿比让-瓦加杜古高速公路项目,该项目布境内瓦加杜古–博博迪乌拉索400公里路段目前正在施工。科特迪瓦境内阿比让-亚穆苏克罗段高速公路已于2013年底正式通车,亚穆苏克罗-费尔凯塞杜古250公里路段已进入可研阶段。

空运:瓦加杜古和博博-迪乌拉索各有一个可起降波音747等大型飞机的国际机场。布有一家合资航空企业“布基纳航空公司”,现有一架福克28型飞机和一架空客A319。目前,法航每周三班从巴黎飞瓦加杜古。

【财政金融】2002年,布达到“重债穷国减债倡议”完成点。2005年12月,国际货币基金组织决定免除布欠其所有债务。2018年外债总额34亿美元,外汇储备为0.5亿美元。

【对外贸易】 2018年,贸易总额75.1亿美元,出口35.89亿美元,进口39.21亿美元。主要出口对象国为瑞士、印度、南非和科特迪瓦;主要进口国为中国、科特迪瓦、美国和泰国。主要出口黄金、棉花和腰果,进口生产工业品所需的生产资料、石油制品和食品等。

【外国援助】外援是布建设资金和弥补预算赤字的主要来源。主要援助国和国际组织为法国、德国、丹麦、荷兰、日本以及世界银行、国际货币基金组织、欧盟、非洲发展基金、联合国开发计划署等。

【人民生活】根据联合国开发计划署《2018年人类发展报告》公布的人文发展指数,布在188个国家中排名第183位。目前有公职人员39000人,平均月工资约13万非洲法郎。法定最低工资为每小时143非洲法郎。全国有8家医院,地区级医疗中心11个,县级53个,基层卫生诊所677个。平均每3万人拥有1名医生,每1823人拥有1张病床。新生儿死亡率60.9‰,平均寿命59岁,日收入低于1.9美元的贫困人口占全国人口的43.7%。不足30%的居民享受洁净饮用水。拥有移动电话约100万部,固定电话10万部,因特网用户6.46万个。

[Industrial] 5% of the country’s labor force is engaged in industrial production. In 2017, industrial output accounted for about 27% of GDP. Mainly for the processing of agricultural and animal products and light industry, including textile, slaughter, sugar, leather, beer, plastic products and a small amount of electricity, machinery industry. In 2018, the output of cloth gold was 55 tons. There are 24 existing mining companies, including 11 foreign-funded companies, 8 joint-venture companies, and 5 domestic-owned companies. The construction industry is developing rapidly. Since 1991, 44 state-owned enterprises have been privatized.

[Agriculture and animal husbandry] 84% of the country’s labor force is engaged in agricultural and livestock production. In 2017, the output value of agriculture and animal husbandry accounted for about 31% of GDP. There are 3.27 million hectares of arable land and 1.5 million hectares of irrigable land. The main food crops are rice, millet, corn and cassava. The main cash crops are cotton, cashew nuts, peanuts and sesame. Cotton production in 2018 was about 423,000 tons.

[Travel Industry] There are more than 40 hotels in the country and 15,000 tourists. The average annual income exceeds 40 million US dollars. The main tourist spots are Arles, Pau and National Parks.

[Transportation] With the development of the economy, the status of transportation in the national economy is becoming more and more important.

Railway: 622 kilometers in length. 45% of the country’s import and export goods are transported by rail. Due to poor management and other reasons, the railway operation is not good. In order to get rid of the difficulties, in 1994 the government and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire and the French company Bololai decided to jointly set up the African International Transportation Company, which was privatized, and the cloth and branch respectively accounted for 15% of the shares. It was officially opened in August 1995. In 2001, Bu and Branch jointly set up a railway investment fund, and planned to invest 2 billion non-lang annually to improve railway infrastructure and train speed. In 2001, the freight volume of cloth railway reached 313,000 tons. After the outbreak of the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire in September 2002, the Cobb border was closed and the railway was shut down. It resumed operation in September 2003. At present, the African International Transportation Company is responsible for repairing the entire railway line. The commencement ceremony of the railway repair project in December 2017 was held in Abidjan.

Highway: The total length is about 14,000 kilometers, including 2,300 kilometers of asphalt roads, 3,299 kilometers of national highways, 1,446 kilometers of provincial highways, and 1,524 kilometers of regional highways. Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire are currently actively promoting the Abidjan-Wagadugou Expressway project, which is currently under construction at the 400-kilometer section of the Ouagadougou-Bobo Dioulasso. The Abidjan-Yamousukro Expressway in Côte d’Ivoire was officially opened to traffic at the end of 2013, and the 250-kilometer section of Yamoussoukro-Ferkesedugu has entered the feasibility study stage.

Air transport: Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso each have an international airport for large aircraft such as Boeing 747. There is a joint venture aviation company “Burkina Airlines”, which has a Fokker 28 aircraft and an Airbus A319. Currently, Air France flies from Paris to Ouagadougou three times a week.

[Financial Finance] In 2002, the cloth reached the completion point of the “heavily indebted poor countries debt reduction initiative”. In December 2005, the International Monetary Fund decided to waive all of its debts. In 2018, the total external debt was 3.4 billion US dollars, and the foreign exchange reserve was 50 million US dollars.

[Foreign Trade] In 2018, the total trade volume was US$7.51 billion, with exports of US$3.589 billion and imports of US$3.921 billion. The main exporting countries are Switzerland, India, South Africa and Côte d’Ivoire; the main importing countries are China, Côte d’Ivoire, the United States and Thailand. It mainly exports gold, cotton and cashew nuts, and imports the production materials, petroleum products and foods required for the production of industrial products.

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is the main source of construction funds and the budget deficit. The main donor countries and international organizations are France, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Japan and the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European Union, the African Development Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme.

[People’s Life] According to the Human Development Index published by the United Nations Development Programme’s 2018 Human Development Report, it ranks 183th among 188 countries. There are currently 39,000 public officials with an average monthly salary of about 130,000 CFA francs. The legal minimum wage is 143 CFA francs per hour. There are 8 hospitals across the country, 11 regional medical centers, 53 county-level, and 677 primary health clinics. On average, there are 1 doctor per 30,000 people and 1 bed for every 1823 people. The neonatal mortality rate is 60.9‰, the average life expectancy is 59 years old, and the daily income is less than 1.9 US dollars, accounting for 43.7% of the national population. Less than 30% of residents enjoy clean drinking water. It has about 1 million mobile phones, 100,000 fixed telephones and 64,600 Internet users.

【军事】1960年11月1日建军。全国武装力量由正规军和准军事部队组成。总统为武装部队最高统帅。正规军6600人,其中陆军6400人,空军200人,警宪部队4200人,民兵45000人。有10架各种型号的飞机。

【文化教育】有小学3368所,在校学生705927人;中学293所,在校学生146850人。高等学府3所,即瓦加杜古大学、博博工科综合大学和库杜古高等师范学校,其中瓦加杜古大学为综合性大学,注册学生约1万人。除本国学生外,还有非洲9个国家的数百名留学生。成人识字率36%。

此外,还有各种扫盲、培训中心3978个,约11万人学习。

【新闻出版】全国共有报刊40多种,大多数为私营刊物。主要官方报刊有《希德瓦亚报》(发行量1万份)、《非洲十字路口》和《希德瓦亚画报》。主要私营报刊有:日报《帕尔加观察家》(1万份)、《国家》(8000份)、《晚报》(2500份)等;周刊《周四新闻》(1万份)、《独立报》(5000份)等。多数报纸都有电子版。

布基纳新闻社:官方通讯社,成立于1964年。每周出版两期《每日新闻》。

布基纳国家广播电台:1959年落成。每天用法语和民族语言播音约19个小时。

布基纳国家电视台:建于1963年。1978年起开播彩色电视节目,每天播出8小时左右,周末增加播出时间。2006年底电视节日覆盖全国。布另有3家私人电视台。

1995年3月,宗教和布道团联合会创办的电视台和电台开播。

[Military] Army was built on November 1, 1960. The national armed forces are composed of regular and paramilitary forces. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. There are 6,600 regular troops, including 6,400 Army, 200 Air Forces, 4,200 police forces, and 45,000 militia. There are 10 aircraft of various types.

[Cultural Education] There are 3,368 primary schools with 705,927 students and 293 secondary schools with 146,850 students. There are 3 institutions of higher learning, namely Ouagadougou University, Bobo University of Technology and Kudugu High Normal School, of which Ouagadougou University is a comprehensive university with about 10,000 registered students. In addition to national students, there are hundreds of international students from nine countries in Africa. The adult literacy rate is 36%.

In addition, there are 3978 literacy and training centers, and about 110,000 people study.

[Press and Publication] There are more than 40 newspapers and magazines in the country, most of which are private publications. The main official newspapers include the Hedvaya newspaper (with a circulation of 10,000 copies), the African Crossroads and the Hedvaya Pictorial. The main private newspapers include: daily newspaper “Palga Observer” (10,000 copies), “Country” (8000 copies), “Evening News” (2500 copies), etc.; weekly “Thursday News” (10,000 copies), “Independent” 》(5000 copies) and so on. Most newspapers have an electronic version.

Burkina News Agency: The official news agency, founded in 1964. Two issues of the Daily News are published weekly.

Burkina National Radio: Completed in 1959. It is broadcast in French and national languages ​​for about 19 hours a day.

Burkina National Television: Built in 1963. The color TV program was broadcasted in 1978, and it was broadcast for about 8 hours a day, and the broadcast time was increased on the weekend. The TV festival covered the whole country at the end of 2006. There are also three private TV stations.

In March 1995, television stations and radio stations founded by the Federation of Religious and Missionary Groups began broadcasting.

【对外关系】奉行和平、发展和全面开放的外交政策,强调务实的经济外交。同西方国家特别是法国保持密切关系;近年来注重加强同美国及亚洲国家交往,以争取更多外援;积极参与地区事务,努力调解多哥、几内亚、科特迪瓦和马里等国危机,并向中非、马里等国派遣维和部队。2016年1月、2017年8月和2018年3月布首都瓦加杜古连续发生三起恐怖袭击,此后布东部、北部边境地区持续发生恐袭,布进一步加强同国际社会和周边国家安全合作,积极派兵参与萨赫勒五国集团联合部队。

【同法国的关系】法是布前宗主国、最大的贸易伙伴和援助国。孔波雷曾多次访法,2004年11月,法国总统希拉克访布并出席在布举行的第十届法语国家首脑会议。2010年,孔波雷赴法出席第25届法非峰会和法国国庆活动。2011年,法接待布外长和总理往访。2012年法国外长朱佩、军队总长吉约和外长法比尤斯分别访布。2014年10月布“宪政危机”后,法积极参与调解斡旋,支持布过渡进程。2015年,临时总统卡凡多对法国进行工作访问,会见法国总统奥朗德等领导人。9月,布发生政变后,法国积极斡旋施压。2016年,卡博雷访法,接待法国总理瓦尔斯访布。2017年1月,卡博雷赴马里出席第27届法国-非洲国家峰会。4月,卡博雷访法,同法总统奥朗德会见。11月,法总统马克龙访布,与卡博雷举行双边会谈。2018年3月,法国外长勒德里昂访布,卡博雷会见。12月,卡博雷访法,同法总统马克龙会见。

【同美国的关系】1962年签署布美合作协定。美每年提供约1800万美元援助支持布经济发展,并多次同布举行联合军演。2012年,美军非洲司令部司令卡特访布。2013年,美军非洲司令部司令罗德里格斯访布,孔波雷在美国出席第68届联合国大会期间会见了美国防部长哈格尔。2014年,孔波雷赴美出席首届美非峰会,10月布“宪政危机”后,美积极参与调解斡旋,支持布过渡进程。2017年5月,卡博雷总统赴利雅得出席阿拉伯-伊斯兰-美国峰会。9月,卡博雷在纽约出席联合国大会期间简短会见美国总统特朗普。2018年4月,卡博雷会见访布的美国参议院代表团。同月,美国与包括布基纳法索在内的非洲8国举行“燧发枪”联合军事演习。

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of peace, development and full openness, emphasizing pragmatic economic diplomacy. Maintain close ties with Western countries, especially France; in recent years, focus on strengthening exchanges with the United States and Asian countries in order to gain more foreign aid; actively participate in regional affairs, and strive to mediate the crisis in Togo, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, and to China and Africa , Mali and other countries sent peacekeeping troops. In January 2016, August 2017 and March 2018, three terrorist attacks occurred in the capital city of Ouagadougou. Since then, there have been repeated terrorist attacks in the eastern and northern border areas, and the security cooperation with the international community and neighboring countries has been further strengthened. Actively send troops to participate in the joint forces of the Sahel Five Group.

[Relationship with France] The law is the former sovereign state, the largest trading partner and the donor country. Conboré has visited the law many times. In November 2004, French President Jacques Chirac visited and attended the 10th Francophone Summit in Budai. In 2010, Compao went to France to attend the 25th French-African Summit and the French National Day. In 2011, the French reception minister and the prime minister visited. In 2012, French Foreign Minister Juppe, Chief of the Army Ji Yue and Foreign Minister Fabius visited respectively. After the “constitutional crisis” in October 2014, France actively participated in mediation and supported the transition process. In 2015, the interim President Kafando paid a working visit to France and met with leaders such as French President Hollande. In September, after the coup d’état, France actively mediated and pressured. In 2016, Kabolai visited France and received French Prime Minister Vals’ visit. In January 2017, Kabore went to Mali to attend the 27th France-Africa Summit. In April, Kabolai visited France and met with French President Hollande. In November, French President Mark Long visited Bud and held bilateral talks with Kabore. In March 2018, French Foreign Minister Ledrien visited Bu, and Kabore met. In December, Kabolai visited France and met with French President Mark Long.

[Relationship with the United States] In 1962, the cooperation agreement between the United States and the United States was signed. The United States provides about 18 million U.S. dollars a year to support the economic development of the cloth industry, and has held joint military exercises with the cloth several times. In 2012, Commander of the US Army’s African Command, Carter, visited the country. In 2013, the US military commander of the African Command, Rodriguez, visited the United States. During the 68th session of the United Nations General Assembly, Conbory met with US Defense Minister Hagel. In 2014, Compao went to the United States to attend the first US-Africa summit. After the “constitutional crisis” in October, the United States actively participated in mediation and supported the transition process. In May 2017, President Kaboré went to Riyadh to attend the Arab-Islamic-American Summit. In September, Kabore briefly met with US President Trump during his attendance at the UN General Assembly in New York. In April 2018, Kabore met with the U.S. Senate delegation. In the same month, the United States held a joint military exercise with the “Flying Guns” in eight African countries, including Burkina Faso.

【同欧盟的关系】布与欧盟保持着良好的合作关系。欧盟在减贫、教育、基础设施建设、司法、国防和安全体系改革等领域向布提供大量援助。2013年,欧盟宣布2014—2020年向布提供6.23亿欧元援助。2015年,临时总统卡凡多赴比利时参加第26届克莱恩和蒙塔纳论坛,会见欧盟领导人和比利时首相米歇尔,欧盟决定在2015-2016年间为布提供1.2亿欧元财政援助。2017年,欧盟委员会国际合作与发展总司长斯特凡诺·曼赛尔维西访布,会见卡博雷并宣布欧盟计划向布提供1.17亿欧元财政援助。2018年10月,欧盟对外行动署副秘书长贝利亚访布,会见卡博雷总统。

【同邻国和其他非洲国家的关系】孔波雷执政期间,布积极参与调解几内亚、科特迪瓦、马里等地区热点问题,同尼日利亚、科特迪瓦、加纳等西非国家保持频繁往来,关系密切。2015年,塞内加尔总统访布,临时总统卡凡多先后访问科特迪瓦、多哥、尼日利亚,赴贝宁出席西非国家经货联盟首脑会议、赴埃塞俄比亚出席非盟首脑会议,赴加纳出席西非国家共同体第47届峰会,赴贝宁出席宗教、文化对话促进和平与发展教育会议,赴塞内加尔出席西共体峰会。临时政府总理齐达先后访问摩洛哥、科特迪瓦、塞内加尔,赴南非出席非盟峰会。9月,布发生政变后,非盟、西共体予以强烈谴责,西共体轮值主席、塞内加尔总统萨勒、尼日尔总统伊素福、贝宁总统亚伊、多哥总统福雷等赴布进行斡旋调解。2016年,卡博雷总统先后访问尼日尔和科特迪瓦,赴埃塞俄比亚出席非盟峰会。贝宁总统亚伊、乍得总统代比访布。2017年,卡博雷总统先后访问苏丹、埃及、塞内加尔等国,赴埃塞俄比亚出席第28届、29届非盟峰会,赴马里出席萨赫勒五国集团特别峰会,分别赴利比里亚、尼日利亚出席西共体第51届、52届首脑会议;科特迪瓦总统瓦塔拉、加纳总统阿库福-阿多、几内亚总统孔戴、马里总统凯塔、贝宁总统塔隆等非洲国家元首先后访布。2018年,卡博雷总统先后赴利比里亚出席维阿总统就职仪式,赴尼日尔出席第四届萨赫勒五国集团峰会,赴多哥出席西共体国家领导人特别峰会,赴科特迪瓦出席第七届科布友好合作协定峰会以及赴多哥出席西共体和中共体联合峰会;马里总理马伊加、圣多美和普林西比时任总理特罗瓦达等先后访布。

[Relationship with the EU] Cloth maintains a good cooperative relationship with the EU. The EU has provided substantial assistance to the DP in the areas of poverty reduction, education, infrastructure construction, justice, national defense and security system reform. In 2013, the EU announced that it will provide 623 million euros in aid to Brazil from 2014 to 2020. In 2015, the interim President Kafando went to Belgium to participate in the 26th Klein and Montana forum, met with EU leaders and Belgian Prime Minister Michel, and the EU decided to provide 120 million euros of financial assistance for the 2015-2016 period. In 2017, the Director General of International Cooperation and Development of the European Commission, Stefano Mansell Visi, visited Bubo and met with Kabore and announced that the European Union plans to provide 117 million euros in financial assistance to the cloth. In October 2018, the Deputy Secretary-General of the European Union’s Foreign Action Agency, Beria, visited the country and met with President Kabore.

[Relationship with neighboring countries and other African countries] During Compapoli’s administration, Mr. Bu actively participated in mediating hot issues in Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, and maintained close contacts with West African countries such as Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. In 2015, the Senegalese President visited Buddhism. The interim President Kafando visited Côte d’Ivoire, Togo and Nigeria, went to Benin to attend the summit of the West African National Economic and Trade Union, went to Ethiopia to attend the AU summit, and went to Ghana to attend the 47th Community of the West African States. At the summit, he went to Benin to attend the religious and cultural dialogue for peace and development education conference and went to Senegal to attend the ECOWAS summit. The Prime Minister of the Interim Government, Qida, visited Morocco, Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal and went to South Africa to attend the AU summit. In September, after the coup d’état, the AU and ECOWAS strongly condemned the ECOW presidency, Senegalese President Saale, Niger President Isuf, Benin’s President Yayi, and Togo’s President Foley. Mediation. In 2016, President Kaboré visited Niger and Côte d’Ivoire and went to Ethiopia to attend the AU summit. Benin’s President Yayi and Chad’s President Daibi visited Bu. In 2017, President Kabore visited Sudan, Egypt, Senegal and other countries, went to Ethiopia to attend the 28th and 29th AU summits, went to Mali to attend the special summit of the Sahel Group of Five, and went to Liberia and Nigeria to attend the Western Communist Party. The 51st and 52nd summits; the President of Côte d’Ivoire Ouattara, the President of Ghana, Akuf Aedo, the President of Guinea, Conte, the President of Mali, Keita, and the President of Benin, Tallon, first visited the country. In 2018, President Kaboré went to Liberia to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Vijay, went to Niger to attend the 4th Summit of the Sahel Group, went to Togo to attend the special summit of leaders of the ECOWAS countries, and went to Côte d’Ivoire to attend the 7th The Cobb Friendship and Cooperation Agreement Summit and Togo attended the ECOWAS and CPC Joint Summit; Mali Prime Minister Maiga, Sao Tome and Principe’s then Prime Minister Trovatada visited China.