The Arab Republic of Egypt 阿拉伯埃及共和国

【国 名】阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。

【面 积】100.1万平方公里。

【人 口】1.045亿(2018年2月)。伊斯兰教为国教,信徒主要是逊尼派,占总人口的84%。科普特基督徒和其他信徒约占16%。另有约600万海外侨民。

【语 言】官方语言为阿拉伯语。

【首 都】开罗(Cairo),面积约3085平方公里,人口约2280万(2017年)。夏季平均气温最高34.2℃,最低20.8℃;冬季最高19.9℃,最低9.7℃。

【国家元首】阿卜杜勒法塔赫·塞西(Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi),2014年6月就职,2018年6月连任。

【国庆日】7月23日(1952年)。

【简 况】跨亚、非两大洲,大部分位于非洲东北部,只有苏伊士运河以东的西奈半岛位于亚洲西南部。西连利比亚,南接苏丹,东临红海并与巴勒斯坦、以色列接壤,北濒地中海。海岸线长约2900公里。全境干燥少雨。尼罗河三角洲和北部沿海地区属地中海型气候,平均气温1月12℃,7月26℃。其余大部分地区属热带沙漠气候,炎热干燥,沙漠地区气温可达40℃。

[Country name] The Arab Republic of Egypt.

[area] 1,011,000 square kilometers.

[People] 104.5 million (February 2018). Islam is a state religion, and believers are mainly Sunni, accounting for 84% of the total population. Coptic Christians and other believers make up about 16%. There are about 6 million overseas nationals.

[Language] The official language is Arabic.

[Catheda] Cairo, with an area of ​​about 3,085 square kilometers and a population of about 22.8 million (2017). The average summer temperature is 34.2 °C, the lowest is 20.8 °C; the highest in winter is 19.9 °C, the lowest is 9.7 °C.

[Head of State] Abdul Fatah Al-Sisi, inaugurated in June 2014, re-elected in June 2018.

[National Day] July 23 (1952).

[Brief] Across the Asian and African continents, most of them are located in the northeastern part of Africa. Only the Sinai Peninsula east of the Suez Canal is located in southwestern Asia. Liliana in the west, Sudan in the south, the Red Sea in the east, bordering Palestine and Israel, and the Mediterranean Sea in the north. The coastline is about 2,900 kilometers long. Dry and dry throughout the country. The Nile Delta and the northern coastal region have a Mediterranean climate with an average temperature of January 12 ° C and July 26 ° C. Most of the rest of the region has a tropical desert climate, which is hot and dry, with temperatures ranging from 40 °C in desert areas.

埃及是世界四大文明古国之一。公元前3200年,美尼斯统一埃及建立了第一个奴隶制国家,经历了早王国、古王国、中王国、新王国和后王朝时期,30个王朝。古王国开始大规模建金字塔。中王国经济发展、文艺复兴。新王国生产力显著提高,开始对外扩张,成为军事帝国。后王朝时期,内乱频繁,外患不断,国力日衰。公元前525年,埃及成为波斯帝国的一个行省。在此后的一千多年间,埃及相继被希腊和罗马征服。公元641年阿拉伯人入侵,埃及逐渐阿拉伯化,成为伊斯兰教一个重要中心。1517年被土耳其人征服,成为奥斯曼帝国的行省。1882年英军占领后成为英“保护国”。1922年2月28日英国宣布埃及为独立国家,但保留对国防、外交、少数民族等问题的处置权。1952年7月23日,以纳赛尔为首的自由军官组织推翻法鲁克王朝,成立革命指导委员会,掌握国家政权,并于1953年6月18日宣布成立埃及共和国。1958年2月同叙利亚合并成立阿拉伯联合共和国。1961年叙利亚发生政变,退出“阿联”。1970年纳赛尔病逝,萨达特继任。1971年9月1日改名为阿拉伯埃及共和国。1981年10月萨达特总统遇刺身亡,副总统穆巴拉克继任,并4次连任直至2011年辞职。

【政 治】2011年1月底,埃及发生大规模反政府示威游行。2月11日,穆巴拉克辞职,武装部队最高委员会接管权力。6月底,埃及穆斯林兄弟会创立的自由与正义党主席穆尔西赢得总统选举并宣誓就职。

2013年6月底至7月初,反对和支持穆尔西的民众分别举行大规模游行示威活动,并引发流血冲突,造成数百人死亡。7月3日,埃及军方罢黜穆尔西,中止现行宪法,宣布政治过渡路线图,推出临时总统和政府。7月8日,临时总统曼苏尔颁布宪法声明,明确修宪、举行总统和议会选举等过渡期安排。7月16日,临时政府宣誓就职。穆兄会持续静坐、示威。8月中旬,埃及官方对穆兄会支持者集会场所实施清场,宣布全国进入紧急状态,在多地实施宵禁。冲突已造成逾千人死亡。12月,埃及官方将穆兄会定性为“恐怖组织”,穆兄会领导人纷纷被捕。2014年1月,埃及新宪法通过全民公投。5月底,埃及举行总统选举,前军方领导人塞西以97%的得票率当选总统(投票率47%)。6月8日,塞西总统就职。2018年6月,塞西连任。

【宪 法】原宪法于1971年9月经全民投票通过,1980、2005和2007年三次修订,2011年穆巴拉克下台后被废止。2012年12月,埃及全民公投以63.8%的支持率通过新宪法(以下称2012年宪法)。2013年7月3日,埃及军方宣布中止2012年宪法。2014年1月,新宪法草案以98.1%的支持率(投票率38.6%)通过全民公投。2019年4月,埃及举行全民公投,以88.83%的支持率(投票率44.33%)通过宪法修正案。此次修宪主要内容包括延长总统任期,设立参议院、副总统等。

【议 会】实行一院制,设有596个席位,任期五年。本届议会选举于2015年10月、11月分两阶段进行。2016年1月,埃及新议会第一次全体会议在埃及议会大厦举行,议员宣誓就职,并选举阿里·阿卜杜勒阿勒(Ali Abdel-Aal)为议长。

Egypt is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world. In 3200 BC, the United States established the first slavery state in Egypt, and experienced 30 dynasties in the early kingdom, the ancient kingdom, the middle kingdom, the new kingdom and the post-dynasty. The ancient kingdom began to build pyramids on a large scale. The economic development of the Central Kingdom and the Renaissance. The productivity of the New Kingdom has increased markedly, and it has begun to expand outwards and become a military empire. During the post-dynasty period, civil strife was frequent, external troubles continued, and national strength declined. In 525 BC, Egypt became a province of the Persian Empire. For more than a thousand years since then, Egypt has been conquered by Greece and Rome. The Arab invasion in 641 AD, Egypt gradually became Arabized and became an important center of Islam. In 1517, he was conquered by the Turks and became the province of the Ottoman Empire. After the British occupation in 1882, it became the British “protection country.” On February 28, 1922, the United Kingdom declared Egypt an independent country, but retained the right to dispose of issues such as national defense, foreign affairs, and ethnic minorities. On July 23, 1952, the Free Military Officer headed by Nasser overthrew the Farouk dynasty, established the Revolutionary Steering Committee, mastered the state power, and announced the establishment of the Egyptian Republic on June 18, 1953. In February 1958, it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic. In 1961, a coup d’état in Syria and the withdrawal of the “Arab.” In 1970, Nasser died and Sadat succeeded. On September 1, 1971, it was renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt. In October 1981, President Sadat was assassinated and Vice President Mubarak succeeded and re-elected four times until his resignation in 2011.

[Politics] At the end of January 2011, a large-scale anti-government demonstration took place in Egypt. On February 11, Mubarak resigned and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces took over the power. At the end of June, the President of the Freedom and Justice Party, Mursi, founded by the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, won the presidential election and was sworn in.

From the end of June to the beginning of July 2013, the people who opposed and supported Mursi held separate demonstrations and caused bloody conflicts, killing hundreds of people. On July 3, the Egyptian military ousted Mursi, suspended the current constitution, announced the political transition road map, and introduced the interim president and government. On July 8, the interim President Mansour issued a constitutional statement to clarify the constitutional arrangements for the revision of the constitution and the holding of presidential and parliamentary elections. On July 16, the interim government was sworn in. Mu brother will continue to sit and demonstrate. In mid-August, the Egyptian authorities cleared the venue for the gathering of supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood, declared the country into a state of emergency and imposed curfews in many places. The conflict has caused more than a thousand deaths. In December, the Egyptian official identified the Brotherhood as a “terrorist organization” and the leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood were arrested. In January 2014, the new Egyptian Constitution passed a referendum. At the end of May, Egypt held presidential elections. Former military leader Seyce was elected president with a 97% vote (47% vote). On June 8, President Sethi took office. In June 2018, Sethi was re-elected.

[Constitution] The original Constitution was adopted by a referendum in September 1971. It was revised three times in 1980, 2005 and 2007. After Mubarak stepped down in 2011, it was abolished. In December 2012, the Egyptian referendum passed the new constitution with a 63.8% approval rate (hereinafter referred to as the 2012 Constitution). On July 3, 2013, the Egyptian military announced the suspension of the 2012 Constitution. In January 2014, the draft new constitution passed a referendum with a support rate of 98.1% (voting rate of 38.6%). In April 2019, Egypt held a referendum and adopted a constitutional amendment with a support rate of 88.83% (voting rate 44.33%). The main contents of this revision include the extension of the presidency and the establishment of the Senate and Vice President.

[Meeting] A one-chamber system with 596 seats for a five-year term. The current parliamentary elections will be held in two phases in October and November 2015. In January 2016, the first plenary meeting of the new Egyptian parliament was held in the Egyptian Parliament Building. Members were sworn in and elected Ali Abdel-Aal as the Speaker.

【政 府】2013年6月底7月初,埃及政局再度发生剧变。7月9日,曼苏尔总统颁布法令,任命哈兹姆·贝卜拉维(Hazem Al-Beblawi)为过渡期临时政府总理。2014年2月25日,曼苏尔总统接受贝卜拉维政府内阁辞呈,并任命易卜拉欣·马哈拉卜(Ibrahim Mahlab)为临时政府总理。3月1日,临时政府内阁成员宣誓就职。2014年6月,塞西当选总统后成立新一届政府,马哈拉卜留任总理。2015年9月,埃及政府改组,谢里夫·伊斯梅尔(Sheref Ismail)出任总理。2016年3月,埃政府再次改组,谢里夫·伊斯梅尔留任总理。2018年6月,新一届政府成立,穆斯塔法·马德布利出任总理。

【司法机构】法院包括最高法院、上诉法院、中央法院和初级法院以及行政法院,开罗还设有最高宪法法院。检察机构包括总检察院和地方检察分院。2016年6月,埃新一届最高宪法法院院长哈桑、最高上诉法院院长沙菲克、行政法院院长马斯欧德、行政检察院院长拉奇格宣誓就职。

【政 党】1952年革命后,曾禁止政党活动。阿拉伯社会主义联盟于1962年10月成立,为埃及唯一合法政党,纳赛尔任主席。1977年开始实行多党制。2011年颁布新政党法,现有政党及政治组织近百个,其中经国家政党委员会批准成立的政党约60个。主要政党有:

(1)自由埃及人党(Free Egyptians Party):2011年7月3日成立。主张建立世俗国家,实现司法独立,保持原有的社会价值观和习俗,全体公民拥有信仰自由及民主、自由权利,妇女应发挥社会作用和参与各领域建设。主席艾哈迈德•哈桑•赛义德(Ahmed Hassan Said)。

(2)祖国未来党(Nation’s Future Party):2015年8月成立,前身是组织并参与“1·25革命”和“6·30革命”的祖国未来运动。自称为埃及青年的政党,宗旨是以政党政治替代街头政治,以合法、和平方式使青年参与国家政治生活。主席艾什拉夫·拉沙德(Ashraf Rashad)。

(3)新华夫脱党(New Wafd Party):1978年2月成立,前身是华夫脱党,是穆巴拉克时期主要反对党。要求加快政治、经济和社会改革,保障基本自由和人权,密切同阿拉伯和伊斯兰国家的关系,重点发展与非洲国家关系。主席赛义德·拜达维(Al-Sayyid Al-Badawi)。

[Government] At the end of June and early July 2013, the political situation in Egypt changed again. On July 9, President Mansour issued a decree appointing Hazem Al-Beblawi as Prime Minister of the Interim Interim Administration. On February 25, 2014, President Mansour accepted the resignation of the cabinet of the Bebrawi government and appointed Ibrahim Mahlab as the interim prime minister. On March 1, members of the Interim Government Cabinet were sworn in. In June 2014, when Sethi was elected president, he established a new government and Maharab remained as prime minister. In September 2015, the Egyptian government was reorganized and Sheref Ismail became the prime minister. In March 2016, the Egyptian government was reorganized and Sharif Ismail remained as prime minister. In June 2018, the new government was established and Mustafa Madbry became the prime minister.

[Judiciary] The courts include the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Central and Lower Courts, and the Administrative Court. Cairo also has the Supreme Constitutional Court. Procuratorial agencies include the General Prosecutor’s Office and the local procuratorate branch. In June 2016, Hasan, the president of the Ai Supreme Constitutional Court, Shafik, the president of the Supreme Court of Appeal, Mas Oude, the president of the Administrative Court, and Laqige, the president of the Administrative Procuratorate, were sworn in.

[Political Party] After the 1952 revolution, political party activities were banned. The Arab Socialist Union was established in October 1962 and is the only legitimate political party in Egypt. Nasser is the chairman. The multi-party system began in 1977. In 2011, the New Political Party Law was promulgated, and there are nearly 100 political parties and political organizations. Among them, about 60 political parties have been approved by the State Political Party Committee. The main political parties are:

(1) Free Egyptians Party: Established on July 3, 2011. It advocates the establishment of a secular state, the independence of the judiciary, and the maintenance of the original social values ​​and customs. All citizens have the freedom of belief and the right to democracy and freedom. Women should play a social role and participate in the construction of various fields. Chairman Ahmed Hassan Said.

(2) Nation’s Future Party: Established in August 2015, the predecessor was the future movement of the motherland that organized and participated in the “1·25 Revolution” and the “6·30 Revolution”. The party that claims to be an Egyptian youth aims to replace street politics with party politics and to involve young people in the political life of the country in a legal and peaceful way. Chairman Ashraf Rashad.

(3) New Wafd Party: Established in February 1978, the predecessor was the Waffle Party and the main opposition party in the Mubarak period. It is required to accelerate political, economic and social reforms, guarantee fundamental freedoms and human rights, close relations with Arab and Islamic countries, and focus on developing relations with African countries. Chairman Al-Sayyid Al-Badawi.

【重要人物】阿卜杜勒法塔赫·塞西:总统。1954年出生,1977年毕业于埃及军事学院,获学士学位。1987年在埃及指挥与参谋学院获硕士学位。曾于2005–2006年在美国陆军作战学院学习。曾在陆军步兵部队服役,历任机械化步兵营营长、国防部情报与安全处处长、驻沙特使馆武官、北方军区参谋长、司令、埃及军事情报局局长。2012年8月担任埃国防部长、武装部队最高委员会主席,2013年7月领导军方罢黜前总统穆尔西,并在临时政府中担任第一副总理兼国防部长。2014年3月辞去所有职务参选总统并胜选,6月8日宣誓就职。2018年6月,塞西连任总统。

穆斯塔法·马德布利:总理。1966年出生。获开罗大学工程学院博士学位。2000年起在住房部任职,历任城市规划总局技术部长、副局长、局长,2012年任联合国人类住区规划署阿拉伯地区署长,2014年任住房部长,2018年6月出任总理。

阿里·阿卜杜勒阿勒:议长。1948年出生。获得埃及艾因·夏姆斯大学法律学士学位、巴黎第一大学法学博士学位。历任艾因·夏姆斯大学法学院公法系讲师、埃及驻法国使馆文化参赞、艾因·夏姆斯大学法学院公法系副教授、人民议会宪法专家、科威特国埃米尔王宫宪法顾问、艾因·夏姆斯大学法学院公法系专职教授等职务。2013年和2014年,两次担任制宪10人宪法专家委员会成员。2014年,担任宪法最终起草委员会成员。曾经担任现行《议会法》、《行使政治权利法》、《议会选区划分法》起草委员会成员。2016年1月10日,当选埃及议会议长。

【行政区划】全国划分为27个省:开罗省、吉萨省、盖勒尤比省、曼努菲亚省、杜姆亚特省、达卡利亚省、卡夫拉·谢赫省、贝尼·苏夫省、法尤姆省、米尼亚省、索哈杰省、基纳省、阿斯旺省、红海省、西部省、艾斯尤特省、新河谷省、亚历山大省、布哈拉省、北西奈省、南西奈省、塞得港省、伊斯梅利亚省、苏伊士省、东部省、马特鲁省和卢克索省。

【经 济】属开放型市场经济,拥有相对完整的工业、农业和服务业体系。服务业约占国内生产总值50%。工业以纺织、食品加工等轻工业为主。农村人口占总人口55%,农业占国内生产总值14%。石油天然气、旅游、侨汇和苏伊士运河是四大外汇收入来源。

2011年初以来的埃及动荡局势对国民经济造成严重冲击。埃及政府采取措施恢复生产,增收节支,吸引外资,改善民生,多方寻求国际支持与援助,以渡过经济困难,但收效有限。2013年7月临时政府上台后,经济面临较大困难,在海湾阿拉伯国家的大量财政支持下,经济情况较前有所好转。2014年6月新政府成立后,大力发展经济,改善民生。主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(2017/18财年):44374亿埃镑。

人均国内生产总值(2017/18财年):45699埃镑。

经济增长率(2017年):5.3%。

通货膨胀率(2018年):20.3%。

失业率(2018):9.9%。

外汇储备:445亿美元

货币名称:埃及镑。

官方汇率:1美元≈17.3埃及镑

2016年2月25日,塞西总统宣布“埃及2030愿景”战略,该战略强调将发展与环保、就业与提升劳动力素质相结合,以公平公正、平衡多样的方式全面推进埃经济和社会同步发展,建成善于创新、注重民生、可持续发展的新埃及。目标在2030年将埃GDP增速提升至12%,财政赤字降低到2.28%。2017年6月,埃及颁布新《投资法》。确定了平等、公开、透明、可持续发展等招商引资原则。新《投资法》有利于吸引外国投资,拟在土地出让模式、所得税减免、投资保障、本地雇员数量等方面提供优惠政策。

[important person] Abdul Fatah Seyce: President. Born in 1954, he graduated from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977 with a bachelor’s degree. In 1987, he obtained a master’s degree from the Command and Staff College of Egypt. He studied at the US Army Combat Academy in 2005–2006. He served in the Army Infantry Forces and served as the commander of the Mechanized Infantry Battalion, the Director of the Intelligence and Security Division of the Ministry of National Defense, the Military Officer of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia, the Chief of Staff of the Northern Military Region, the Commander, and the Director of the Egyptian Military Intelligence Bureau. In August 2012, he served as the Minister of Defense of Ethiopia and the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. In July 2013, he led the military to oust former President Morsi and served as the first deputy prime minister and defense minister in the interim government. In March 2014, he resigned from all positions to run for the presidency and won the election. He was sworn in on June 8. In June 2018, Sethi was re-elected as president.

Mustafa Madbry: Prime Minister. Born in 1966. Received a Ph.D. from the School of Engineering, Cairo University. Since 2000, he has served in the Ministry of Housing. He has served as technical director, deputy director and director of the Urban Planning Administration. In 2012, he served as the Arab Regional Director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme. In 2014, he served as the Minister of Housing and in June 2018 he became the Prime Minister.

Ali Abdul Ale: Speaker. Born in 1948. He obtained a bachelor’s degree in law from Ain Shams University, Egypt, and a doctorate in law from the University of Paris. He has served as a lecturer in the Public Law Department of the Ain Shams University School of Law, a Cultural Counselor of the Egyptian Embassy in France, an Associate Professor of the Public Law Department of the Ain Shams University School of Law, a Constitutional Expert of the People’s Assembly, a Constitutional Adviser to the Amir Palace in Kuwait, and Ain. A full-time professor at the Public Law Department of the Shams University School of Law. In 2013 and 2014, he served twice as a member of the constitutional expert committee of the Constitutional Ten. In 2014, he served as a member of the final drafting committee of the Constitution. He has served as a member of the drafting committee of the current Parliamentary Law, the Law on the Exercise of Political Rights, and the Law on the Division of Parliamentary Constituencies. On January 10, 2016, he was elected as the Speaker of the Egyptian Parliament.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 27 provinces: Cairo, Giza, Galeyubi, Manufiya, Dum Yate, Dacalia, Kafra Sheikh, Beni Suff Province, Fayoum Province, Minnea Province, Sohag Province, Kina Province, Aswan Province, Red Sea Province, Western Province, Asyut Province, New River Valley Province, Alexandria Province, Bukhara, North Sinai, South Sinai, Port Said, Ismailia, Suez, Eastern, Matru and Luxor.

[Economy] is an open market economy with a relatively complete industrial, agricultural and service system. The service industry accounts for about 50% of GDP. The industry is dominated by light industries such as textiles and food processing. The rural population accounts for 55% of the total population, and agriculture accounts for 14% of GDP. Oil and gas, tourism, remittances and the Suez Canal are the four major sources of foreign exchange earnings.

The turmoil in Egypt since the beginning of 2011 has had a serious impact on the national economy. The Egyptian government has taken measures to resume production, increase income and reduce expenditures, attract foreign investment, improve people’s livelihood, and seek international support and assistance to overcome economic difficulties, but with limited success. After the provisional government came to power in July 2013, the economy faced great difficulties. With the massive financial support of the Gulf Arab countries, the economic situation has improved. After the establishment of the new government in June 2014, we will vigorously develop the economy and improve people’s livelihood. The main economic data are as follows:

Gross domestic product (FY17/18): 4.4374 billion Egyptian pounds.

Per capita GDP (FY17/18): 45,699 Egyptian pounds.

Economic growth rate (2017): 5.3%.

Inflation rate (2018): 20.3%.

Unemployment rate (2018): 9.9%.

Foreign exchange reserves: $44.5 billion

Currency name: Egyptian pound.

Official exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 17.3 Egyptian pounds

On February 25, 2016, President Sethi announced the “Egypt 2030 Vision” strategy, which emphasizes the integration of development with environmental protection, employment and the improvement of the quality of the workforce, and comprehensively promotes the simultaneous development of the economy and society in a fair, equitable and balanced manner. To build a new Egypt that is innovative, focused on people’s livelihood and sustainable development. The goal is to increase the GDP growth rate to 12% in 2030 and reduce the fiscal deficit to 2.28%. In June 2017, Egypt enacted a new Investment Law. The principles of investment promotion, such as equality, openness, transparency and sustainable development, have been identified. The new Investment Law is conducive to attracting foreign investment and intends to provide preferential policies in terms of land transfer model, income tax reduction, investment protection, and number of local employees.

【资 源】主要资源是石油、天然气、磷酸盐、铁等。已探明的储量为:石油44.5亿桶(2013年1月),天然气2.186万亿立方米(2012年1月),磷酸盐约70亿吨,铁矿6000万吨。此外还有锰、煤、金、锌、铬、银、钼、铜和滑石等。2015年,埃及近海海域发现迄今地中海范围内最大天然气田,潜在天然气蕴藏量为8500亿立方米。埃及的石油和天然气探明储量分别位居非洲国家第五位和第四位,是非洲最重要的石油和天然气生产国。平均原油日产量达71.15万桶,天然气日产量达1.68亿立方米,国内消耗的天然气数量占天然气总产量的70%,其余30%供出口。埃及电力供应以火电为主,占86.9%。全国电网覆盖率达99.3%,世界排名第28位。阿斯旺水坝是世界七大水坝之一,全年发电量超过100亿度。2008年,埃及斥资16亿埃镑改进阿斯旺大坝发电机组,并斥资150亿埃镑改进全国电网。2007年埃及正式启动核电站计划,2010年宣布将于2025年前建立4个核电站。2016年5月,埃政府表示在2018年前斥资139亿美元,为国家电网新增2.19万兆瓦发电能力,并重点发展可再生能源。2007年,埃及正式启动核电站计划,2010年宣布将于2025年前建立4个核电站。

【工 业】工业以纺织和食品加工等轻工业为主。工业约占国内生产总值的16%,工业产品出口约占商品出口总额的60%,工业从业人员274万人,占全国劳动力总数的14%。埃及工业企业过去一直以国营为主体,自20世纪90年代初开始,埃及开始积极推行私有化改革,出售企业上百家。

【农 业】埃及是传统农业国,农村人口占全国总人口的55%,农业从业人员约550万人,占全国劳动力总数的31%。埃及政府重视扩大耕地面积,鼓励青年务农。全国可耕地面积为310万公顷,约占国土总面积的3.7%。近年来,随着埃及经济的发展,农业产值占国内生产总值比重有所下降。主要农作物有小麦、大麦、棉花、水稻、马铃薯、蚕豆、苜蓿、玉米、甘蔗、水果、蔬菜等。主要出口棉花、大米、马铃薯、柑橘等。棉花是埃及最重要的经济作物,主要为中长绒棉(35mm以下)和超长绒棉(36mm以上),因其绒长、光洁、韧性好,被称为“国宝”。经过近几年的改革,农业生产实现了稳定增长,是经济开放首当其冲和见效最快的部门。但随着人口增长,埃及仍需进口粮食,是世界上最大的粮食进口国之一。为扩大耕地面积,增加农业产出,2015年塞西总统提出“百万费丹”土地改良计划。

【旅游业】埃及历史悠久,名胜古迹很多,具有发展旅游业的良好条件。政府非常重视发展旅游业。主要旅游景点有金字塔、狮身人面像、卢克索神庙、阿斯旺高坝、沙姆沙伊赫等。2011年以来的动荡局势对旅游业影响较大,赴埃旅游人数、饭店房间价格、旅游投资均明显下降。2012年接待游客1050万人次,收入约100亿美元。2013年6月底埃及局势再次动荡后,多国政府颁布赴埃旅行警告。2014年,埃及旅游收入为75亿美元,同比增长27%,赴埃及游客数量为1000万人次。2015年,埃及旅游收入约61亿美元,赴埃及游客数量为930万人。2016年,埃及旅游收入约34亿美元,赴埃及游客数量为450万人。2017年,埃及旅游收入约53亿美元,赴埃及游客数量为830万人。2018年,旅游收入98亿美元。

【交通运输】 交通运输便利,近几年海、陆、空运输能力增长较快。

铁路:由28条线路组成,总长10008公里,共有796个客运站,日客运量200万人次。开罗目前共有两条地铁线路,总长64公里,共耗资120亿埃镑。地铁三号线分两段修建,第一段全长4.3公里,第二段全长7.12公里,总成本约64亿埃镑。

公路:总长约49000公里。

水运:有7条国际海运航线;内河航线总长约3500公里。现有亚历山大、塞得港、杜米亚特、苏伊士等62个港口,年吞吐总量为800万集装箱,海港贸易量为1.01亿吨。苏伊士运河是沟通亚、非、欧的主要国际航道。近年来,运河进行了大规模扩建,使过运河船只载重量达24万吨,可容纳第四代集装箱船通过。2015年苏伊士运河收入51.7亿美元,2016年为50.05亿美元,2017年为53亿美元。

空运:有民航飞机55架。全国共有机场30个,其中国际机场11个,开罗机场是重要国际航空站。2008年,埃及航空公司正式加入星空联盟。

[Resources] The main resources are oil, natural gas, phosphate, iron and so on. The proven reserves are: 4.45 billion barrels of oil (January 2013), 2.186 trillion cubic meters of natural gas (January 2012), about 7 billion tons of phosphate, and 60 million tons of iron ore. In addition, there are manganese, coal, gold, zinc, chromium, silver, molybdenum, copper and talc. In 2015, the largest natural gas field in the Mediterranean Sea was discovered in the offshore waters of Egypt, with a potential natural gas reserve of 850 billion cubic meters. Egypt’s proven reserves of oil and natural gas rank fifth and fourth respectively in African countries and are the most important oil and gas producers in Africa. The average daily output of crude oil reached 7.115 million barrels, and the daily output of natural gas reached 168 million cubic meters. The domestic consumption of natural gas accounted for 70% of the total natural gas production, and the remaining 30% was for export. Egypt’s electricity supply is dominated by thermal power, accounting for 86.9%. The national grid coverage rate is 99.3%, ranking 28th in the world. The Aswan Dam is one of the seven largest dams in the world, generating more than 10 billion kWh of electricity a year. In 2008, Egypt spent 1.6 billion pounds to improve the Aswan dam generator set and spent 15 billion Egyptian pounds to improve the national grid. In 2007, Egypt officially launched the nuclear power plant plan. In 2010, it announced that it will establish four nuclear power plants by 2025. In May 2016, the Ai government stated that it would spend US$13.9 billion by 2018 to add 21,900 megawatts of power generation capacity to the State Grid and focus on renewable energy. In 2007, Egypt officially launched the nuclear power plant plan, and in 2010 announced that it will establish four nuclear power plants by 2025.

[Industrial] The industry is dominated by light industries such as textiles and food processing. Industry accounts for about 16% of GDP, industrial products account for about 60% of total merchandise exports, and industrial workers account for 2.74 million, accounting for 14% of the country’s total labor force. Egyptian industrial enterprises have always been state-owned. Since the early 1990s, Egypt has actively promoted privatization reforms and sold hundreds of companies.

[Agriculture] Egypt is a traditional agricultural country with a rural population accounting for 55% of the country’s total population and about 5.5 million agricultural workers, accounting for 31% of the country’s total labor force. The Egyptian government attaches great importance to expanding the area of ​​cultivated land and encouraging young people to work in agriculture. The country’s arable land area is 3.1 million hectares, accounting for 3.7% of the total land area. In recent years, with the development of the Egyptian economy, the proportion of agricultural output value to GDP has declined. The main crops are wheat, barley, cotton, rice, potatoes, broad beans, alfalfa, corn, sugar cane, fruits, vegetables and so on. Mainly export cotton, rice, potatoes, citrus and so on. Cotton is the most important economic crop in Egypt, mainly medium and long-staple cotton (below 35mm) and super long-staple cotton (36mm or more). Because of its long length, smoothness and good toughness, it is called “national treasure”. After reforms in recent years, agricultural production has achieved steady growth, and it is the department with the first and the most effective economic opening. But as the population grows, Egypt still needs to import food and is one of the world’s largest food importers. In order to expand the area of ​​cultivated land and increase agricultural output, President Seyce proposed the “Million Fedan” land improvement plan in 2015.

[Tourism] Egypt has a long history, many places of historic interest and scenic beauty, and has good conditions for the development of tourism. The government attaches great importance to the development of tourism. The main tourist attractions include the Pyramids, the Sphinx, the Luxor Temple, the Aswan High Dam, and Sharm el-Sheikh. The turbulent situation since 2011 has had a great impact on the tourism industry. The number of tourists to Egypt, hotel room prices and tourism investment have all dropped significantly. In 2012, it received 10.5 million tourists and earned about 10 billion US dollars. After the situation in Egypt was turbulent again at the end of June 2013, many governments issued a warning to travel to Egypt. In 2014, Egypt’s tourism revenue was US$7.5 billion, a year-on-year increase of 27%, and the number of visitors to Egypt was 10 million. In 2015, Egypt’s tourism revenue was about 6.1 billion US dollars, and the number of tourists to Egypt was 9.3 million. In 2016, Egypt’s tourism revenue was about 3.4 billion US dollars, and the number of tourists to Egypt was 4.5 million. In 2017, Egypt’s tourism revenue was about 5.3 billion US dollars, and the number of tourists to Egypt was 8.3 million. In 2018, tourism revenue was $9.8 billion.

[Transportation] Convenient transportation. In recent years, the transportation capacity of sea, land and air has increased rapidly.

Railway: It consists of 28 lines with a total length of 1,08 kilometers, a total of 796 passenger stations, and 2 million passengers per day. Cairo currently has two subway lines with a total length of 64 kilometers and a total cost of 12 billion Egyptian pounds. Metro Line 3 is constructed in two sections. The first section is 4.3 kilometers long and the second section is 7.12 kilometers long. The total cost is about 6.4 billion pounds.

Highway: The total length is about 49,000 kilometers.

Water transport: There are 7 international shipping routes; the total length of the inland routes is about 3,500 kilometers. There are 62 ports, including Alexandria, Port Said, Dumiyat and Suez, with a total annual throughput of 8 million containers and a seaport trade volume of 101 million tons. The Suez Canal is the main international waterway connecting Asia, Africa and Europe. In recent years, the canal has undergone a major expansion, allowing the canal to carry a capacity of 240,000 tons and can accommodate the fourth generation of container ships. In 2015, the Suez Canal earned 5.17 billion U.S. dollars, compared with 5.05 billion U.S. dollars in 2016 and 5.3 billion U.S. dollars in 2017.

Air transport: There are 55 civil aircraft. There are 30 airports in the country, including 11 international airports. Cairo Airport is an important international air station. In 2008, Egypt Airways officially joined the Star Alliance.

【财政金融】财政来源除税收外,主要依靠旅游、石油、侨汇和苏伊士运河四项收入。

【对外贸易】埃及同120多个国家和地区建有贸易关系,主要贸易伙伴是美国、法国、德国、意大利、英国、日本、沙特、阿联酋等。由于出口商品少,外贸连年逆差。为扩大对外出口,减少贸易逆差,埃及政府采取了以下措施:发展民族工业,争取生产更多的进口替代商品;限制进口,特别是消费性制成品的进口;争取扩大出口,特别是原油、原棉以外的非传统性商品的出口。

埃及主要进口商品是机械设备、谷物、电器设备、矿物燃料、塑料及其制品、钢铁及其制品、木及木制品、车辆、动物饲料等。主要出口产品是矿物燃料(原油及其制品)、棉花、陶瓷、纺织服装、铝及其制品、钢铁、谷物和蔬菜。埃及出口商品主要销往阿拉伯国家。

【外国援助】美国是埃及的主要援助国。向埃及提供援助的国家和国际组织还有德国、法国、日本、英国、意大利等国家及世界银行、国际货币基金组织和阿布扎比发展基金等。2011年埃及政局发生重大变化后,美国宣布免除埃及10亿美元债务,提供1.9亿美元财政援助和2.5亿美元贸易信贷担保,建立6000万美元投资基金。欧盟宣布提供50亿欧元的贷款和援助。卡塔尔提供75亿美元援助。沙特承诺提供40亿美元的援助和贷款。土耳其承诺提供20亿美元的一揽子经济援助。利比亚提供20亿美元贷款。2013年7月初埃及局势再度剧变后,阿联酋、沙特、科威特分别宣布向埃及提供价值30亿、50亿、40亿美元援助。而美国对埃及军方强力镇压穆兄会支持者游行示威持批评态度,并暂停部分对埃及军援和经援,2014年6月塞西就职总统后,美埃关系有所缓和,美国部分恢复对埃及援助。2015年3月,埃及在沙姆沙伊赫举办埃及经济发展大会,近100个国家和30多个国际和地区组织约2500代表与会。埃及政府同与会各方签署大量经济合作和投资协议,包括超过500亿美元投资、央行存款、援助(其中沙特、阿联酋、科威特、阿曼四国共提供125亿美元投资、央行存款、援助)以及大量项目融资协议和合作谅解备忘录。2016年2月,非洲开发银行宣布向埃及行政新首都计划提供1.4亿美元贷款,非洲进出口银行向埃及提供5亿美元进出口扶持资金。2016年3月,沙特同意向埃及提供15亿美元用以西奈半岛发展。2016年11月,国际货币基金组织批准未来3年向埃及提供120亿美元贷款。

【外国投资】1974年6月,埃及政府颁布第一部投资法,1989年颁布新投资法。1997年,埃及政府为进一步吸引外资,颁布了“投资鼓励与保障法”及实施条例,并于1998年、2000年对其实施条例进行了修改和补充。2002年颁布了经济特区法和实施细则。2004年埃及通过投资法修正案。自90年代中期以来,埃及吸引外国直接投资的速度加快。2011年初和2013年6月底7月初的动荡局势导致外国在埃投资额持续下降。2014年下半年以来,埃及局势逐步趋稳,投资环境得以改善,2014年外国对埃及直接投资总额约180亿美元,位居非洲国家第一。2015年,外国对埃直接投资总额69亿美元。2016年,埃及吸引外国直接投资达81亿美元。2017年6月,埃及颁布新《投资法》,有利于吸引外国投资,在土地出让模式、所得税减免、投资保障、本地雇员数量等方面提供优惠政策。

[Financial Finance] In addition to taxation, financial sources mainly rely on tourism, oil, remittances and the Suez Canal.

[Foreign Trade] Egypt has established trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions. Its main trading partners are the United States, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Due to the small number of export commodities, foreign trade has been in deficit for years. In order to expand exports and reduce trade deficits, the Egyptian government has taken the following measures: developing national industries, striving to produce more imported substitutes; restricting imports, especially imports of consumer goods; and striving to expand exports, especially crude oil, Export of non-traditional commodities other than raw cotton.

The main imported goods in Egypt are machinery and equipment, grain, electrical equipment, fossil fuels, plastics and their products, steel and its products, wood and wood products, vehicles, animal feed and so on. The main export products are fossil fuels (crude oil and its products), cotton, ceramics, textiles and garments, aluminum and its products, steel, grains and vegetables. Egyptian exports are mainly sold to Arab countries.

[Foreign Aid] The United States is Egypt’s main donor. The countries and international organizations that provide assistance to Egypt include Germany, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Italy and other countries and the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Abu Dhabi Development Fund. After major changes in Egypt’s political situation in 2011, the United States announced that it would exempt Egypt from $1 billion in debt, provide $190 million in financial aid and $250 million in trade credit guarantees, and establish a $60 million investment fund. The EU announced a loan of 5 billion euros and aid. Qatar provides $7.5 billion in aid. Saudi Arabia is committed to providing $4 billion in aid and loans. Turkey is committed to providing a package of $2 billion in economic assistance. Libya provides $2 billion in loans. After the resurgence of the situation in Egypt in early July 2013, the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait announced the provision of assistance worth 3 billion, 5 billion and 4 billion U.S. dollars to Egypt. The United States has criticized the Egyptian military for its strong suppression of the supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood and suspended some military aid and economic aid to Egypt. After the inauguration of the president in June 2014, the relationship between the United States and Egypt has eased and the United States partially recovered. Assistance to Egypt. In March 2015, Egypt hosted the Egyptian Economic Development Conference in Sharm el-Sheikh, where approximately 2,500 delegates from nearly 100 countries and more than 30 international and regional organizations attended. The Egyptian government signed a large number of economic cooperation and investment agreements with the participating parties, including more than 50 billion US dollars of investment, central bank deposits, aid (including Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Oman, providing a total investment of 12.5 billion US dollars, central bank deposits, aid) and a large number of projects. Financing agreement and cooperation memorandum of understanding. In February 2016, the African Development Bank announced a $140 million loan to Egypt’s new administrative capital plan, and the African Export-Import Bank provided Egypt with $500 million in import and export support funds. In March 2016, Saudi Arabia agreed to provide Egypt with $1.5 billion for the development of the Sinai Peninsula. In November 2016, the International Monetary Fund approved a $12 billion loan to Egypt over the next three years.

[Foreign Investment] In June 1974, the Egyptian government promulgated the first investment law and in 1989 the new investment law was promulgated. In 1997, the Egyptian government promulgated the “Investment Encouragement and Guarantee Law” and implementation regulations to further attract foreign investment, and revised and supplemented its implementation regulations in 1998 and 2000. In 2002, the special economic zone law and implementation rules were promulgated. In 2004, Egypt passed an amendment to the Investment Law. Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been accelerating the pace of foreign direct investment. The turmoil in early 2011 and the end of June and early July 2013 led to a continuous decline in foreign investment in Egypt. Since the second half of 2014, the situation in Egypt has gradually stabilized and the investment environment has improved. In 2014, foreign direct investment in Egypt totaled approximately US$18 billion, ranking first in African countries. In 2015, foreign direct investment in Egypt totaled 6.9 billion US dollars. In 2016, Egypt attracted foreign direct investment of $8.1 billion. In June 2017, Egypt enacted a new Investment Law, which is conducive to attracting foreign investment and providing preferential policies in terms of land transfer model, income tax reduction, investment protection, and number of local employees.

【对外关系】埃及在阿拉伯、非洲和国际事务中均发挥着重要作用。开罗现为阿拉伯国家联盟总部所在地,2016年7月1日,埃及前外长盖特担任新一届阿盟秘书长。

埃及奉行独立自主、不结盟政策,主张在相互尊重和不干涉内政的基础上建立国际政治和经济新秩序,加强南北对话和南南合作。突出阿拉伯和伊斯兰属性,积极开展和平外交,致力于加强阿拉伯国家团结合作,推动中东和平进程,关注叙利亚等地区热点问题。反对国际恐怖主义。倡议在中东和非洲地区建立无核武器和大规模杀伤性武器区。重视大国外交,积极发展同新兴国家关系,在地区和国际组织中较为活跃。目前,埃及已与165个国家建立了外交关系。埃及担任联合国安理会2016年至2017年非常任理事国,2019年非洲联盟轮值主席国。

同美国的关系:纳赛尔总统时期,埃美关系比较紧张。1967年“六·五”战争后,埃及宣布同美断交。1973年“十月战争”以后,埃美关系明显改善和发展。1974年2月两国复交。穆巴拉克总统执政后两国关系日趋密切,与美有“特殊战略伙伴”关系。美国自1979年起每年向埃及提供21亿美元的援助,其中军援13亿美元。1998年,美埃签署协议,商定美在未来10年内每年减少5%对埃及政府经援,至2008年减至4.07亿美元。但美采取其他方式弥补,美经援总额并未大幅减少。2004年埃美签订“合格工业园区”协定后,双方经济关系进一步加强。2011年,美国宣布向埃及提供1.5亿美元额外经济援助,帮助埃及恢复经济和完成民主过渡。2012年7月,美国国务卿希拉里访埃及,会见穆尔西、坦塔维等埃及领导人,宣布免除埃及10亿美元债务,向埃方提供2.5亿美元贸易信贷担保,并建立6000万美元投资基金。9月,埃及爆发抗议侮辱伊斯兰教先知影片的大规模示威活动。同月,穆尔西总统赴纽约出席联合国会议期间会见美国务卿克林顿。11月21日,美总统奥巴马与穆尔西总统通电话,赞赏埃方为促成以色列与加沙巴勒斯坦各武装派别达成停火协议所付出的努力。2013年1月,美国参议院外交委员会主席麦凯恩访埃。3月,国务卿克里访埃,宣布向埃方提供1.9亿美元财政援助。4月,美国国防部长哈格尔访埃。5月,埃及外长阿姆鲁访美。在2013年7月初埃及政局再度剧变后,美国对埃及军方强力镇压穆兄会持批评态度,并暂停对埃及部分军事援助和经济援助。2014年6月塞西就任总统后,奥巴马总统向其致电祝贺。美国国务卿克里于2014年6月、7月两次访埃,并恢复对埃及部分援助,美埃关系有所缓和。8月,埃及总理马哈拉卜赴华盛顿出席美非峰会。9月,塞西总统赴美国参加第69届联合国大会。2015年3月,美国国务卿克里率团出席“埃及经济发展大会”。3月,奥巴马总统在同塞西总统通话时宣布,美将继续向埃及交付F-16战斗机、“鱼叉”式导弹、M1A1主战坦克等装备。2016年,美中央情报局局长、美军参谋长联席会议主席、美国会代表团、美中央司令部司令、美国务卿克里先后访埃。12月,外长舒克里访美,会见美国务卿克里和候任副总统彭斯。2017年1月,美国总统特朗普就任后同塞西总统通电话,就加强双边关系和支持埃及反恐交换意见。4月,塞西总统访美,同特朗普举行会谈。2018年1月,美国副总统彭斯访问埃及。3月,塞西总统同特朗普总统通电话,就双边关系和地区热点问题交换看法。9月,塞西总统在纽约与美总统特朗普举行会晤。2019年1月,美国国务卿蓬佩奥访问埃及。4月,塞西总统访美,同特朗普举行会谈。

同欧盟国家的关系:纳赛尔执政时期,埃及同主要西欧国家关系冷淡。萨达特上台后开始注意改善同西欧国家关系。1973年“十月战争”后,埃及同西欧国家关系有较大发展。穆巴拉克执政后,频繁出访欧盟国家,双方往来密切。2013年7月初埃政局再次剧变后,欧盟积极斡旋调解埃危机,欧盟外交和安全政策高级代表阿什顿多次赴埃斡旋。2014年,时任埃及外长法赫米先后出访意大利、德国和荷兰,出席欧洲—非盟峰会,埃及与意大利、法国等关系回暖。11月,塞西先后访问意大利、法国。2015年2月,埃及与法国签订合同,购买24架“阵风”战机和一艘护卫舰,合同总额达52亿欧元。9月,法国同意向埃及转售2艘“西北风”级直升机航母,合同总额为9.5亿欧元。2016年2月,埃意关系因一名意大利留学生在埃遇害遭受影响,4月意召回驻埃大使,7月意议会决定暂停对埃军事援助。2016年3月,埃及和法国在亚历山大举行海陆空联合军演。4月,法国总统奥朗德访问埃及。11月,塞西总统访问葡萄牙。2017年3月,德国总理默克尔访问埃及。2017年7月,塞西总统访问匈牙利,出席维谢格拉德集团峰会。9月,意大利驻埃大使重返埃及,结束长达1年多的缺位。10月,塞西总统访问法国。11月,塞西总统访问塞浦路斯。2018年3月,塞西总统同法国总统马克龙通话,讨论加强双边各领域合作。4月,塞西总统会见来访的葡萄牙总统马塞洛·德索萨。10月,塞西总统赴希腊参加与希腊、塞浦路斯领导人共同举行的第六轮三方峰会。同月,塞西总统访问德国并出席二十国集团非洲峰会。2019年1月,法国总统马克龙访问埃及。2月,首届阿盟-欧盟峰会在沙姆沙伊赫举行。

[External Relations] Egypt plays an important role in Arab, African and international affairs. Cairo is now the headquarters of the League of Arab States. On July 1, 2016, former Egyptian Foreign Minister Gat served as the new Secretary-General of the Arab League.

Egypt pursues an independent and non-aligned policy and advocates the establishment of a new international political and economic order based on mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, and strengthens North-South dialogue and South-South cooperation. Highlight Arab and Islamic attributes, actively carry out peaceful diplomacy, work hard to strengthen unity and cooperation among Arab countries, promote the Middle East peace process, and pay attention to hot issues in Syria and other regions. Against international terrorism. Initiatives to establish zones of nuclear-weapon-free and weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East and Africa. Attach importance to the diplomacy of big countries, actively develop relations with emerging countries, and be more active in regional and international organizations. At present, Egypt has established diplomatic relations with 165 countries. Egypt served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from 2016 to 2017 and the rotating presidency of the African Union in 2019.

Relations with the United States: During the period of President Nasser, the relationship between the United States and the United States was relatively tense. After the “Six-Five” war in 1967, Egypt announced that it had broken diplomatic relations with the United States. After the “October War” in 1973, the relationship between the United States and the United States was significantly improved and developed. In February 1974, the two countries resumed diplomatic relations. After President Mubarak came to power, relations between the two countries have become closer and closer, and the United States has a “special strategic partnership.” Since 1979, the United States has provided $2.1 billion in aid to Egypt, including $1.3 billion in military assistance. In 1998, the United States and Egypt signed an agreement to agree that the United States will reduce its annual aid by 5% to the Egyptian government in the next 10 years, and reduce it to 407 million US dollars in 2008. However, the United States has taken other measures to make up for it, and the total amount of US economic aid has not been greatly reduced. After the signing of the “Qualified Industrial Park” agreement in 2004, the economic relationship between the two sides was further strengthened. In 2011, the United States announced that it would provide Egypt with additional $150 million in additional economic assistance to help Egypt restore its economy and complete a democratic transition. In July 2012, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Egypt and met with Egyptian leaders such as Mursi and Tantawi, announced that they would exempt Egypt from $1 billion in debt, provide $250 million in trade credit guarantees to Egypt, and establish a $60 million investment. fund. In September, Egypt launched a large-scale demonstration to protest against the insults of the Prophet of Islam. In the same month, President Morsi met with US Secretary of State Clinton during his UN meeting in New York. On November 21st, US President Barack Obama and President Morsi spoke on the phone and appreciated the efforts made by the Egyptian side to promote a ceasefire agreement between Israel and the Palestinian armed factions in Gaza. In January 2013, US Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman John McCain visited Egypt. In March, Secretary of State Kerry visited Egypt and announced that he would provide $190 million in financial assistance to Egypt. In April, US Defense Secretary Hagel visited Egypt. In May, Egyptian Foreign Minister Amru visited the United States. After the resurgence of Egypt’s political situation in early July 2013, the United States criticized the Egyptian military for its strong suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood and suspended part of its military assistance and economic assistance to Egypt. After Seth became president in June 2014, President Obama sent a congratulatory message to him. US Secretary of State Kerry visited Egypt twice in June and July 2014 and resumed partial aid to Egypt. The relationship between the United States and Egypt has eased. In August, Egyptian Prime Minister Maharab went to Washington to attend the US-Africa summit. In September, President Sethi went to the United States to attend the 69th UN General Assembly. In March 2015, US Secretary of State Kerry led a delegation to attend the “Egyptian Economic Development Conference.” In March, President Obama announced in a call with President Sethi that the United States will continue to deliver equipment such as F-16 fighter jets, “harpoon” missiles, and M1A1 main battle tanks to Egypt. In 2016, the US Central Intelligence Agency Director, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, the US Congress, the US Central Command Commander, and the US Secretary of State Kerry visited Egypt. In December, Foreign Minister Shukri visited the United States and met with US Secretary of State Kerry and Vice President Peng Si. In January 2017, US President Trump telephoned President Seth after taking office and exchanged views on strengthening bilateral relations and supporting Egypt’s anti-terrorism. In April, President Sethi visited the United States and held talks with Trump. In January 2018, US Vice President Burns visited Egypt. In March, President Sethi and President Trump telephoned to exchange views on bilateral relations and regional hotspot issues. In September, President Sethi met with US President Trump in New York. In January 2019, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited Egypt. In April, President Sethi visited the United States and held talks with Trump.

Relations with EU countries: During Nasser’s administration, Egypt’s relations with major Western European countries were indifferent. After Sadat took office, he began to pay attention to improving relations with Western European countries. After the “October War” in 1973, Egypt’s relations with Western European countries have developed greatly. After Mubarak came to power, he frequently visited the EU countries and the two sides were close. After the turmoil in the political situation in early July 2013, the EU actively arranged to mediate the crisis in Egypt. The EU’s senior representative of foreign policy and security policy, Ashton, went to Egypt for many times. In 2014, the then Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Italy, Germany and the Netherlands, attended the Euro-Au summit, and Egypt and Italy, France and other relations warmed up. In November, Sethi visited Italy and France. In February 2015, Egypt signed a contract with France to purchase 24 “Gust” fighters and a frigate with a total contract value of 5.2 billion euros. In September, France agreed to resell two “Northwest Wind” class helicopter carriers to Egypt with a total contract value of 950 million euros. In February 2016, the relationship between Ethiopia and Italy was affected by an Italian student who was killed in Egypt. In April, he was called to return to Egypt. In July, the Italian Parliament decided to suspend military assistance to Egypt. In March 2016, Egypt and France held joint military, land, and air exercises in Alexandria. In April, French President Hollande visited Egypt. In November, President Sethi visited Portugal. In March 2017, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Egypt. In July 2017, President Sethi visited Hungary to attend the Visegrad Group Summit. In September, the Italian ambassador to Egypt returned to Egypt, ending a vacancy for more than a year. In October, President Sethi visited France. In November, President Sethi visited Cyprus. In March 2018, President Sethi spoke with French President Mark Long to discuss strengthening bilateral cooperation in various fields. In April, President Sethi met with visiting Portuguese President Marcelo De Souza. In October, President Sethi went to Greece to participate in the sixth round of the tripartite summit held jointly with the leaders of Greece and Cyprus. In the same month, President Sethi visited Germany and attended the G20 Africa Summit. In January 2019, French President Mark Long visited Egypt. In February, the first Arab League-EU summit was held in Sharm el-Sheikh.

【人民生活】为改善人民生活,埃及政府长期实行家庭补贴,并对大米、面包、面粉、食油、糖和能源等基本生活物资实行物价补贴。2010年,埃及人民议会通过新社会保障养老金法,规定养老金金额为最终工资的80%,并可根据物价进行调整。2011年初埃及政局变化后,政府宣布为600万公务员加薪15%,退伍军人和公私部门员工的退休金同比例增加。2014年6月新政府成立后,致力减少财政开支,并于2017年先后宣布削减对面粉、燃油等物资的政府补贴,并开始实施新的阶梯电价。同时,埃政府大力推进保障住房工程,提高养老金标准,确保基本生活物资供应并积极平抑物价。

【军 事】埃及实行义务兵和志愿兵相结合的兵役制度,义务兵服役期三年。武装部队总兵力45万,预备役部队25.4万,其中陆军32万、海军2万、空军3万、防空军8万。另有国民警卫队6万人、边防军1.4万人、公安部队6万人、海岸警卫队7000人。

【教 育】实行普及小学义务教育制度。全国共有基础教育(含小学、初中、高中和中等技术教育)学校42184所,其中公立学校37218所,私立学校4966所。共有大学34所,其中公立大学18所,私立大学16所。著名的有开罗大学、亚历山大大学、艾因·夏姆斯大学、爱资哈尔大学等。大学高等教育平均入学率达32%。

【新闻出版】埃及报刊500余种,其中报纸180余种,杂志300余种。埃及主要官方阿拉伯文报刊有:《金字塔报》、《消息报》、《共和国报》、《金字塔晚报》、《图画》周刊、《鲁兹·尤素福》周刊等。主要英文报刊有《埃及公报》。主要私营报刊有:《七日报》、《今日埃及人报》、《日出报》等。主要门户网站有:《七日网》、《国家回声》等。

中东通讯社:埃及国家通讯社,是目前中东地区和阿拉伯世界最大的通讯社,1956年2月创立。宣传政府政策,用阿拉伯、英、法三种文字发稿。

广播电台:全国现有269家广播台站,平均每天播报478小时。国家广播电台,1928年创建。目前每天用80个频率、38种语言向国内、外广播。中东广播电台,建于1964年,主要为商业服务。亚历山大广播电台,建于1960年,用阿拉伯语播音。2000年,埃及开始通过“非洲之星”广播卫星和尼罗河卫星等发射广播节目,能覆盖全世界。

电视:在埃及传媒中占据突出地位。埃及电视台建于1960年。目前埃及电视频道分中央、地方、卫星、专题等四类数十个频道,节目覆盖亚、非、欧、北美等地区。2001年6月,私营卫星电视频道获准开播。

[People’s Life] In order to improve people’s lives, the Egyptian government has long implemented family subsidies and subsidized basic living materials such as rice, bread, flour, cooking oil, sugar and energy. In 2010, the Egyptian People’s Parliament passed the new social security pension law, which stipulates that the amount of pension is 80% of the final salary and can be adjusted according to the price. After the political situation in Egypt changed in early 2011, the government announced a 15% salary increase for 6 million civil servants, and the pensions of veterans and public and private employees increased in proportion. After the establishment of the new government in June 2014, the company was committed to reducing fiscal expenditures. In 2017, it announced the reduction of government subsidies for flour, fuel and other materials, and began to implement new ladder prices. At the same time, the Ai government vigorously promoted the protection of housing projects, raised pension standards, ensured the supply of basic living materials and actively stabilized prices.

[Military] Egypt has a military service system combining compulsory soldiers and volunteers. The conscripts serve for three years. The total strength of the armed forces is 450,000, and the reserve force is 254,000, including 320,000 for the Army, 20,000 for the Navy, 30,000 for the Air Force, and 80,000 for the Air Force. There are also 60,000 National Guards, 14,000 Frontier Defense Officers, 60,000 Public Security Forces, and 7,000 Coast Guards.

[Education] Implement the universal primary school compulsory education system. There are 42184 schools in the country with basic education (including elementary school, junior high school, high school and secondary technical education), including 37,218 public schools and 4,966 private schools. There are 34 universities, including 18 public universities and 16 private universities. Famous universities include Cairo University, Alexandria University, Ain Shams University, and Al-Azhar University. The average enrollment rate of higher education in universities is 32%.

[Press and Publication] There are more than 500 kinds of Egyptian newspapers, including more than 180 kinds of newspapers and more than 300 magazines. The main official Arabic newspapers in Egypt are: The Pyramid, The News, The Republic, The Pyramid Evening, The Weekly, and The Weekly Luz Yusuf. The main English newspapers are the Egyptian Gazette. The main private newspapers and periodicals include: “The Seventh Daily”, “Today’s Egyptian Newspaper”, “Sunrise” and so on. The main portals are: “7th Network”, “National Echo” and so on.

Middle East News Agency: The Egyptian National News Agency is the largest news agency in the Middle East and the Arab world. It was founded in February 1956. Promote government policies and publish them in Arabic, English and French.

Radio stations: There are currently 269 broadcasting stations in the country, with an average of 478 hours per day. National Radio Station, created in 1928. It is currently broadcast to domestic and foreign markets at 80 frequencies and 38 languages ​​per day. The Middle East Radio Station, built in 1964, is primarily for business services. Alexander Radio, built in 1960, broadcasts in Arabic. In 2000, Egypt began broadcasting radio programs through the “African Star” broadcasting satellite and the Nile satellite, which can cover the whole world.

TV: A prominent position in the Egyptian media. The Egyptian TV station was built in 1960. At present, Egypt’s TV channels are divided into dozens of channels, including central, local, satellite, and special topics. The programs cover Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America. In June 2001, private satellite television channels were allowed to start broadcasting.

同俄罗斯的关系:1943年,埃及与前苏联建立了公使级外交关系,1954年升为大使级关系。纳赛尔时期,埃苏关系密切。萨达特执政时期,埃苏关系恶化。穆巴拉克总统执政后两国关系逐步改善,1983年双方签署了贸易、文化、渔业合作协定。1984年埃苏恢复互派大使。1991年苏联解体后,埃及承认各国独立,并与大多数独联体国家建立了外交关系。2013年4月,穆尔西总统访问俄罗斯。9月,埃及外长法赫米访问俄罗斯。2013年11月和2014年2月,埃及与俄罗斯先后在开罗和莫斯科举行两次国防部长和外长“2+2”对话会。2014年8月,埃及总统塞西访俄。2015年2月,俄罗斯总统普京访问埃及。5月,塞西总统出席俄罗斯卫国战争胜利70周年庆典。2015年10月一架俄罗斯客机在西奈半岛坠毁后,赴埃度假俄罗斯游客数量锐减。11月,埃俄签署首座核电站建设协议。2016年1月,俄罗斯杜马主席纳雷什金访埃。7月,埃及议长阿里访问俄罗斯。12月,塞西总统同俄罗斯总统普京通电话,对俄驻土耳其大使遇刺身亡表达慰问。2017年12月,俄罗斯总统普京访问埃及。2018年10月,塞西总统访问俄罗斯。

同沙特阿拉伯等海湾国家的关系:埃及同沙特在经济、人员交往和宗教事务方面有密切的合作关系。1979年埃以和约签订后,沙特同埃及断交。1987年11月,沙、埃恢复外交关系,沙特恢复了对埃及的经援。海湾危机爆发后,埃及应沙特要求派兵驻沙,沙特决定免除埃及所欠债务,并向埃及提供新的无偿经援15亿美元。2011年5月,沙特宣布向埃及提供40亿美元的援助和贷款。2012年4月,沙特逮捕埃及律师吉扎维引发埃及民众抗议示威,沙方一度关闭其驻埃及使领馆并召回大使。7月,穆尔西总统访沙,会见阿卜杜拉国王和萨勒曼王储。8月,穆尔西总统出席在沙特召开的伊斯兰合作组织峰会。2013年1月,穆尔西总统赴沙特出席“第三届阿拉伯经济社会发展峰会”。6月,埃沙签署两国电网联网备忘录。同月,埃沙举行空军联合训练。2013年7月初埃及政局剧变后,沙特、科威特、阿联酋等海湾国家紧急向埃及提供120亿美元经济援助。2014年6月,沙特王储、科威特埃及米尔、巴林国王等出席了塞西总统就职典礼。2014年8月,埃及总统塞西访问沙特。2015年1月,塞西访问阿联酋、科威特,赴沙吊唁前国王阿卜杜拉。3月初,塞西再次访问沙特。3月,埃及参加沙特主导的“决心风暴”军事行动,并同阿联酋和科威特举行联合军事演习。3月,沙特、阿联酋、科威特、阿曼因四国在“埃及经济发展大会”上向埃及提供125亿美元的投资、央行存款和援助。卡塔尔支持埃及穆斯林兄弟会,埃及卡塔尔关系处于僵冷状态。在沙特调解下,埃卡关系一度有所缓和。2015年2月,因在埃及空袭利比亚境内“伊斯兰国”目标问题上的尖锐分歧,卡塔尔召回驻埃及大使,埃卡关系再度恶化。2016年3月,塞西访问沙特。4月,沙特国王萨勒曼访问埃及,成为首位在埃议会发表演讲的阿拉伯国家领导人,埃内阁宣布将向沙特移交红海两座无人岛屿的主权。同月,巴林国王哈马德访问埃及。12月,塞西总统访问阿联酋。2017年5月,塞西总统访问科威特。2017年6月,塞西总统批准向沙特归还“两岛”主权协议。6月5日,埃及、沙特、阿联酋等国宣布同卡塔尔断交,要求卡塔尔停止支持恐怖组织。11月,埃及政府宣布取消1960年开始实施的对卡塔尔公民免签政策。2018年2月,塞西总统访问阿曼和阿联酋。3月,沙特王储穆罕默德·本·萨勒曼访问埃及。4月,塞西总统会见到访的阿联酋阿布扎比王储、武装部队副总司令穆罕默德。8月,塞西总统访问沙特和巴林。

Relations with Russia: In 1943, Egypt established diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union at the ministerial level, and in 1954 it was promoted to ambassadorial relations. During the Nasser period, Essu was closely related. During Sadat’s administration, relations between Ethiopia and the Soviet Union deteriorated. After President Mubarak came to power, relations between the two countries gradually improved. In 1983, the two sides signed an agreement on trade, culture and fishery cooperation. In 1984, Esso resumed the exchange of ambassadors. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Egypt recognized the independence of the countries and established diplomatic relations with most CIS countries. In April 2013, President Mursi visited Russia. In September, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Russia. In November 2013 and February 2014, Egypt and Russia held two “2+2” dialogues between the Minister of Defense and the Foreign Minister in Cairo and Moscow. In August 2014, Egyptian President Seysi visited Russia. In February 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Egypt. In May, President Sethi attended the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Russian Patriotic War. After a Russian passenger plane crashed in the Sinai Peninsula in October 2015, the number of Russian tourists to Egypt was sharply reduced. In November, Ethiopia signed the first nuclear power plant construction agreement. In January 2016, Russian Duma Chairman Nareshkin visited Egypt. In July, Egyptian Speaker Ali visited Russia. In December, President Sethi and Russian President Putin spoke on the phone and expressed condolences over the assassination of the Russian ambassador to Turkey. In December 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited Egypt. In October 2018, President Sethi visited Russia.

Relations with Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia: Egypt has a close working relationship with Saudi Arabia in economics, personnel exchanges and religious affairs. After the signing of the Israeli-Israeli peace treaty in 1979, Saudi Arabia broke off diplomatic relations with Egypt. In November 1987, Saudi Arabia and Egypt resumed diplomatic relations, and Saudi Arabia resumed its economic aid to Egypt. After the Gulf crisis broke out, Egypt asked Saudi Arabia to send troops to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia decided to waive the debt owed by Egypt and provided Egypt with a new free aid of 1.5 billion U.S. dollars. In May 2011, Saudi Arabia announced that it would provide $4 billion in aid and loans to Egypt. In April 2012, Saudi Arabia arrested Egyptian lawyer Gizawi to trigger protests by the Egyptian people. The Saudi side once closed its embassy and consulate in Egypt and recalled the ambassador. In July, President Mursi visited Shah and met with King Abdullah and Crown Prince Salman. In August, President Morsi attended the summit of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Saudi Arabia. In January 2013, President Morsi went to Saudi Arabia to attend the “3rd Arab Economic and Social Development Summit.” In June, Essa signed a memorandum on the interconnection of the two countries. In the same month, Essar held joint training of the Air Force. After the dramatic political changes in Egypt in early July 2013, the Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates urgently provided $12 billion in economic assistance to Egypt. In June 2014, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, the Egyptian mir of Kuwait, and the King of Bahrain attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sethi. In August 2014, Egyptian President Ceci visited Saudi Arabia. In January 2015, Sethi visited the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait and went to the former king Abdullah in the sand. At the beginning of March, Sethi visited Saudi Arabia again. In March, Egypt participated in Saudi-led military operations of “Decision for Storm” and held joint military exercises with the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. In March, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Oman provided Egypt with $12.5 billion in investment, central bank deposits and aid at the Egyptian Economic Development Conference. Qatar supports the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and the Qatar relationship in Egypt is in a stalemate. Under the mediation of Saudi Arabia, the relationship between Eka was eased. In February 2015, Qatar recalled the ambassador to Egypt because of the sharp differences in Egypt’s air strike on the target of the “Islamic State” in Libya. The Eka relationship deteriorated again. In March 2016, Sethi visited Saudi Arabia. In April, Saudi King Salman visited Egypt and became the first Arab leader to speak at the Egyptian parliament. The cabinet announced that it would hand over Saudi Arabia’s sovereignty to the two uninhabited islands in the Red Sea. In the same month, King Hamad of Bahrain visited Egypt. In December, President Sethi visited the United Arab Emirates. In May 2017, President Sethi visited Kuwait. In June 2017, President Sethi approved the return of the “two islands” sovereignty agreement to Saudi Arabia. On June 5, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and other countries announced that they had broken diplomatic relations with Qatar and demanded that Qatar stop supporting terrorist organizations. In November, the Egyptian government announced the abolition of the visa exemption policy for Qatar citizens that began in 1960. In February 2018, President Sethi visited Oman and the United Arab Emirates. In March, Saudi Crown Prince Mohamed bin Salman visited Egypt. In April, President Sethi met with the visiting Abu Dhabi Crown Prince of the United Arab Emirates and the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces Muhammad. In August, President Sethi visited Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.

同叙利亚的关系:叙强烈反对戴维营协议和埃以和约并于1978年9月同埃及断交。穆巴拉克总统执政后,主动改善同叙关系。1989年12月27日,埃、叙两国正式复交。叙总统巴沙尔2000年上台后,双方往来进一步密切。2005年,黎巴嫩总理哈里里遇害后,埃及力劝叙从黎撤军,但反对对叙实施制裁。2008年10月,埃及对叙利亚和黎巴嫩正式建立外交关系表示欢迎。2012年穆尔西就任总统后,宣布支持叙人民民主改革诉求,要求巴沙尔下台,主张政治解决危机,避免叙国家分裂和外部军事干涉。埃及倡议成立由埃、土耳其、伊朗和沙特组成的叙利亚问题“四国委员会”。2013年6月,埃及宣布断绝同叙利亚政权的所有外交关系,召回驻叙大使,关闭叙驻埃及使馆。7月初埃及政局再次剧变后,埃及表示将重新审视埃叙关系,两国重新恢复了领事关系。埃及强调应维护叙利亚国家统一和领土完整,支持政治解决,反对外部军事干涉。2015年1月、6月,埃及两次主办叙利亚反对派会议。埃及参加叙利亚国际支持小组外长会,积极推动叙利亚问题政治解决。2016年8月,塞西总统提出结束叙利亚问题的五点倡议,包括尊重叙利亚人民意愿、和平方式解决危机、维护叙利亚领土完整、解除叙利亚民兵和极端组织的武装和加速叙利亚重建。2018年1月,埃及派代表出席在俄罗斯索契召开的叙利亚全国对话大会。

同约旦的关系:约旦政府曾因反对埃以签订戴维营协议,于1979年4月1日与埃断交。1984年9月25日,约宣布与埃及复交。近年来,埃、约在中东和谈等问题上保持协调,曾促成巴以签署《沙姆沙伊赫备忘录》,并联合提出埃、约和平倡议等。2013年7月初埃及政局再次剧变后,约在政治上大力支持埃及新政权。7月,约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世访埃,成为埃及政局剧变后首位访埃及的外国元首。8月,埃及外长法赫米访问约旦。2014年6月,约旦国王出席塞西总统就职典礼。12月,塞西访问约旦。2015年2月和2016年8月,约旦国王两度访问埃及。2018年5月,塞西总统会见到访的约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世。

同巴勒斯坦的关系:埃是最早支持巴事业的阿国之一。巴解组织成立后,埃及即给予坚决支持。埃以媾和后,埃巴关系降到最低点,巴解驻开罗办事处被关闭。1987年11月,埃及重新开放巴解驻开罗办事处。1988年11月巴宣布建国后,埃及即宣布承认,巴解驻开罗办事处也随之升格为大使馆。马德里中东和会后,埃及积极推动巴以和谈,促进巴内部和解,并呼吁国际社会向巴人民提供人道主义援助。2008年12月加沙冲突爆发后,埃及努力斡旋,推动哈马斯与以色列停火,缓解加沙人道主义危机,为联合国安理会通过第1860号决议发挥重要作用。2009年,埃及主办加沙重建国际会议,并召集巴各派在开罗举行多轮内部和解对话会。2013年7月初埃及政局剧变后,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯表示支持埃及维护安全稳定,尊重埃及人民意愿。2014年6月,阿巴斯出席了塞西总统的就职典礼。2014年7月,以色列和哈马斯在加沙爆发冲突后,埃及积极斡旋停火。2015年2月,埃及宣布哈马斯为恐怖组织。2016年5月、2017年3月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯访问埃及。2017年10月,在埃及积极斡旋下,法塔赫同哈马斯在开罗签署和解协议。12月,巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯访问埃及,在开罗会见塞西总统,就美国承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都的决定协调立场。2018年11月,塞西总统在沙姆沙伊赫与巴勒斯坦总统阿巴斯举行会晤。

Relations with Syria: Syria strongly opposed the Camp David agreement and the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and broke off diplomatic relations with Egypt in September 1978. After President Mubarak came to power, he took the initiative to improve the relations between Syria and Syria. On December 27, 1989, Egypt and Syria officially resumed diplomatic relations. After President Bashar al-Assad came to power in 2000, the two sides have moved closer. In 2005, after the death of Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri, Egypt urged Syria to withdraw troops from Lebanon, but opposed sanctions against Syria. In October 2008, Egypt welcomed the formal establishment of diplomatic relations between Syria and Lebanon. After Mursi became president in 2012, he announced his support for the Syrian people’s democratic reforms and demanded that Bashar to step down and advocate a political solution to the crisis and avoid the division of the Syrian state and external military intervention. Egypt has proposed the establishment of a “four-nation committee” on Syrian issues consisting of Egypt, Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia. In June 2013, Egypt announced that it would sever all diplomatic relations with the Syrian regime, recall the ambassador to Syria, and close the Syrian embassy in Egypt. After the political upheaval in Egypt in early July, Egypt said it would re-examine the relationship between Ethiopia and Syria and the two countries resumed their consular relations. Egypt stresses that Syria should be safeguarded of national unity and territorial integrity, support political settlements, and oppose external military intervention. In January and June 2015, Egypt hosted two Syrian opposition conferences. Egypt participated in the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Syrian International Support Group and actively promoted the political settlement of the Syrian issue. In August 2016, President Sethi proposed five initiatives to end the Syrian issue, including respect for the will of the Syrian people, peaceful resolution of the crisis, maintenance of Syrian territorial integrity, disarmament of Syrian militia and extremist groups and accelerated reconstruction of Syria. In January 2018, Egypt sent representatives to attend the Syrian National Dialogue Conference in Sochi, Russia.

Relations with Jordan: The Jordanian government broke diplomatic relations with Egypt on April 1, 1979, against the signing of the Camp David agreement. On September 25, 1984, about the resumption of diplomatic relations with Egypt. In recent years, Egypt and the United States have maintained coordination on issues such as the Middle East peace talks. They have promoted the signing of the “Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum” and jointly proposed the peace initiative of Egypt and Israel. After the political upheaval in Egypt in early July 2013, it was politically strongly supported by the new Egyptian regime. In July, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Egypt and became the first foreign head of state to visit Egypt after the dramatic political change in Egypt. In August, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Jordan. In June 2014, the King of Jordan attended the inauguration of President Sethi. In December, Sethi visited Jordan. In February 2015 and August 2016, the King of Jordan visited Egypt twice. In May 2018, President Sethi met with visiting King Abdullah II of Jordan.

Relations with Palestine: Egypt is one of the first countries to support the Palestinian cause. After the establishment of the PLO, Egypt gave strong support. After the Israeli-Israeli peace, Ebba relations were reduced to a minimum, and the PLO office in Cairo was closed. In November 1987, Egypt reopened its office in Cairo. After the announcement of the founding of the country in November 1988, Egypt announced that it had also been promoted to the Embassy in the Cairo office in Cairo. After the Madrid Middle East Peace Conference, Egypt actively promoted Palestinian-Israeli peace talks, promoted internal Palestinian reconciliation, and called on the international community to provide humanitarian assistance to the Palestinian people. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in December 2008, Egypt tried to use its good offices to promote a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel, ease the humanitarian crisis in Gaza, and play an important role in the adoption of Resolution 1860 by the UN Security Council. In 2009, Egypt hosted the International Conference on the Reconstruction of Gaza and convened the Pakistani factions to hold several rounds of internal reconciliation dialogues in Cairo. After the dramatic political change in Egypt in early July 2013, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas expressed support for Egypt’s maintenance of security and stability and respect for the wishes of the Egyptian people. In June 2014, Abbas attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sethi. After the outbreak of conflict between Israel and Hamas in Gaza in July 2014, Egypt actively brokered the ceasefire. In February 2015, Egypt announced Hamas as a terrorist organization. In May 2016 and March 2017, Palestinian President Abbas visited Egypt. In October 2017, under the active mediation of Egypt, Fatah signed a settlement agreement with Hamas in Cairo. In December, Palestinian President Abbas visited Egypt and met with President Seyce in Cairo to coordinate his position on the US decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. In November 2018, President Sethi met with Palestinian President Abbas in Sharm el-Sheikh.

同非洲国家的关系:非洲国家与埃及历史、文化渊源深厚,而且对埃及国家安全特别是水资源安全具有战略意义,非洲国家在埃及对外政策中占据突出位置。穆巴拉克执政后更加强调埃及的非洲属性,重视同非洲国家的友好合作。埃及积极参与非洲事务,致力于非洲联盟建设。2011年,加蓬总统、非盟主席等分别访埃。2012年7月,穆尔西总统出席在埃塞俄比亚召开的非盟首脑会议。2014年7月初埃及政局再次剧变后,非盟谴责和拒绝“任何非法夺取政权”的行为,暂停埃参加非盟的活动。2014年6月8日,赤道几内亚总统、厄立特里亚总统、乍得总统、马里总统、索马里总统、吉布提总统出席塞西总统就职典礼。6月17日,非盟和平与安全理事会决定恢复埃及参加非盟活动的资格。6月下旬,塞西总统出席在赤道几内亚召开的非盟峰会,并访问阿尔及利亚、苏丹。埃及同埃塞俄比亚等国存在尼罗河水资源争端,2015年3月,埃及、苏丹、埃塞俄比亚三国元首在苏丹喀土穆共同签署《埃塞复兴大坝原则宣言协议》,为三国在复兴大坝问题上确定了政治原则和合作框架。2015年6月,埃及同非洲三大经济组织在沙姆沙伊赫签署建立自贸区协议。2016年1月,塞西总统出席非盟第26届首脑峰会。1月28日,埃及当选非盟和平与安全理事会成员国。2月20日,塞西总统在沙姆沙伊赫主持召开“非洲2016:非洲、埃及和全球的商业机遇”经济大会,尼日利亚、多哥、苏丹、肯尼亚、加蓬、赤道几内亚总统和埃塞俄比亚总理出席。7月,塞西总统出席在卢旺达举行的非盟峰会。12月,塞西总统访问乌干达。2017年1月,塞西总统出席在埃塞俄比亚举行的非盟峰会。6月,塞西总统出席在乌干达举行的尼罗河流域国家峰会。2016年,埃及对非洲国家出口12亿美元,出口最多的国家依次是肯尼亚、南非、埃塞俄比亚和尼日利亚;自非洲国家进口10.4亿美元,主要是从尼日利亚、肯尼亚、赞比亚和南非进口天然气、茶、铜、煤炭等。2017年1月,塞西总统出席在埃塞俄比亚举行的非盟峰会。2017年8月,塞西总统访问加蓬。11月,赞比亚总统埃德加·隆戈访问埃及。2018年1月,塞西总统出席在埃塞俄比亚举行的非盟峰会,期间塞西总统同苏丹总统巴希尔、埃塞俄比亚总理海尔马里亚姆举行三方会晤,讨论加强三国合作,同意启动联合投资基金以资助基础设施建设,并召开由灌溉部长与外交部长组成的部长级会议,讨论复兴大坝问题。5月,塞西总统会见到访的乌干达总统穆塞韦尼,讨论尼罗河水问题和复兴大坝建设。6月,塞西总统会见到访的埃塞俄比亚总理阿比·艾哈迈德。2019年2月,塞西总统出席非盟峰会,期间,塞西总统接任非盟轮值主席。

Relations with Syria: Syria strongly opposed the Camp David agreement and the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and broke off diplomatic relations with Egypt in September 1978. After President Mubarak came to power, he took the initiative to improve the relations between Syria and Syria. On December 27, 1989, Egypt and Syria officially resumed diplomatic relations. After President Bashar al-Assad came to power in 2000, the two sides have moved closer. In 2005, after the death of Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri, Egypt urged Syria to withdraw troops from Lebanon, but opposed sanctions against Syria. In October 2008, Egypt welcomed the formal establishment of diplomatic relations between Syria and Lebanon. After Mursi became president in 2012, he announced his support for the Syrian people’s democratic reforms and demanded that Bashar to step down and advocate a political solution to the crisis and avoid the division of the Syrian state and external military intervention. Egypt has proposed the establishment of a “four-nation committee” on Syrian issues consisting of Egypt, Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia. In June 2013, Egypt announced that it would sever all diplomatic relations with the Syrian regime, recall the ambassador to Syria, and close the Syrian embassy in Egypt. After the political upheaval in Egypt in early July, Egypt said it would re-examine the relationship between Ethiopia and Syria and the two countries resumed their consular relations. Egypt stresses that Syria should be safeguarded of national unity and territorial integrity, support political settlements, and oppose external military intervention. In January and June 2015, Egypt hosted two Syrian opposition conferences. Egypt participated in the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Syrian International Support Group and actively promoted the political settlement of the Syrian issue. In August 2016, President Sethi proposed five initiatives to end the Syrian issue, including respect for the will of the Syrian people, peaceful resolution of the crisis, maintenance of Syrian territorial integrity, disarmament of Syrian militia and extremist groups and accelerated reconstruction of Syria. In January 2018, Egypt sent representatives to attend the Syrian National Dialogue Conference in Sochi, Russia.

Relations with Jordan: The Jordanian government broke diplomatic relations with Egypt on April 1, 1979, against the signing of the Camp David agreement. On September 25, 1984, about the resumption of diplomatic relations with Egypt. In recent years, Egypt and the United States have maintained coordination on issues such as the Middle East peace talks. They have promoted the signing of the “Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum” and jointly proposed the peace initiative of Egypt and Israel. After the political upheaval in Egypt in early July 2013, it was politically strongly supported by the new Egyptian regime. In July, King Abdullah II of Jordan visited Egypt and became the first foreign head of state to visit Egypt after the dramatic political change in Egypt. In August, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Jordan. In June 2014, the King of Jordan attended the inauguration of President Sethi. In December, Sethi visited Jordan. In February 2015 and August 2016, the King of Jordan visited Egypt twice. In May 2018, President Sethi met with visiting King Abdullah II of Jordan.

Relations with Palestine: Egypt is one of the first countries to support the Palestinian cause. After the establishment of the PLO, Egypt gave strong support. After the Israeli-Israeli peace, Ebba relations were reduced to a minimum, and the PLO office in Cairo was closed. In November 1987, Egypt reopened its office in Cairo. After the announcement of the founding of the country in November 1988, Egypt announced that it had also been promoted to the Embassy in the Cairo office in Cairo. After the Madrid Middle East Peace Conference, Egypt actively promoted Palestinian-Israeli peace talks, promoted internal Palestinian reconciliation, and called on the international community to provide humanitarian assistance to the Palestinian people. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in December 2008, Egypt tried to use its good offices to promote a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel, ease the humanitarian crisis in Gaza, and play an important role in the adoption of Resolution 1860 by the UN Security Council. In 2009, Egypt hosted the International Conference on the Reconstruction of Gaza and convened the Pakistani factions to hold several rounds of internal reconciliation dialogues in Cairo. After the dramatic political change in Egypt in early July 2013, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas expressed support for Egypt’s maintenance of security and stability and respect for the wishes of the Egyptian people. In June 2014, Abbas attended the inauguration ceremony of President Sethi. After the outbreak of conflict between Israel and Hamas in Gaza in July 2014, Egypt actively brokered the ceasefire. In February 2015, Egypt announced Hamas as a terrorist organization. In May 2016 and March 2017, Palestinian President Abbas visited Egypt. In October 2017, under the active mediation of Egypt, Fatah signed a settlement agreement with Hamas in Cairo. In December, Palestinian President Abbas visited Egypt and met with President Seyce in Cairo to coordinate his position on the US decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. In November 2018, President Sethi met with Palestinian President Abbas in Sharm el-Sheikh….

同苏丹的关系:苏丹是埃及在非洲的最大邻国,历史联系密切。埃以和约签订后,苏丹是三个未同埃及断交的阿拉伯国家之一。1995年6月,穆巴拉克总统在埃塞俄比亚参加非统首脑会议途中遇剌脱险后,指责苏丹为幕后策划者。1999年12月后埃苏关系逐渐缓和。埃及为解决苏南北问题和达富尔问题积极斡旋,并参加非洲联盟向达尔富尔派出的维和部队。2010年,苏丹副总统塔哈访埃。2011年,埃及总理沙拉夫访问苏丹。苏丹总统巴希尔访埃。同年7月,埃及表示希望南苏丹共和国成立可彻底结束苏丹长期内战,并派外长出席南苏丹成立庆典。2012年8月,苏丹外长库尔提访埃。9月,苏丹总统巴希尔访埃。2013年4月,穆尔西总统访问苏丹。同月,埃及总参谋长萨巴赫访苏。8月,埃及外长法赫米访问苏丹。2014年6月,埃及总统塞西访问苏丹。2016年1月,苏丹外长甘杜尔访埃。1月30日,塞西总统会见苏丹总统巴希尔。3月,埃及外长舒克里访问苏丹。2016年10月,苏丹总统巴希尔访埃,双方举行埃及-苏丹最高联合委员会首轮会议。同月,塞西总统赴苏丹出席苏丹全国对话会闭幕式,并发表主旨演讲。2017年以来,两国摩擦不断。5月,苏丹指责埃及对达尔富尔地区叛军提供支持,但埃及予以否认。2018年1月,苏丹外长甘杜尔取消访埃行程,并于1月4日紧急召回苏丹驻埃及大使。2月,苏丹驻埃及大使返埃。7月和10月,塞西总统两次访问苏丹,会见苏丹总统巴希尔。2019年4月,苏丹局势突变,埃及第一时间发表声明支持苏丹人民的自主选择,相信苏丹人民和军方有能力战胜挑战,实现稳定和发展,呼吁国际社会帮助苏丹实现和平过渡。4月23日,塞西总统以非盟轮值主席身份倡议召开非盟特别会议,专门研究讨论苏丹、利比亚局势。

同利比亚的关系:利比亚1969年“九·一”革命后的最初几年埃利关系较为密切。萨达特执政以后,双边关系冷淡,1977年两国发生边界武装冲突。萨达特访以后,双边关系迅速恶化并导致两国于1979年断交。1989年10月两国元首互访,结束了两国长期交恶史。1991年双方正式达成协议,取消边卡和海关,两国人员凭身份证自由往来。2011年8月22日,埃及正式承认利全国过渡委员会为利国家代表。2012年8月,利比亚总理阿卜杜·拉赫曼访埃。2013年4月,利比亚向埃及提供5年期20亿美元无息贷款。7月初埃政局再次剧变后,利比亚政府发表声明称,埃及所发生的一切均属其内政,利接受埃及人民选择。 9月,利比亚总理阿里·扎伊丹访问埃及。2014年8月,利比亚局势再度恶化后,在埃及协调组织下,利比亚及其邻国(埃及、突尼斯、阿尔及利亚、苏丹、乍得等国)外长在开罗就解决利比亚冲突、维护利稳定进行闭门磋商。利比亚外长阿齐兹表示,埃及倡议反应了周边国家政治解决利比亚问题和一致反恐的立场,他同意建立由埃及和阿尔及利亚分别负责的政治和军事委员会。2015年2月,在埃及人质被“伊斯兰国”利比亚分支斩首后,埃及出动战机对利比亚境内的“伊斯兰国”目标进行空袭。2016年5月,塞西总统会见到访的利比亚联合政府总理萨拉吉,强调维护利主权和领土完整,呼吁国际社会解除对利武器禁运。2017年11月,埃及、突尼斯和阿尔及利亚三国外长在开罗举行会议,讨论了重启和谈、修订《利比亚政治协议》等问题。2019年4月,利比亚局势紧张,4月14日,塞西总统会见到访的国民军司令哈夫塔尔,表示支持利方打击恐怖主义和极端民兵武装,实现国家安全稳定。4月23日,塞西总统以非盟轮值主席身份倡议召开非盟特别会议,专门研究讨论苏丹、利比亚局势。

同土耳其关系:埃、土两国在中东、海湾等重大地区问题上有共同利益,两国经济、贸易和军事关系比较密切。埃及—土耳其自由贸易协定于2007年1月正式生效。2011年,土耳其总统居尔、总理埃尔多安先后访埃。2012年9月,穆尔西总统访土。土方承诺提供20亿美元的一揽子经济援助。10月,埃、土举行海上联合军事演习。2013年5月,埃及国防部长塞西访土。7月初埃及政局再次剧变后,土指责埃及军方发动政变,要求国际社会介入。埃土关系恶化,两国均已召回驻对方国大使。2016年4月,埃及外长舒克里出席在伊斯坦布尔举行的第14届伊斯兰合作组织峰会并代表塞西总统发言,这是2013年以来埃首次派团访土。

Relations with Sudan: Sudan is Egypt’s largest neighbor in Africa and has a close history. After the signing of the Israeli-Israeli peace treaty, the Sudan was one of three Arab countries that had not broken diplomatic relations with Egypt. In June 1995, President Mubarak accused Sudan of being a behind-the-scenes planner after he escaped from the Olympics on the way to the OAU summit in Ethiopia. After December 1999, the relationship between Ethiopia and the Soviet Union gradually eased. Egypt has actively used its mediation to resolve the issue of Northern and Southern Jiangsu and the Darfur issue and participated in the African Union’s peacekeeping force sent to Darfur. In 2010, Sudanese Vice President Taha visited Egypt. In 2011, Egyptian Prime Minister Sharif visited Sudan. Sudanese President Bashir visited Egypt. In July of the same year, Egypt expressed the hope that the establishment of the Republic of South Sudan could completely end the long-term civil war in Sudan and send foreign ministers to attend the celebration of the founding of South Sudan. In August 2012, Sudanese Foreign Minister Kurd visited Egypt. In September, Sudanese President Bashir visited Egypt. In April 2013, President Morsi visited the Sudan. In the same month, Egypt’s Chief of Staff, Sabah, visited Su. In August, Egyptian Foreign Minister Fahmi visited Sudan. In June 2014, Egyptian President Seyci visited Sudan. In January 2016, Sudanese Foreign Minister Gandur visited Egypt. On January 30, President Sethi met with Sudanese President Bashir. In March, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shukri visited Sudan. In October 2016, Sudanese President Bashir visited Egypt and the two sides held the first round of the Egyptian-Sudanese Joint Commission. In the same month, President Sethi went to Sudan to attend the closing ceremony of the Sudan National Dialogue and delivered a keynote speech. Since 2017, the friction between the two countries has continued. In May, the Sudan accused Egypt of providing support to the rebels in Darfur, but Egypt denied it. In January 2018, Sudanese Foreign Minister Gandur canceled his visit to Egypt and on January 4 urgently recalled the Sudanese ambassador to Egypt. In February, the Sudanese ambassador to Egypt returned to Egypt. In July and October, President Sethi visited Sudan twice and met with Sudanese President Bashir. In April 2019, the situation in Sudan was abrupt. Egypt first issued a statement in support of the Sudanese people’s independent choice. It is believed that the Sudanese people and the military have the ability to overcome challenges, achieve stability and development, and call on the international community to help Sudan achieve a peaceful transition. On April 23, President Sethi initiated the AU special meeting as the AU Chairman-in-Office to discuss the situation in Sudan and Libya.

Relations with Libya: Eli is more closely related to Libya in the first few years after the “9.11” revolution in 1969. After Sadat’s administration, bilateral relations were indifferent. In 1977, armed conflicts took place in the border between the two countries. After Sadat’s visit, bilateral relations deteriorated rapidly and led to the two countries breaking diplomatic relations in 1979. In October 1989, the exchange of visits between the heads of state of the two countries ended the long history of the two countries. In 1991, the two sides formally reached an agreement to cancel the border card and customs, and the two countries were free to communicate with their ID cards. On August 22, 2011, Egypt officially recognized the National Transitional Council as a representative of the country. In August 2012, Libyan Prime Minister Abdul Rahman visited Egypt. In April 2013, Libya provided Egypt with a five-year, $2 billion interest-free loan. After the turmoil in the political situation in early July, the Libyan government issued a statement saying that everything that happened in Egypt was its internal affairs and accepted the choice of the Egyptian people. In September, Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zaidan visited Egypt. In August 2014, after the situation in Libya deteriorated again, under the coordination of Egypt, Libya and its neighbors (Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, Chad, etc.) held a closed consultation in Cairo on resolving the Libyan conflict and maintaining stability. . Libyan Foreign Minister Aziz said that the Egyptian initiative reflected the political settlement of the Libya issue and the unanimity of counter-terrorism in neighboring countries. He agreed to establish a political and military committee under the responsibility of Egypt and Algeria. In February 2015, after the Egyptian hostages were beheaded by the Libyan branch of the “Islamic State”, Egypt dispatched fighter planes to carry out air strikes against the “Islamic State” target in Libya. In May 2016, President Sethi met with visiting Libyan coalition government Prime Minister Sarah, emphasizing the maintenance of sovereignty and territorial integrity and calling on the international community to lift the embargo on weapons. In November 2017, the three foreign ministers of Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria met in Cairo to discuss issues such as restarting peace talks and revising the Libyan Political Agreement. In April 2019, Libya was in a tense situation. On April 14, President Sethi met with the visiting National Army Commander Haftar and expressed support for the Liberian side to fight terrorism and extreme militia and achieve national security and stability. On April 23, President Sethi initiated the AU special meeting as the AU Chairman-in-Office to discuss the situation in Sudan and Libya.

Relations with Turkey: Egypt and Turkey share common interests in major regional issues such as the Middle East and the Gulf. The two countries have relatively close economic, trade and military relations. The Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement entered into force in January 2007. In 2011, Turkish President Gul and Prime Minister Erdogan visited Egypt. In September 2012, President Mursi visited the soil. The Turkish side promised to provide a package of economic assistance of 2 billion US dollars. In October, Egypt and Turkey held joint military exercises at sea. In May 2013, Egyptian Defense Minister Seysey visited the country. After the political upheaval in Egypt in early July, the land accused the Egyptian military of launching a coup and demanding the intervention of the international community. The relations between Egypt and Turkey have deteriorated and both countries have recalled their ambassadors to the other countries. In April 2016, Egyptian Foreign Minister Shukri attended the 14th Islamic Cooperation Organization Summit in Istanbul and spoke on behalf of President Sethi. This is the first time since 2013 that Egypt has sent a delegation to visit the country.