Solomon Islands 所罗门群岛

【国名】所罗门群岛(Solomon Islands)。

【面积】陆地面积2.84万平方公里,海洋专属经济区面积160万平方公里。

【人口】约60万。94.5%为美拉尼西亚人,多信奉基督教新教和天主教。官方语言为英语,通用皮金语。

【首都】霍尼亚拉(Honiara)。

【国家元首】国家元首为英国女王伊丽莎白二世,女王任命总督为其代表。弗兰克·卡布依(Frank Kabui)2009年7月首次当选,2014年5月连任,任期5年。

【重要节日】独立日:7月7日。

【简况】位于太平洋西南部,属美拉尼西亚群岛。西南距澳大利亚1600公里,西距巴布亚新几内亚485公里,东南与瓦努阿图隔海相望。全境有大小岛屿900多个,最大的瓜达尔卡纳尔岛面积6475平方公里。境内多火山、河流。属热带雨林气候,终年炎热,无旱季。首都霍尼亚拉年均气温28℃,年均降水量3000-3500毫米。

早在3000多年前已有人在此居住。1568年被西班牙人发现并命名。后荷兰、英国、德国等殖民者相继而至。1885年北所罗门成为德国保护地,同年转归英国。1893年成立“英属所罗门群岛保护地”。二次大战期间曾被日本占领。1975年6月更名为所罗门群岛。1976年1月2日实行内部自治。1978年7月7日独立。系英联邦成员。

【政治】2014年11月,所罗门群岛举行大选,梅纳西·索加瓦雷(Manasseh Sogavare)于次月出任总理。2017年11月,所罗门群岛国民议会表决通过针对索加瓦雷的不信任案,并选举里克·霍尼普韦拉(Rick Houenipwela)担任总理。

【宪法】1978年6月8日英国议会通过所罗门群岛新宪法,同年7月7日生效。

【议会】一院制,称国民议会,是所最高权力机关,由50名议员组成,任期4年。现任议长阿基隆·纳隋( Ajilon Nasiu),2014年12月当选,为所第十任议长。

【政府】现政府于2014年12月组成,主要成员包括:总理里克·霍尼普韦拉,副总理兼财政与国库部长梅纳西·索加瓦雷,外交与对外贸易部长米尔纳·托扎卡(Milner Tozaka),渔业与海洋资源部长约翰·马尼尼阿鲁(John Maneniaru),通讯与民航部长彼得·沙内尔·阿戈瓦卡(Peter Shanel Agovaka),教育与人力资源发展部长约翰·迪恩·库库(John Dean Kuku),内政部长吉姆森·菲奥·塔南噶达(Jimson Fiau Tanangada),矿业与能源部长布拉德利·托沃索亚(Bradley Tovosia),妇女、青年、儿童与家庭事务部长费来达·图奇(Freda Tuki),警察与国家安全部长摩西·加鲁(Moses Garu),土地与住房部长安德鲁·马尼波拉(Andrew Manepora),文化与旅游部长巴塞洛缪·帕拉保罗(Bartholomew Parapolo),林业与调查部长塞缪尔·马内托阿利(Samuel Manetoali),省级政府事务与机制建设部长内斯特·吉罗(Nestor Ghiro)等。

[Country name] Solomon Islands.

[Area] The land area is 28,400 square kilometers, and the marine exclusive economic zone covers an area of ​​1.6 million square kilometers.

[Population] About 600,000. 94.5% are Melanesians and believe in Christian Protestantism and Catholicism. The official language is English, and the general Pikin language.

[Capital] Honiara.

[Head of State] The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and the Queen appoints the Governor as his representative. Frank Kabui was first elected in July 2009 and re-elected in May 2014 for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 7.

[Profile] Located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it belongs to the Melanesian Islands. It is 1600 kilometers southwest of Australia, 485 kilometers west of Papua New Guinea, and southeast of Vanuatu across the sea. There are more than 900 islands in the whole country, and the largest island of Guadalcanal covers an area of ​​6,475 square kilometers. Many volcanoes and rivers in the territory. It has a tropical rainforest climate and is hot all year round without a dry season. The capital of Honiara has an average annual temperature of 28 °C and an average annual precipitation of 3000-3500 mm.

People have lived here more than 3,000 years ago. Found and named by the Spanish in 1568. After the colonists of the Netherlands, Britain, Germany and so on. In 1885, North Solomon became a German protectorate and in the same year he returned to the United Kingdom. In 1893, the “Solomon Islands Protected Land” was established. It was occupied by Japan during the Second World War. In June 1975, it was renamed Solomon Islands. Internal autonomy was implemented on January 2, 1976. Independence on July 7, 1978. A member of the Commonwealth.

[Politics] In November 2014, Solomon Islands held a general election, and Manasseh Sogavare became prime minister the following month. In November 2017, the Solomon Islands National Assembly voted to pass a no-confidence case against Sogavale and elected Rick Houenipwela as Prime Minister.

[Constitution] On June 8, 1978, the British Parliament passed the new Constitution of Solomon Islands, which entered into force on July 7 of the same year.

[Parliament] The one-chamber system, called the National Assembly, is the highest authority and consists of 50 members for a term of four years. The current Speaker, Ajilon Nasiu, was elected in December 2014 as the tenth speaker.

[Government] The current government was formed in December 2014. The main members include: Prime Minister Rick Honeypeira, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Treasury Menasi Sawagarey, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade Milner Milner Tozaka, Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources John Maneniaru, Minister of Communications and Civil Aviation Peter Shanel Agovaka, Minister of Education and Human Resources Development John Dean Kuku, Minister of the Interior, Jimson Fiau Tanangada, Minister of Mines and Energy, Bradley Tovosia, Women , Youth, Child and Family Affairs Minister Freda Tuki, Police and National Security Minister Moses Garu, Land and Housing Minister Andrew Manepora, Culture and Tourism Minister Bartholomew Parapolo, Minister of Forestry and Investigation Samuel Manetoali, Minister of Provincial Government Affairs and Mechanism Construction Ernest Giraud (Nestor Ghiro) and so on.

【司法机构】沿用英国的司法制度,高等法院(又称国家法院)由大法官和1名陪审推事组成。1978年设上诉法院。各行政区设有区法院和地方法院。现任大法官艾伯特·洛基·帕尔默(Albert Rocky Palmer)。

【政党】所政党较多,各政党在议会力量经常消长。目前主要政党有联合民主党(United Democratic Party)、卡达里党(Kadere)、所罗门群岛人民第一党(Solomon Islands People First Party)、所罗门群岛农村发展党(Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement)、所罗门群岛民主党(Solomon Islands Democratic Party)、人民联盟党(People Alliance Party)、民主联盟党(Democratic Alliance Party)等。目前联合民主党与卡达里党、民主联盟党、人民联盟党结成执政联盟。

【重要人物】弗兰克·卡布依:总督。1946年4月20日生。获巴新大学法学硕士学位。所罗门群岛前高等法院法官和总检察长,所律师协会主席。2009年7月7日就任所总督,2014年5月连任。

里克·霍尼普韦拉:总理。1958年8月8日生。曾担任所罗门群岛中央银行行长,并在世界银行工作。2010年8月首次当选所罗门群岛国民议会议员,历任公共服务部长、财政与国库部长、公共账目委员会主席等职。2014年11月连任议员。2017年11月当选总理。

【经济】所罗门群岛自独立以来,经济由过去的单一经济逐步转变为由包括农、渔、矿、林、旅游业等在内的多样化经济。牛肉、粮食、蔬菜基本自给。受亚洲金融危机影响,1997年下半年起经济陷入困境,出口减少,货币贬值,财政严重亏空。2003年-2008年经济发展有所好转,年均经济增长率近6%,一度成为太平洋岛国地区经济增长率最高的国家之一。受国际金融危机影响,2009年经济增长率下降到-2.2%。近年来,所政府采取多项发展措施,推动土地改革,改善管理方式,积极吸引外资,有效控制通货膨胀,经济出现复苏势头。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:13亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:2126美元。

经济增长率:3.2%。

货币名称:所罗门群岛元(简称所元)。

汇率:1美元≈8所元(2018年12月)。

[Judiciary] The British judicial system is used. The High Court (also known as the National Court) consists of a judge and a jury. In 1978, the Court of Appeal was established. Districts and local courts are provided in each administrative district. The current judge, Albert Rocky Palmer.

[Party parties] There are many political parties, and political parties often grow and develop in parliamentary power. At present, the main political parties are the United Democratic Party, the Kadare Party, the Solomon Islands People First Party, the Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement, and the Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands Democratic Party, the People Alliance Party, and the Democratic Alliance Party. At present, the United Democrats and the Kadari Party, the Democratic Alliance Party, and the People’s Alliance Party form a ruling coalition.

[Important] Frank Kabui: Governor. Born on April 20, 1946. Received a master’s degree in law from Papua New University. Former Solomon Islands High Court Judge and Attorney General, Chairman of the Bar Association. On July 7, 2009, he became the governor and was re-elected in May 2014.

Rick Honeypella: Prime Minister. Born on August 8, 1958. He served as the president of the Central Bank of Solomon Islands and worked at the World Bank. In August 2010, he was elected to the Solomon Islands National Assembly for the first time. He served as the Minister of Public Service, the Minister of Finance and Treasury, and the Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee. Re-elected in November 2014. In November 2017, he was elected prime minister.

[Economy] Since the independence of Solomon Islands, the economy has gradually changed from a single economy in the past to a diversified economy including agriculture, fisheries, mining, forestry, and tourism. Beef, food, and vegetables are basically self-sufficient. Affected by the Asian financial crisis, the economy was in trouble in the second half of 1997, with reduced exports, currency depreciation, and severe financial deficits. From 2003 to 2008, economic development improved, with an average annual economic growth rate of nearly 6%, which once became one of the countries with the highest economic growth rate in the Pacific island countries. Affected by the international financial crisis, the economic growth rate in 2009 fell to -2.2%. In recent years, the government has adopted a number of development measures to promote land reform, improve management methods, actively attract foreign investment, effectively control inflation, and the economy has seen a recovery momentum. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $1.3 billion.

Per capita GDP: $2,126.

Economic growth rate: 3.2%.

Currency name: Solomon Islands dollar (referred to as the yuan).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 8 yuan (December 2018).

【资源】有铝土、镍、铜、金、磷酸盐等矿藏。已探明铝土矿储量5800万吨,磷酸盐1000万吨。水利资源丰富。森林覆盖面积占陆地面积90%,约263万公顷。林木总蓄积量为1.27亿立方米,商品材蓄积量为4810万立方米。近年来,林业发展迅速,已成为主要经济支柱和出口产业。但因过度采伐,面临林业资源可能在数十年内枯竭的危险。

【工业】 有渔产品、家具、塑料、服装、木船、香料、食品和饮料厂等小工厂和采矿业。工业仅占国内生产总值的5%。

【农业】农业人口占全国人口的90%以上。农业收入占国内生产总值的60%。主要农作物是椰干、棕榈油、可可等。

【渔业】生产金枪鱼,是世界上渔业资源最丰富的国家之一,金枪鱼年捕鱼量约8万吨。海产品是第三大出口产品,主要出口到日本。2011年,所启动珊瑚礁、渔业安全计划,以有效保护海洋和渔业资源。

【旅游业】沿海地势较平坦,海水没有污染,被视为世界上最好的潜水区之一,旅游业发展潜力较大。但所基础设施落后,交通不便,社会治安较差,严重制约所旅游业发展。

【交通运输】公路:陆路交通不发达。各岛共有1900公里公路干线。

空运:除首都霍尼亚拉国际机场外,还有30多个小机场。国际航班运营商主要有巴布亚新几内亚航空公司和瑙鲁航空公司,澳大利亚航空公司与所罗门航空公司也有联营的国际航班。

水运:与澳大利亚、日本、新加坡、其他太平洋岛国及中国台湾和香港等国家和地区有海运联系。有定期的海上运输货轮通往澳大利亚、新西兰、巴新、日本、中国香港和欧洲。霍尼亚拉是主要港口。

【财政金融】财政严重依赖外援。2017年,外汇储备5.74亿美元。截至2017年11月,公共债务总额为1.12亿美元。

中央银行和开发银行为所两家大银行。另外,澳新银行、西太银行等在所设有分行。

【对外贸易】主要出口木材、椰干、鱼类、棕榈油及可可,进口交通运输工具、机械、食品、燃料、化工品等。主要贸易伙伴为中国、澳大利亚、新加坡、印度、英国等。

【外国援助】争取多边援助,强调外援使用权须由所决定。目前,澳大利亚为所最大援助国,其他主要援助方为欧盟、日本、新西兰、英国和亚洲开发银行等。

【文化教育】所罗门群岛保持美拉尼西亚的传统文化。文盲约占总人口的49%。全国有小学52所,中学20所,技术学院和示范学院各1所。中小学生占适龄儿童和少年的1/3左右。

【新闻出版】有私人经营的英文日报《所罗门星报》、《所罗门之声》。政府办的所罗门广播电台用英语和皮金语广播。

[Resources] There are mineral deposits such as bauxite, nickel, copper, gold and phosphate. The proven bauxite reserves are 58 million tons and the phosphate is 10 million tons. Rich in water resources. The forest cover area accounts for 90% of the land area, about 2.63 million hectares. The total stock of forest trees is 127 million cubic meters, and the stock of commercial materials is 48.1 million cubic meters. In recent years, forestry has developed rapidly and has become a major economic pillar and export industry. However, due to over-harvesting, there is a danger that forestry resources may be depleted within decades.

[Industrial] Small factories and mining industries such as fishery products, furniture, plastics, clothing, wooden boats, spices, food and beverage plants. Industry accounts for only 5% of GDP.

[Agriculture] The agricultural population accounts for more than 90% of the national population. Agricultural income accounts for 60% of GDP. The main crops are copra, palm oil, cocoa and the like.

[Fisheries] The production of tuna is one of the countries with the richest fishery resources in the world. The annual fishing volume of tuna is about 80,000 tons. Seafood is the third largest export product, mainly exported to Japan. In 2011, the coral reef and fishery safety plan was launched to effectively protect marine and fishery resources.

[Tourism] The coastal terrain is relatively flat and the seawater is not polluted. It is regarded as one of the best diving areas in the world, and tourism has great potential for development. However, the infrastructure is backward, the traffic is inconvenient, and the public security is poor, which seriously restricts the development of the tourism industry.

[Transportation] Highway: Land transportation is underdeveloped. There are 1900 km of main roads on each island.

Air transport: In addition to the capital Honiara International Airport, there are more than 30 small airports. International flight operators mainly include Papua New Guinea Airlines and Nauru Airlines, and Australian Airlines and Solomon Airlines also have joint international flights.

Water transport: maritime links with Australia, Japan, Singapore, other Pacific island countries, and Taiwan and Hong Kong. There are regular sea freighters leading to Australia, New Zealand, PNG, Japan, Hong Kong and Europe. Honiara is the main port.

[Financial Finance] Finance relies heavily on foreign aid. In 2017, foreign exchange reserves were 574 million US dollars. As of November 2017, total public debt was $112 million.

The Central Bank and the Development Bank are the two largest banks. In addition, ANZ Bank and Westpac Bank have branches in the company.

[Foreign Trade] Mainly exports wood, copra, fish, palm oil and cocoa, imported transportation vehicles, machinery, food, fuel, chemicals and so on. The main trading partners are China, Australia, Singapore, India, and the United Kingdom.

[Foreign Aid] Strive for multilateral assistance, emphasizing that the right to use foreign aid must be determined. At present, Australia is the largest donor country, and other major donors are the European Union, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the Asian Development Bank.

[Cultural Education] Solomon Islands maintains the traditional culture of Melanesia. Illiteracy accounts for about 49% of the total population. There are 52 primary schools, 20 middle schools, and 1 technical college and model college. Primary and secondary school students account for about one third of school-age children and adolescents.

[Press and Publication] There is a privately run English daily newspaper, “Solomon Star” and “Solomon Voice”. The government-run Solomon radio station broadcasts in English and Pikin.

【军事】所罗门群岛无军队,仅有800多名警察。由澳大利亚、新西兰及其他太平洋岛国组成的“地区驻所援助团”(RAMSI)军警部队于2003年7月进驻所首都霍尼亚拉并协助维持治安,2017年6月结束任务从所撤出。

对外关系

支持南太无核区主张,重视与英国、澳大利亚、新西兰等传统友好国家的关系,同时注重与其他太平洋岛国发展友好合作关系,积极发展同日本、欧盟、美国、古巴、伊朗、阿联酋和以色列等国家的关系。目前已同30多个国家建交(包括2010年以来新建交的塞浦路斯、阿联酋、摩洛哥等),系联合国、英联邦、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、美拉尼西亚先锋集团等国际和地区组织成员。在联合国、澳大利亚、欧盟和巴新等设有外交机构。

【同英国的关系】所罗门群岛与英国关系密切。所原是英国的殖民地,被英统治85年。1978年所独立后,政府部门的顾问等仍由英国人担任。英是所重要的援助国及贸易伙伴。2005年4月,所总督维纳访英。2006年10月,英联邦秘书长麦金农访所。2011年4月,所总督卡布伊夫妇赴英国出席威廉王子婚礼。6月,卡布伊总督夫妇赴英国出席女王登基60周年庆典活动。2012年9月,英国威廉王子夫妇访所。2013年4月,英国外交与联邦事务副大臣斯维尔访所。

【同澳大利亚、新西兰的关系】所罗门群岛与澳大利亚关系密切,澳在所经营银行、航运和锯木厂。2009年1月,澳与所签署发展伙伴计划。2012年4月,澳国防部长史密斯访所。2012年7月,所与澳签署“季节性工人计划”。2015年12月,澳国际发展与太平洋事务部部长乔博访所。新西兰对所罗门群岛也积极开展外交、贸易活动并为所提供援助。2010年2月和11月、2012年1月,新西兰外长麦卡利访所。2013年2月,新贸易部长格罗泽访所。2016年12月,澳大利亚外长毕晓普访所。2017年2月,新西兰外长麦卡利访所。6月,澳大利亚总督科斯格罗夫、新西兰副总理贝内特等赴所出席“地区驻所援助团”撤离仪式。

【同其他太平洋岛国的关系】1988年3月,所罗门群岛与巴新、斐济、瓦努阿图在瓦首都维拉港签署“美拉尼西亚国家合作原则声明”及互免签证协议。2007年3月,所总理索加瓦雷在瓦努阿图首都维拉港与瓦总理利尼、巴新总理索马雷、斐济临时政府外长奈拉蒂考签署《美拉尼西亚先锋集团宪章》。2015年6月,第20届美拉尼西亚先锋集团领导人峰会在所首都霍尼亚拉举行。2016年7月,所总理索加瓦雷接任太平洋岛国发展论坛主席;同月,第四届太平洋岛国发展论坛首脑峰会在所首都霍尼亚拉举行。

【同日本的关系】早在所罗门群岛独立前,日本就与所签订了渔业协定,合办“所罗门大洋渔业公司”。该公司的出口值占所出口总值的1/4以上。日还在所经营木材加工和伐木厂,勘探铝矾土矿,并为所提供援助、人员培训等。2012年5月,所总理利洛赴日出席第六届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议。2015年5月,所副总理埃特赴日出席第七届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议。2018年5月,所总理霍尼普韦拉赴日出席第八届日本—太平洋岛国领导人会议。

【同欧盟的关系】欧盟自1998年起共向所提供了约13亿所元的援助,主要用于救灾及实施乡村微型项目。2010年2月底至3月初,所总理西库阿访问欧盟并出席第三届所罗门群岛—欧盟对话会。目前欧盟是所第二大援助方。欧盟将通过第11期欧洲发展基金在2014—2020年向所提供4000万欧元援助。

[Military] Solomon Islands has no army and only has more than 800 police officers. The Regional Resident Assistance Mission (RAMSI) military and police force consisting of Australia, New Zealand and other Pacific island countries entered the capital of Honiara in July 2003 and assisted in maintaining law and order. The mission was withdrawn from the mission in June 2017. .

External relations

Support the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone, attach importance to relations with traditional friendly countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and focus on developing friendly and cooperative relations with other Pacific island countries, and actively develop with Japan, the European Union, the United States, Cuba, Iran, the United Arab Emirates and Israel. The relationship of the state. At present, it has established diplomatic relations with more than 30 countries (including Cyprus, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco, etc. since 2010), and is a member of international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, and the Melanesian Pioneer Group. There are diplomatic agencies in the United Nations, Australia, the European Union and PNG.

[Relationship with the United Kingdom] Solomon Islands is closely related to the United Kingdom. It was originally a British colony and was ruled by the British for 85 years. After independence in 1978, consultants from government departments were still served by the British. Britain is an important donor and trading partner. In April 2005, Governor Wiener visited the UK. In October 2006, the Commonwealth Secretary-General McKinnon visited the office. In April 2011, the Governor Kabui and his wife went to the UK to attend the wedding of Prince William. In June, the Governor of Kabui went to the UK to attend the 60th anniversary of the Queen’s accession to the throne. In September 2012, the British Prince William and his wife visited the site. In April 2013, the British Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Federal Affairs Swell visited the station.

[Relationship with Australia and New Zealand] Solomon Islands has close ties with Australia, and Australia operates banks, shipping and sawmills. In January 2009, Australia and the company signed a development partnership program. In April 2012, Australian Defense Minister Smith visited the office. In July 2012, the “Seasonal Workers Program” was signed with Australia. In December 2015, Australian Minister of International Development and Pacific Affairs visited the office. New Zealand is also active in providing diplomatic and trade activities and assistance to Solomon Islands. In February and November 2010 and January 2012, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the site. In February 2013, the new trade minister Groze visited the office. In December 2016, Australian Foreign Minister Bishop visited the site. In February 2017, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited the site. In June, Australian Governor Cosgrove and New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister Bennett attended the evacuation ceremony of the “Regional Assistance Mission”.

[Relationship with other Pacific island countries] In March 1988, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Vanuatu signed the “Merranic State Cooperation Principles Statement” and mutual visa exemption agreement in Port Vila, the capital of the country. In March 2007, Prime Minister Sogawari signed the “Melanician Pioneer Group Charter” in the port of Vaula, Vanuatu, with Prime Minister Lini, Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Somare, and Fijian Interim Government Foreign Minister Naratico. In June 2015, the 20th Melanesian Pioneer Group Leaders Summit was held in the capital of Honiara. In July 2016, Prime Minister Sogawari took over as Chairman of the Pacific Islands Development Forum; in the same month, the 4th Pacific Island Development Forum Summit was held in the capital of Honiara.

[Relationship with Japan] As early as before the independence of Solomon Islands, Japan signed a fishery agreement with the company to jointly organize the “Solomon Ocean Fisheries Company.” The company’s export value accounts for more than a quarter of the total value of exports. The company is also engaged in wood processing and logging plants, exploring bauxite mines, and providing assistance and personnel training. In May 2012, Prime Minister Lilo went to Japan to attend the 6th Japan-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In May 2015, Vice Premier Ete went to Japan to attend the 7th Japan-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting. In May 2018, Prime Minister Horniplava went to Japan to attend the 8th Japan-Pacific Island Countries Leaders Meeting.

[Relationship with the EU] Since 1998, the EU has provided about 1.3 billion yuan in aid to the disaster relief and implementation of rural micro-projects. From the end of February to the beginning of March 2010, Prime Minister Sikua visited the EU and attended the third Solomon Islands-EU dialogue. The EU is currently the second largest aid donor. The EU will provide 40 million euros in aid through the 11th European Development Fund in 2014-2020.