Republic of Yemen 也门共和国

【国 名】 也门共和国(Republic of Yemen)。

【面 积】 52.8万平方公里。

【人 口】 2758万。绝大多数是阿拉伯人,官方语言为阿拉伯语。伊斯兰教为国教,什叶派占20-25%,逊尼派占75-80%。

【首 都】 萨那(Sana’a),人口277.9万。

【国家元首】 总统:阿卜杜拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪(Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi),2012年2月21日作为唯一候选人当选。

【重要节日】 5月22日(国庆日)

【简 况】 位于阿拉伯半岛西南端。与沙特、阿曼相邻,濒红海、亚丁湾和阿拉伯海,海岸线长1906公里。境内山地和高原地区气候较温和,沙漠地区炎热干燥,年平均最高气温39℃,最低气温-8℃。

【简 史】 也门有3000多年文字记载的历史,是阿拉伯世界古代文明摇篮之一。公元前14世纪起先后建立麦因、萨巴、希米亚里特等王朝,公元575年并入波斯帝国,7世纪成为阿拉伯帝国的一部分,9世纪建立拉希德王朝,16世纪后先后遭葡萄牙、奥斯曼帝国和英国入侵与占领。1918年,建立独立王国。1934年,英国迫使王国承认英对也门南部的占领,也门被正式分割为南北两方。1962年9月,阿卜杜拉·萨拉勒为首的“自由军官”组织发动革命,推翻北部的巴德尔王朝,成立阿拉伯也门共和国。1967年,南部也门摆脱英殖民统治获得独立并成立也门民主人民共和国。1990年5月22日,北、南也门宣布统一,成立也门共和国。1994年5月,也门北南方领导人在统一等问题上矛盾激化,爆发内战。7月内战结束,也门社会党领导的南方军队失败,该党主要领导人逃亡国外。9月,议会通过宪法修正案,将总统委员会制改为总统制,10月1日萨利赫当选总统。1999年9月,萨在也门统一后的首次全民大选中当选总统。2006年9月,萨再次当选连任。

[Country name] Republic of Yemen.

[area] 528,000 square kilometers.

[People] 27.58 million. The vast majority are Arabs and the official language is Arabic. Islam is the state religion, the Shiites account for 20-25%, and the Sunnis account for 75-80%.

[The capital] Sana’a, with a population of 2.779 million.

[Head of State] President: Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi, elected as the only candidate on February 21, 2012.

[Important Festival] May 22 (National Day)

[Profile] Located at the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Adjacent to Saudi Arabia and Oman, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea have a coastline of 1,906 kilometers. The climate in the mountainous and plateau areas is mild, and the desert area is hot and dry. The annual average maximum temperature is 39 °C and the lowest temperature is -8 °C.

[History] Yemen has more than 3,000 years of written history and is one of the cradle of ancient civilizations in the Arab world. Since the 14th century BC, the dynasties of Maine, Saba, and Himiyarit have been established. They were incorporated into the Persian Empire in 575 AD, and became part of the Arab Empire in the 7th century. They established the Rashid dynasty in the 9th century and were Portugal after the 16th century. The Ottoman Empire and the British invasion and occupation. In 1918, an independent kingdom was established. In 1934, the United Kingdom forced the kingdom to recognize British occupation of southern Yemen, and Yemen was officially divided into North and South. In September 1962, the “Freedom Officer” headed by Abdullah Salal launched a revolution, overthrew the Badr dynasty in the north, and established the Arab Republic of Yemen. In 1967, Yemen in the south got rid of British colonial rule and gained independence and established the Democratic People’s Republic of Yemen. On May 22, 1990, the northern and southern Yemen announced the reunification and established the Republic of Yemen. In May 1994, the leaders of the northern and southern parts of Yemen intensified their conflicts on issues such as reunification and broke out in civil war. At the end of the civil war in July, the southern army led by the Yemeni Socialist Party failed, and the main leader of the party fled abroad. In September, the parliament passed a constitutional amendment to change the presidential committee system to a presidential system. On October 1, Saleh was elected president. In September 1999, Sa was elected president in the first national election after the reunification of Yemen. In September 2006, Sa was re-elected.

【政 治】 也门实行共和制,人民是权力的来源和主体,通过选举投票直接行使政治权利。也门的政治体制建立在政治多元化和多党制基础之上,通过大选实现政权的和平交替。自2011年初起,因受突尼斯、埃及政局剧变影响,也门发生反政府示威,要求萨利赫总统下台。后经海合会、联合国等积极斡旋,也门有关方面签署海合会倡议及其实施机制。根据协议,萨利赫将总统权限移交给副总统哈迪。2012年2月21日,也门举行总统选举,哈迪作为唯一候选人当选新一任总统。2013年3月18日,全国对话会议启动。2014年1月25日,全国对话会议闭幕并通过《成果文件》,根据各派达成的共识,过渡期延长一年。8月起,胡塞组织以反对政府提高燃油价格为由发起大规模游行示威,并于9月19日起围攻首都萨那。也门有关各派签署“民族和平伙伴协议”,总理巴森杜瓦辞职。2015年初,也门国内冲突再次升级,胡塞组织占领首都萨那并控制也门大部分地区。3月25日,哈迪被迫出逃并流亡沙特。3月26日起,沙特等10国发动“决心风暴”军事行动,对也门持续进行空袭。4月21日,沙方宣布结束“决心风暴”行动,开启“恢复希望”行动。近年来,在联军支持下,亲哈迪总统武装逐步收复了亚丁等南方部分地区。在联合国斡旋下,也门各派先后于2015年6月、12月在瑞士,2016年4月在科威特举行三轮和谈,均未达成实质成果。2018年6月13日,在联军支持下,也政府军对胡塞组织控制的西部港口城市荷台达发起代号“黄金胜利 ”的军事行动,系联军发动也门战争以来最大规模战事,也人道危机因此进一步恶化,引发国际社会高度关注。9月6日-12日,联合国推动交战双方在瑞士日内瓦举行磋商,胡塞代表团因无法解决交通安全问题最终未能参会。12月6日-13日,联合国推动交战双方在瑞典斯德哥尔摩举行和谈并成功达成《斯德哥尔摩协议》。12月21日,安理会通过第2451号涉也门问题决议,授权联合国派遣观察员工作组监督协议执行,12月23日,工作组抵达荷台达监督停火。为缓解2018年下半年以来急剧恶化的民生状况,10月15日,哈迪总统宣布免去本·达格尔的总理职务并对其进行调查,任命道路与交通部长穆因·阿卜杜勒马利克·赛义德为新总理。

【宪 法】 1989年11月30日,原北、南方领导人萨利赫和比德在亚丁签署了统一宪法草案。1991年5月,全国就统一宪法举行公民投票,98.3%的选民赞成宪法。修改后的宪法规定,伊斯兰法是也门共和国一切立法之本。2001年2月,也举行全民公决,通过了宪法修正案,将总统的任期由5年延至7年,并赋予总统解散议会的权力。

[Politics] Yemen has a republican system. The people are the source and main body of power. They exercise their political rights directly through elections. Yemen’s political system is based on political pluralism and multi-party system, and the peaceful election of political power is achieved through general elections. Since the beginning of 2011, due to the drastic changes in the political situation in Tunisia and Egypt, anti-government demonstrations in Yemen have prompted President Saleh to step down. After the active mediation of the GCC and the United Nations, the relevant parties in Yemen signed the GCC initiative and its implementation mechanism. According to the agreement, Saleh handed over the authority of the president to Vice President Hardy. On February 21, 2012, Yemen held a presidential election, and Hardy was elected as the only candidate to be elected as the new president. On March 18, 2013, the National Dialogue Conference was launched. On January 25, 2014, the National Dialogue Conference was closed and the “Outcome Document” was adopted. According to the consensus reached by the factions, the transition period was extended by one year. Since August, Houthi has launched a large-scale demonstration on the grounds of opposing the government’s increase in fuel prices, and on the 19th of September, the siege of the capital Sana’a. The relevant parties in Yemen signed the “National Peace Partnership Agreement” and Prime Minister Bassen Duva resigned. At the beginning of 2015, the internal conflict in Yemen escalated again. Hossein occupied the capital Sana’a and controlled most of Yemen. On March 25, Hardy was forced to flee and exiled in Saudi Arabia. From March 26th, Saudi Arabia and other 10 countries launched a “determined storm” military operation and continued air strikes against Yemen. On April 21, the Saudi side announced the end of the “Decision for Storm” action and launched the “Restoration of Hope” action. In recent years, with the support of the coalition forces, the pro-Hadi presidential armaments gradually recovered some parts of the south such as Aden. Under the mediation of the United Nations, the Yemeni factions held three rounds of peace talks in June and December 2015 in Switzerland and in Kuwait in April 2016. No substantive results were achieved. On June 13, 2018, with the support of the coalition forces, the government also launched a military operation codenamed “Golden Victory” against Hosoda, the western port city controlled by the Houthi organization. It was the largest warfare since the coalition launched the Yemen war, and it was also a humanitarian crisis. Further deterioration has aroused great concern from the international community. From September 6th to 12th, the United Nations promoted consultations between the two sides in Geneva, Switzerland. The delegation of Hussein was unable to attend the meeting because of the inability to solve the traffic safety problem. From December 6th to 13th, the United Nations promoted the peace talks between the two sides in Stockholm, Sweden, and successfully reached the “Stockholm Agreement.” On December 21, the Security Council adopted Resolution No. 2451 on Yemen, authorizing the United Nations to dispatch an observer working group to supervise the implementation of the agreement. On December 23, the working group arrived in Hodida to supervise the ceasefire. In order to alleviate the rapidly deteriorating livelihood situation since the second half of 2018, on 15 October, President Hardy announced that he would remove Ben Dagar’s prime minister and investigate him, appointing the Minister of Roads and Transport, Muin Abdul Malik Saeed is the new prime minister.

[Constitution] On November 30, 1989, the former North and South leaders Saleh and Bide signed a draft unified constitution in Aden. In May 1991, the country held a referendum on a unified constitution, and 98.3% of voters voted for the constitution. The revised Constitution stipulates that Islamic law is the basis of all legislation in the Republic of Yemen. In February 2001, a referendum was also held, and a constitutional amendment was passed to extend the term of the president from five years to seven years and give the president the power to dissolve the parliament.

【议会和协商会议】 议会是国家立法机构,负责制定财政预、决算和经济社会发展大纲等国家大政方针;对政府工作进行指导和监督,议员可以向正、副总理、各部正副部长提出质询;经1/3议员署名,议会可对政府提出不信任案,如获多数通过,总理须向总统提出政府辞呈;总统作出的解散议会的决定,须在30日内举行全民公决,多数赞成才能生效。2009年议会选举因各派分歧严重而延期。受局势动荡影响,2011年的议会选举未能如期举行。2019年4月13日,也门议会召开特别会议,选举全国人民大会党副总书记、议会党团主席巴尔卡尼为议长。

协商会议负责研究和讨论同国家最高利益有关的国内外重大问题,无立法权。也门统一后,萨利赫总统于1997年5月19日颁布总统令,宣布成立也门协商会议,并任命了59名委员,2001年协商会议扩大为 111人。

【政 府】 本届政府于2016年4月成立,穆因·阿卜杜勒·马利克·赛义德为总理,主要成员有副总理兼内政部长艾哈迈德·本·艾哈迈德·迈伊斯里,副总理萨利姆·艾哈迈德·赛义德·罕白希,外交部长哈立德·侯赛因·穆罕默德·耶曼尼。

【行政区划】 也门行政区划为21个省和1个直辖市:萨那、亚丁、塔兹、拉哈杰、荷台达、阿比洋、伊卜、夏卜瓦、扎马尔、哈达拉毛、哈贾、马哈拉、贝达、萨达、马哈维特、马里卜、焦夫、阿姆兰、达利阿、利马、索科特拉和萨那市。

【司法机构】 1991年7月,也门总统委员会宣布成立最高司法委员会,由1名主席和9名委员组成。主席由总统委员会主席担任。总统委员会宣布成立最高法院,设最高法院院长,第一副院长和副院长各1名、委员45名。

【政 党】 也门主要政党有:

(1)全国人民大会党:1982年8月成立,曾长期担任执政党,2011年也门政局动荡后同其他党派联合执政。

(2)伊斯兰改革集团党:成立于1990年9月,是也门统一后成立的最大反对党。2011年也门政局动荡后,伊斯兰改革集团同也门社会党等反对党组成共同会晤政党联盟。12月,反对党联盟与全人大共同组建全国和解政府联合执政。

(3)也门社会党:1978年10月成立。1990年5月,也社党同全人大合作实现了也门统一。1994年5月,两党矛盾激化,爆发内战,也社党败北,成为在野党。2011年也门政局动荡后,也社党同伊斯兰改革集团等反对党组成共同会晤政党联盟,参与联合执政。

其他政党还有纳赛尔人民统一组织、阿拉伯复兴社会党等。

[Parliament and Consultation Meeting] The parliament is the national legislature and is responsible for formulating national policies for fiscal planning, final accounts, and economic and social development outlines. For the guidance and supervision of government work, members can ask questions to the deputy prime minister and the deputy ministers. After being signed by one-third of the members, the parliament can raise a case of no-confidence to the government. If the majority is passed, the prime minister must submit a resignation to the president; the president’s decision to dissolve the parliament must be held within 30 days of the referendum, and most of the approvals will take effect. The 2009 parliamentary elections were postponed due to serious differences between the factions. Affected by the turmoil, the 2011 parliamentary elections were not held as scheduled. On April 13, 2019, the Yemeni parliament held a special meeting to elect Barkani, deputy general secretary of the National People’s Congress and chairman of the parliamentary group, as the speaker.

The consultation meeting is responsible for studying and discussing major domestic and international issues related to the highest interests of the country, without legislative power. After the reunification of Yemen, President Saleh issued a presidential decree on May 19, 1997, announcing the establishment of the Yemeni consultation meeting and appointing 59 members. The 2001 consultation meeting was expanded to 111.

[Government] The current government was established in April 2016. Muin Abdul Malik Said is the prime minister. The main members are Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Ahmed Bin Ahmed. Maiisli, Deputy Prime Minister Salim Ahmed Said Hampshire, Foreign Minister Khalid Hussein Mohamed Yemani.

[Administrative Division] Yemen’s administrative division is divided into 21 provinces and 1 municipality: Sana’a, Aden, Taz, Lahaj, Hodda, Abiyang, Ib, Shabwa, Zamal, Hadala, Hajja , Mahara, Beida, Sada, Mahawit, Malibu, Jaff, Amran, Dalya, Lima, Socotra and Sana’a.

[Judiciary] In July 1991, the Yemeni Presidential Committee announced the establishment of the Supreme Judicial Council, consisting of one chairman and nine members. The chairman is chaired by the chairman of the presidential committee. The Presidential Committee announced the establishment of the Supreme Court, the President of the Supreme Court, the first Vice President and the Vice President, each with 45 members.

[political party] The main political parties in Yemen have:

(1) National People’s Congress Party: Established in August 1982, it served as the ruling party for a long time. After the political situation in Yemen in 2011, it was jointly governed by other parties.

(2) The Islamic Reform Group Party: Established in September 1990, it is the largest opposition party established after the reunification of Yemen. After the political turmoil in Yemen in 2011, the Islamic Reform Group and the Yemeni Socialist Party and other opposition parties formed a joint meeting of political parties. In December, the opposition coalition and the National People’s Congress jointly formed a national reconciliation government.

(3) Yemen Socialist Party: Established in October 1978. In May 1990, the Socialist Party and the National People’s Congress cooperated to achieve the unification of Yemen. In May 1994, the conflict between the two parties was intensified, and a civil war broke out. The Socialist Party lost the North and became an opposition party. After the political turmoil in Yemen in 2011, the Socialist Party and the Islamic Reform Group and other opposition parties formed a joint meeting of political parties and participated in joint administration.

Other political parties include the Nasser People’s Unity Organization and the Arab Baath Socialist Party.

【重要人物】 阿卜杜拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪(Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi),1944年生于阿比洋省。曾在埃及、英国、苏联学习军事,获埃及纳赛尔高等军事学院硕士和苏联伏龙芝军事学院硕士学位。曾任南也门作战训练局局长、供应局局长、后勤事务副总参谋长等职。1986年南也门内战期间逃至北也门。1990年也门统一后任总统委员会顾问。1994年5月任国防部长,同年10月任副总统。1991年加入全国人民大会,1995年任全人大副主席,2008年任全人大副主席兼总书记。2012年2月21日作为唯一候选人当选总统。

【经 济】 也门经济落后,是世界上最不发达的国家之一。经济发展主要依赖石油出口收入。目前已探明的石油可采储量约40亿桶,已探明天然气储量18.5亿立方英尺。也门未参加任何石油组织,因而不受国际石油组织配额限制,在生产上较具自主性。政府极为重视石油的勘探和开采,通过出口石油、天然气和开放矿产资源克服经济困难。

主要经济数据(2018年):

国内生产总值(GDP):169亿美元。

人均国内生产总值:2159美元。

国内生产总值增长率:–3.6%。

货币名称:也门里亚尔(RIAL)。

汇率:1美元≈585里亚尔。

【资 源】 除石油外,也门还有铜、铁、铝、铬、镍、钴、金、银、煤、盐、大理石、硫磺、石油、天然气、石膏等。

【工 业】 也门工业不发达,有纺织、石油、化工、制铝、制革、水泥、建材、卷烟、食品及加工工业。二十世纪八十年代中期开始开采石油。

【农 业】 全国有可耕地145万公顷,已耕地面积约137万公顷。农业人口约占全国人口的71%。农产品主要有棉花、咖啡、高粱、谷子、玉米、大麦、豆类、芝麻、卡特和烟叶等。粮食不能自给,一半依靠进口,棉花和咖啡可供出口。

[Important] Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi, born in 1944 in Abbey. He studied military affairs in Egypt, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, and obtained a master’s degree from the Higher Military Academy of Nasser in Egypt and a master’s degree from the Military Academy of the Soviet Union. He served as Director of the South Yemen Combat Training Bureau, Director of the Supply Bureau, and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Logistics Department. In 1986, during the civil war in southern Yemen, he fled to North Yemen. In 1990, Yemen reunified as a consultant to the Presidential Committee. In May 1994, he served as Secretary of Defense, and in October of the same year he served as Vice President. In 1991, he joined the National People’s Congress. In 1995, he served as vice chairman of the National People’s Congress. In 2008, he served as vice chairman and general secretary of the National People’s Congress. On February 21, 2012, he was elected as the sole candidate.

[Economy] Yemen is economically backward and is one of the least developed countries in the world. Economic development relies mainly on oil export revenue. The proven oil recoverable reserves are about 4 billion barrels, and the proven natural gas reserves are 1.85 billion cubic feet. Yemen has not participated in any oil organization and is therefore not subject to international oil organization quotas and is more autonomous in production. The government attaches great importance to the exploration and exploitation of oil and overcomes economic difficulties by exporting oil, natural gas and open mineral resources.

Main economic data (2018):

Gross domestic product (GDP): $16.9 billion.

Per capita GDP: $2,159.

GDP growth rate: –3.6%.

Currency name: Yemeni Rial (RIAL).

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 585 riyals.

[Resources] In addition to oil, Yemen also has copper, iron, aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, gold, silver, coal, salt, marble, sulfur, oil, natural gas, gypsum and so on.

[Industrial] Yemen’s industry is underdeveloped, including textile, petroleum, chemical, aluminum, leather, cement, building materials, cigarettes, food and processing industries. Oil production began in the mid-1980s.

[Agriculture] There are 1.45 million hectares of arable land in the country, and the cultivated land area is about 1.37 million hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 71% of the national population. Agricultural products mainly include cotton, coffee, sorghum, millet, corn, barley, beans, sesame, cartels and tobacco. Food cannot be self-sufficient, half depends on imports, and cotton and coffee are available for export.

【交通运输】 全国无铁路。

公路:总长69263公里,其中柏油路13678公里,非柏油路55495公里。

空运:也门主要有6个国际机场,萨那、亚丁、塔兹、穆卡拉、赛永和荷台达,国内机场7个。也门航空公司是也门国家航空公司,有国内航线9条,国际航线24条。

2008年,也门航空公司和沙特伊斯兰发展公司等公司合资成立了FELIX航空公司,也航控股25%,沙方公司共占股75%,该公司经营也境内8条航线,国际5条航线。

海运:有港口7个。亚丁港是最大港口,有泊位30个,可停靠万吨级货轮;荷台达港年吞吐量150万吨;穆哈港年吞吐量35万吨。

【财政金融】 2018年实际财政赤字约10亿美元。

【对外贸易】 实行进口许可证制度。运输工具、机械设备等国内建设所需物资以及大量轻工产品均需进口。出口产品主要有石油、棉花、咖啡、烟叶、香料和海产品等。主要贸易伙伴有中国、美国、阿联酋、意大利、 沙特等。2018年对外贸易额118.38亿美元,其中出口额26.55亿美元,进口额91.83亿美元。

【人民生活】 实行免费医疗制度。全国有医院282家;设有床位的卫生中心1261家,卫生站3309家,母婴中心155家,床位175张,药房1420家。全国有出租车 92749辆、私家车287948辆,商业运输车422154辆。全国有邮局203所。也门电话线达130万条。

【军 事】 也门实行义务兵役制。兵役法规定,年满18岁的男性公民服役两年。总兵力15万人,其中正规军11万人。陆军9万人,海军2800人,有两个海军基地;空军6000人。2012年12月哈迪总统宣布军队重组方案,全国重新划分为7个军区,撤销共和国卫队番号,新成立特种作战部队。此外还有中央治安军和警察、海岸警卫队、部落武装和安全局等。也门武器装备90%以上为俄罗斯提供,少数为美国和西方国家提供。

[Transportation] There is no railway in the country.

Highway: The total length is 69,263 kilometers, including 13,678 kilometers of asphalt road and 55,495 kilometers of non-asphalt road.

Air transport: Yemen mainly has 6 international airports, Sana’a, Aden, Taz, Mukalla, Saiyong and Hodeida, and 7 domestic airports. Yemen Airlines is a national airline of Yemen with 9 domestic routes and 24 international routes.

In 2008, Yemen Airlines and Saudi Islamic Development Corporation and other companies jointly established FELIX Airlines, which also holds 25% of the shares, and Shafang Company holds a total of 75% of the shares. The company also operates 8 routes within the territory and 5 international routes.

Shipping: There are 7 ports. The port of Aden is the largest port with 30 berths and can dock 10,000-ton freighters; the annual throughput of the port is 1.5 million tons; the annual throughput of Muha port is 350,000 tons.

[Financial Finance] The actual fiscal deficit in 2018 is about $1 billion.

[Foreign Trade] Implement an import licensing system. Transportation materials, machinery and equipment, and other domestic construction materials and a large number of light industrial products are required to be imported. Export products mainly include petroleum, cotton, coffee, tobacco, spices and seafood. The main trading partners are China, the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Italy, Saudi Arabia and so on. In 2018, the volume of foreign trade was 11.838 billion US dollars, of which exports were 2.655 billion US dollars and imports were 9.183 billion US dollars.

[People’s life] Implement a free medical system. There are 282 hospitals nationwide; 1,261 health centers with beds, 3,309 health stations, 155 mother and child centers, 175 beds and 1,420 pharmacies. There are 92,749 taxis, 287,948 private cars and 422,154 commercial transport vehicles. There are 203 post offices in the country. Yemen’s telephone line reached 1.3 million.

[Military] Yemen has a compulsory military service system. The Military Service Act stipulates that male citizens who are 18 years of age or older serve for two years. The total strength is 150,000, including 110,000 regular troops. The army has 90,000 people, the navy has 2,800 people, and there are two naval bases; the Air Force has 6,000 people. In December 2012, President Hardy announced the military restructuring plan, the country was reclassified into seven military regions, the Republican Guards number was revoked, and special operations forces were newly established. In addition, there are the Central Security Army and the police, the Coast Guard, the Horde Armed Forces and Security Bureau. More than 90% of Yemen’s weapons and equipment are provided by Russia, and a few are provided by the United States and Western countries.

【文化教育】 全国中小学实行免费教育。小学实行义务教育制度,并致力于扩大基础、技术、职业教育。有小学和初中9517所(其中宗教小学、初中623所),高中3003所(其中宗教高中615所),公立大学7所,私立大学8所。萨那大学建于1970年,下设9所学院,1个语言中心,在6个地方设有分院。亚丁大学下设9所学院,是一所综合性大学。2005年3月,作为也“基础教育国家战略”的一部分,也政府启动了“发展基础教育项目”,世界银行、荷兰、英国和也门政府分别出资。

【新闻出版】 1990年也门统一后,报刊杂志出版量迅速增长,政府、各党派组织、独立人士均有出版物,还有一些专业性报纸或期刊。主要阿拉伯文报纸有:《革命报》、《共和国报》、《政治报》、《十月十四日报》、《九月二十六日报》,英文报纸有:《也门时报》、《也门邮报》和《也门观察家》。

也门通讯社(简称萨巴社)为官方通讯社。1990 年也门统一后,由原北也门萨巴通讯社(创建于1968年)和原南也门亚丁通讯社(创建于1970年)合并而成。每日用阿拉伯文和英文对外发稿。1993年 起该社实现用计算机网络收发稿件,并在美、英、埃及等9个国家和地区设有驻外记者站。萨巴社现为阿拉伯通讯联盟及不结盟通讯社成员。

萨那广播电台(国营)建于1948年,用阿拉伯语、英语广播,每天播音19小时。亚丁广播电台(国营)创建于1954年8月,用阿拉伯语广播,每天播音15小时,星期五19小时。

萨那电视台(国营),建于1975年。每日播放15小时。亚丁电视台(国营)于1964年9月建成,每日播放7-8小时。

【对外关系】 也门统一后,政府重申恪守过去南、北双方分别同各国签署的一切协议和国际条约,遵守联合国宪章和阿拉伯国家联盟宪章;奉行和平、不结盟政策;坚持睦邻友好、和平共处、不干涉内政,主张以和平方式解决国与国之间的争端与分歧。近年来,也美关系成为也外交重点,双边互访增多,美对也经济、军事援助增加。地区内,也进一步恢复和发展与海湾国家关系,致力于维护阿拉伯国家团结。也门已同100多个国家建立了外交关系。

[Cultural Education] Free education is offered in primary and secondary schools nationwide. Primary schools implement a compulsory education system and are committed to expanding basic, technical and vocational education. There are 9517 primary and junior high schools (including 623 primary schools and junior high schools), 3003 high schools (including 615 high school religious schools), 7 public universities, and 8 private universities. The University of Sana’a was founded in 1970. It has nine colleges, one language center, and branches in six places. The University of Aden has nine colleges and is a comprehensive university. In March 2005, as part of the “National Strategy for Basic Education”, the government also launched the “Development Basic Education Project”, which was funded by the World Bank, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the Yemeni government.

[Press and Publication] After the reunification of Yemen in 1990, the number of newspapers and magazines published rapidly, and the government, various party organizations, and independent people all had publications, as well as some professional newspapers or periodicals. The main Arabic newspapers are: “Revolution”, “Republic”, “Political News”, “October 14th”, “September 26th”, English newspapers: “Yemen Times”, “Yemen Post Newspaper and Yemen Observer.

The Yemen News Agency (referred to as Saba) is the official news agency. After the unification of Yemen in 1990, it was formed by the merger of the former North Yemen Saba News Agency (founded in 1968) and the former South Yemen Aden News Agency (founded in 1970). Published daily in Arabic and English. Since 1993, the agency has used computer networks to send and receive manuscripts, and has established foreign correspondents in nine countries and regions including the United States, Britain and Egypt. Saba is now a member of the Arab Communications Alliance and the Non-Aligned News Agency.

The Sana’a Radio Station (state-run) was built in 1948 and broadcast in Arabic and English, broadcasting for 19 hours a day. Aden Radio (State-run) was founded in August 1954 and broadcast in Arabic, broadcast 15 hours a day, 19 hours a Friday.

Sana TV (State-run), built in 1975. Play 15 hours a day. Aden TV (State-run) was completed in September 1964 and is broadcast 7-8 hours a day.

[External Relations] After the reunification of Yemen, the government reaffirmed its observance of all agreements and international treaties signed by the South and the North respectively with the countries, abiding by the UN Charter and the Charter of the League of Arab States; pursuing a policy of peace and non-alignment; adhering to good-neighborliness and friendship, peaceful coexistence, Do not interfere in internal affairs and advocate peaceful settlement of disputes and differences between countries. In recent years, the relationship between the United States and the United States has also become a diplomatic focus, bilateral exchanges of visits have increased, and the United States has also increased economic and military assistance. Within the region, it has further restored and developed relations with the Gulf countries and is committed to maintaining the unity of the Arab countries. Yemen has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries.