Republic of Yemen 也门共和国
【国 名】 也门共和国（Republic of Yemen）。
【面 积】 52.8万平方公里。
【人 口】 2758万。绝大多数是阿拉伯人，官方语言为阿拉伯语。伊斯兰教为国教，什叶派占20-25%，逊尼派占75-80%。
【首 都】 萨那（Sana’a），人口277.9万。
【国家元首】 总统：阿卜杜拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪（Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi），2012年2月21日作为唯一候选人当选。
【简 况】 位于阿拉伯半岛西南端。与沙特、阿曼相邻，濒红海、亚丁湾和阿拉伯海，海岸线长1906公里。境内山地和高原地区气候较温和，沙漠地区炎热干燥，年平均最高气温39℃，最低气温-8℃。
【简 史】 也门有3000多年文字记载的历史，是阿拉伯世界古代文明摇篮之一。公元前14世纪起先后建立麦因、萨巴、希米亚里特等王朝，公元575年并入波斯帝国，7世纪成为阿拉伯帝国的一部分，9世纪建立拉希德王朝，16世纪后先后遭葡萄牙、奥斯曼帝国和英国入侵与占领。1918年，建立独立王国。1934年，英国迫使王国承认英对也门南部的占领，也门被正式分割为南北两方。1962年9月，阿卜杜拉·萨拉勒为首的“自由军官”组织发动革命，推翻北部的巴德尔王朝，成立阿拉伯也门共和国。1967年，南部也门摆脱英殖民统治获得独立并成立也门民主人民共和国。1990年5月22日，北、南也门宣布统一，成立也门共和国。1994年5月，也门北南方领导人在统一等问题上矛盾激化，爆发内战。7月内战结束，也门社会党领导的南方军队失败，该党主要领导人逃亡国外。9月，议会通过宪法修正案，将总统委员会制改为总统制，10月1日萨利赫当选总统。1999年9月，萨在也门统一后的首次全民大选中当选总统。2006年9月，萨再次当选连任。
[Country name] Republic of Yemen.
[area] 528,000 square kilometers.
[People] 27.58 million. The vast majority are Arabs and the official language is Arabic. Islam is the state religion, the Shiites account for 20-25%, and the Sunnis account for 75-80%.
[The capital] Sana’a, with a population of 2.779 million.
[Head of State] President: Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi, elected as the only candidate on February 21, 2012.
[Important Festival] May 22 (National Day)
[Profile] Located at the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Adjacent to Saudi Arabia and Oman, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea have a coastline of 1,906 kilometers. The climate in the mountainous and plateau areas is mild, and the desert area is hot and dry. The annual average maximum temperature is 39 °C and the lowest temperature is -8 °C.
[History] Yemen has more than 3,000 years of written history and is one of the cradle of ancient civilizations in the Arab world. Since the 14th century BC, the dynasties of Maine, Saba, and Himiyarit have been established. They were incorporated into the Persian Empire in 575 AD, and became part of the Arab Empire in the 7th century. They established the Rashid dynasty in the 9th century and were Portugal after the 16th century. The Ottoman Empire and the British invasion and occupation. In 1918, an independent kingdom was established. In 1934, the United Kingdom forced the kingdom to recognize British occupation of southern Yemen, and Yemen was officially divided into North and South. In September 1962, the “Freedom Officer” headed by Abdullah Salal launched a revolution, overthrew the Badr dynasty in the north, and established the Arab Republic of Yemen. In 1967, Yemen in the south got rid of British colonial rule and gained independence and established the Democratic People’s Republic of Yemen. On May 22, 1990, the northern and southern Yemen announced the reunification and established the Republic of Yemen. In May 1994, the leaders of the northern and southern parts of Yemen intensified their conflicts on issues such as reunification and broke out in civil war. At the end of the civil war in July, the southern army led by the Yemeni Socialist Party failed, and the main leader of the party fled abroad. In September, the parliament passed a constitutional amendment to change the presidential committee system to a presidential system. On October 1, Saleh was elected president. In September 1999, Sa was elected president in the first national election after the reunification of Yemen. In September 2006, Sa was re-elected.
【政 治】 也门实行共和制，人民是权力的来源和主体，通过选举投票直接行使政治权利。也门的政治体制建立在政治多元化和多党制基础之上，通过大选实现政权的和平交替。自2011年初起，因受突尼斯、埃及政局剧变影响，也门发生反政府示威，要求萨利赫总统下台。后经海合会、联合国等积极斡旋，也门有关方面签署海合会倡议及其实施机制。根据协议，萨利赫将总统权限移交给副总统哈迪。2012年2月21日，也门举行总统选举，哈迪作为唯一候选人当选新一任总统。2013年3月18日，全国对话会议启动。2014年1月25日，全国对话会议闭幕并通过《成果文件》，根据各派达成的共识，过渡期延长一年。8月起，胡塞组织以反对政府提高燃油价格为由发起大规模游行示威，并于9月19日起围攻首都萨那。也门有关各派签署“民族和平伙伴协议”，总理巴森杜瓦辞职。2015年初，也门国内冲突再次升级，胡塞组织占领首都萨那并控制也门大部分地区。3月25日，哈迪被迫出逃并流亡沙特。3月26日起，沙特等10国发动“决心风暴”军事行动，对也门持续进行空袭。4月21日，沙方宣布结束“决心风暴”行动，开启“恢复希望”行动。近年来，在联军支持下，亲哈迪总统武装逐步收复了亚丁等南方部分地区。在联合国斡旋下，也门各派先后于2015年6月、12月在瑞士，2016年4月在科威特举行三轮和谈，均未达成实质成果。2018年6月13日，在联军支持下，也政府军对胡塞组织控制的西部港口城市荷台达发起代号“黄金胜利 ”的军事行动，系联军发动也门战争以来最大规模战事，也人道危机因此进一步恶化，引发国际社会高度关注。9月6日-12日，联合国推动交战双方在瑞士日内瓦举行磋商，胡塞代表团因无法解决交通安全问题最终未能参会。12月6日-13日，联合国推动交战双方在瑞典斯德哥尔摩举行和谈并成功达成《斯德哥尔摩协议》。12月21日，安理会通过第2451号涉也门问题决议，授权联合国派遣观察员工作组监督协议执行，12月23日，工作组抵达荷台达监督停火。为缓解2018年下半年以来急剧恶化的民生状况，10月15日，哈迪总统宣布免去本·达格尔的总理职务并对其进行调查，任命道路与交通部长穆因·阿卜杜勒马利克·赛义德为新总理。
【宪 法】 1989年11月30日，原北、南方领导人萨利赫和比德在亚丁签署了统一宪法草案。1991年5月，全国就统一宪法举行公民投票，98.3%的选民赞成宪法。修改后的宪法规定，伊斯兰法是也门共和国一切立法之本。2001年2月，也举行全民公决，通过了宪法修正案，将总统的任期由5年延至7年，并赋予总统解散议会的权力。
[Politics] Yemen has a republican system. The people are the source and main body of power. They exercise their political rights directly through elections. Yemen’s political system is based on political pluralism and multi-party system, and the peaceful election of political power is achieved through general elections. Since the beginning of 2011, due to the drastic changes in the political situation in Tunisia and Egypt, anti-government demonstrations in Yemen have prompted President Saleh to step down. After the active mediation of the GCC and the United Nations, the relevant parties in Yemen signed the GCC initiative and its implementation mechanism. According to the agreement, Saleh handed over the authority of the president to Vice President Hardy. On February 21, 2012, Yemen held a presidential election, and Hardy was elected as the only candidate to be elected as the new president. On March 18, 2013, the National Dialogue Conference was launched. On January 25, 2014, the National Dialogue Conference was closed and the “Outcome Document” was adopted. According to the consensus reached by the factions, the transition period was extended by one year. Since August, Houthi has launched a large-scale demonstration on the grounds of opposing the government’s increase in fuel prices, and on the 19th of September, the siege of the capital Sana’a. The relevant parties in Yemen signed the “National Peace Partnership Agreement” and Prime Minister Bassen Duva resigned. At the beginning of 2015, the internal conflict in Yemen escalated again. Hossein occupied the capital Sana’a and controlled most of Yemen. On March 25, Hardy was forced to flee and exiled in Saudi Arabia. From March 26th, Saudi Arabia and other 10 countries launched a “determined storm” military operation and continued air strikes against Yemen. On April 21, the Saudi side announced the end of the “Decision for Storm” action and launched the “Restoration of Hope” action. In recent years, with the support of the coalition forces, the pro-Hadi presidential armaments gradually recovered some parts of the south such as Aden. Under the mediation of the United Nations, the Yemeni factions held three rounds of peace talks in June and December 2015 in Switzerland and in Kuwait in April 2016. No substantive results were achieved. On June 13, 2018, with the support of the coalition forces, the government also launched a military operation codenamed “Golden Victory” against Hosoda, the western port city controlled by the Houthi organization. It was the largest warfare since the coalition launched the Yemen war, and it was also a humanitarian crisis. Further deterioration has aroused great concern from the international community. From September 6th to 12th, the United Nations promoted consultations between the two sides in Geneva, Switzerland. The delegation of Hussein was unable to attend the meeting because of the inability to solve the traffic safety problem. From December 6th to 13th, the United Nations promoted the peace talks between the two sides in Stockholm, Sweden, and successfully reached the “Stockholm Agreement.” On December 21, the Security Council adopted Resolution No. 2451 on Yemen, authorizing the United Nations to dispatch an observer working group to supervise the implementation of the agreement. On December 23, the working group arrived in Hodida to supervise the ceasefire. In order to alleviate the rapidly deteriorating livelihood situation since the second half of 2018, on 15 October, President Hardy announced that he would remove Ben Dagar’s prime minister and investigate him, appointing the Minister of Roads and Transport, Muin Abdul Malik Saeed is the new prime minister.
[Constitution] On November 30, 1989, the former North and South leaders Saleh and Bide signed a draft unified constitution in Aden. In May 1991, the country held a referendum on a unified constitution, and 98.3% of voters voted for the constitution. The revised Constitution stipulates that Islamic law is the basis of all legislation in the Republic of Yemen. In February 2001, a referendum was also held, and a constitutional amendment was passed to extend the term of the president from five years to seven years and give the president the power to dissolve the parliament.
【政 府】 本届政府于2016年4月成立，穆因·阿卜杜勒·马利克·赛义德为总理，主要成员有副总理兼内政部长艾哈迈德·本·艾哈迈德·迈伊斯里，副总理萨利姆·艾哈迈德·赛义德·罕白希，外交部长哈立德·侯赛因·穆罕默德·耶曼尼。
【政 党】 也门主要政党有：
[Parliament and Consultation Meeting] The parliament is the national legislature and is responsible for formulating national policies for fiscal planning, final accounts, and economic and social development outlines. For the guidance and supervision of government work, members can ask questions to the deputy prime minister and the deputy ministers. After being signed by one-third of the members, the parliament can raise a case of no-confidence to the government. If the majority is passed, the prime minister must submit a resignation to the president; the president’s decision to dissolve the parliament must be held within 30 days of the referendum, and most of the approvals will take effect. The 2009 parliamentary elections were postponed due to serious differences between the factions. Affected by the turmoil, the 2011 parliamentary elections were not held as scheduled. On April 13, 2019, the Yemeni parliament held a special meeting to elect Barkani, deputy general secretary of the National People’s Congress and chairman of the parliamentary group, as the speaker.
The consultation meeting is responsible for studying and discussing major domestic and international issues related to the highest interests of the country, without legislative power. After the reunification of Yemen, President Saleh issued a presidential decree on May 19, 1997, announcing the establishment of the Yemeni consultation meeting and appointing 59 members. The 2001 consultation meeting was expanded to 111.
[Government] The current government was established in April 2016. Muin Abdul Malik Said is the prime minister. The main members are Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior Ahmed Bin Ahmed. Maiisli, Deputy Prime Minister Salim Ahmed Said Hampshire, Foreign Minister Khalid Hussein Mohamed Yemani.
[Administrative Division] Yemen’s administrative division is divided into 21 provinces and 1 municipality: Sana’a, Aden, Taz, Lahaj, Hodda, Abiyang, Ib, Shabwa, Zamal, Hadala, Hajja , Mahara, Beida, Sada, Mahawit, Malibu, Jaff, Amran, Dalya, Lima, Socotra and Sana’a.
[Judiciary] In July 1991, the Yemeni Presidential Committee announced the establishment of the Supreme Judicial Council, consisting of one chairman and nine members. The chairman is chaired by the chairman of the presidential committee. The Presidential Committee announced the establishment of the Supreme Court, the President of the Supreme Court, the first Vice President and the Vice President, each with 45 members.
[political party] The main political parties in Yemen have:
(1) National People’s Congress Party: Established in August 1982, it served as the ruling party for a long time. After the political situation in Yemen in 2011, it was jointly governed by other parties.
(2) The Islamic Reform Group Party: Established in September 1990, it is the largest opposition party established after the reunification of Yemen. After the political turmoil in Yemen in 2011, the Islamic Reform Group and the Yemeni Socialist Party and other opposition parties formed a joint meeting of political parties. In December, the opposition coalition and the National People’s Congress jointly formed a national reconciliation government.
(3) Yemen Socialist Party: Established in October 1978. In May 1990, the Socialist Party and the National People’s Congress cooperated to achieve the unification of Yemen. In May 1994, the conflict between the two parties was intensified, and a civil war broke out. The Socialist Party lost the North and became an opposition party. After the political turmoil in Yemen in 2011, the Socialist Party and the Islamic Reform Group and other opposition parties formed a joint meeting of political parties and participated in joint administration.
Other political parties include the Nasser People’s Unity Organization and the Arab Baath Socialist Party.
【重要人物】 阿卜杜拉布·曼苏尔·哈迪（Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi），1944年生于阿比洋省。曾在埃及、英国、苏联学习军事，获埃及纳赛尔高等军事学院硕士和苏联伏龙芝军事学院硕士学位。曾任南也门作战训练局局长、供应局局长、后勤事务副总参谋长等职。1986年南也门内战期间逃至北也门。1990年也门统一后任总统委员会顾问。1994年5月任国防部长，同年10月任副总统。1991年加入全国人民大会，1995年任全人大副主席，2008年任全人大副主席兼总书记。2012年2月21日作为唯一候选人当选总统。
【经 济】 也门经济落后，是世界上最不发达的国家之一。经济发展主要依赖石油出口收入。目前已探明的石油可采储量约40亿桶，已探明天然气储量18.5亿立方英尺。也门未参加任何石油组织，因而不受国际石油组织配额限制，在生产上较具自主性。政府极为重视石油的勘探和开采，通过出口石油、天然气和开放矿产资源克服经济困难。
【资 源】 除石油外，也门还有铜、铁、铝、铬、镍、钴、金、银、煤、盐、大理石、硫磺、石油、天然气、石膏等。
【工 业】 也门工业不发达，有纺织、石油、化工、制铝、制革、水泥、建材、卷烟、食品及加工工业。二十世纪八十年代中期开始开采石油。
【农 业】 全国有可耕地145万公顷，已耕地面积约137万公顷。农业人口约占全国人口的71%。农产品主要有棉花、咖啡、高粱、谷子、玉米、大麦、豆类、芝麻、卡特和烟叶等。粮食不能自给，一半依靠进口，棉花和咖啡可供出口。
[Important] Abdu-Rabbuh Mansour Hadi, born in 1944 in Abbey. He studied military affairs in Egypt, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, and obtained a master’s degree from the Higher Military Academy of Nasser in Egypt and a master’s degree from the Military Academy of the Soviet Union. He served as Director of the South Yemen Combat Training Bureau, Director of the Supply Bureau, and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Logistics Department. In 1986, during the civil war in southern Yemen, he fled to North Yemen. In 1990, Yemen reunified as a consultant to the Presidential Committee. In May 1994, he served as Secretary of Defense, and in October of the same year he served as Vice President. In 1991, he joined the National People’s Congress. In 1995, he served as vice chairman of the National People’s Congress. In 2008, he served as vice chairman and general secretary of the National People’s Congress. On February 21, 2012, he was elected as the sole candidate.
[Economy] Yemen is economically backward and is one of the least developed countries in the world. Economic development relies mainly on oil export revenue. The proven oil recoverable reserves are about 4 billion barrels, and the proven natural gas reserves are 1.85 billion cubic feet. Yemen has not participated in any oil organization and is therefore not subject to international oil organization quotas and is more autonomous in production. The government attaches great importance to the exploration and exploitation of oil and overcomes economic difficulties by exporting oil, natural gas and open mineral resources.
Main economic data (2018):
Gross domestic product (GDP): $16.9 billion.
Per capita GDP: $2,159.
GDP growth rate: –3.6%.
Currency name: Yemeni Rial (RIAL).
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 585 riyals.
[Resources] In addition to oil, Yemen also has copper, iron, aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, gold, silver, coal, salt, marble, sulfur, oil, natural gas, gypsum and so on.
[Industrial] Yemen’s industry is underdeveloped, including textile, petroleum, chemical, aluminum, leather, cement, building materials, cigarettes, food and processing industries. Oil production began in the mid-1980s.
[Agriculture] There are 1.45 million hectares of arable land in the country, and the cultivated land area is about 1.37 million hectares. The agricultural population accounts for about 71% of the national population. Agricultural products mainly include cotton, coffee, sorghum, millet, corn, barley, beans, sesame, cartels and tobacco. Food cannot be self-sufficient, half depends on imports, and cotton and coffee are available for export.
【对外贸易】 实行进口许可证制度。运输工具、机械设备等国内建设所需物资以及大量轻工产品均需进口。出口产品主要有石油、棉花、咖啡、烟叶、香料和海产品等。主要贸易伙伴有中国、美国、阿联酋、意大利、 沙特等。2018年对外贸易额118.38亿美元，其中出口额26.55亿美元，进口额91.83亿美元。
【人民生活】 实行免费医疗制度。全国有医院282家；设有床位的卫生中心1261家，卫生站3309家，母婴中心155家，床位175张，药房1420家。全国有出租车 92749辆、私家车287948辆，商业运输车422154辆。全国有邮局203所。也门电话线达130万条。
【军 事】 也门实行义务兵役制。兵役法规定，年满18岁的男性公民服役两年。总兵力15万人，其中正规军11万人。陆军9万人，海军2800人，有两个海军基地；空军6000人。2012年12月哈迪总统宣布军队重组方案，全国重新划分为7个军区，撤销共和国卫队番号，新成立特种作战部队。此外还有中央治安军和警察、海岸警卫队、部落武装和安全局等。也门武器装备90%以上为俄罗斯提供，少数为美国和西方国家提供。
[Transportation] There is no railway in the country.
Highway: The total length is 69,263 kilometers, including 13,678 kilometers of asphalt road and 55,495 kilometers of non-asphalt road.
Air transport: Yemen mainly has 6 international airports, Sana’a, Aden, Taz, Mukalla, Saiyong and Hodeida, and 7 domestic airports. Yemen Airlines is a national airline of Yemen with 9 domestic routes and 24 international routes.
In 2008, Yemen Airlines and Saudi Islamic Development Corporation and other companies jointly established FELIX Airlines, which also holds 25% of the shares, and Shafang Company holds a total of 75% of the shares. The company also operates 8 routes within the territory and 5 international routes.
Shipping: There are 7 ports. The port of Aden is the largest port with 30 berths and can dock 10,000-ton freighters; the annual throughput of the port is 1.5 million tons; the annual throughput of Muha port is 350,000 tons.
[Financial Finance] The actual fiscal deficit in 2018 is about $1 billion.
[Foreign Trade] Implement an import licensing system. Transportation materials, machinery and equipment, and other domestic construction materials and a large number of light industrial products are required to be imported. Export products mainly include petroleum, cotton, coffee, tobacco, spices and seafood. The main trading partners are China, the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Italy, Saudi Arabia and so on. In 2018, the volume of foreign trade was 11.838 billion US dollars, of which exports were 2.655 billion US dollars and imports were 9.183 billion US dollars.
[People’s life] Implement a free medical system. There are 282 hospitals nationwide; 1,261 health centers with beds, 3,309 health stations, 155 mother and child centers, 175 beds and 1,420 pharmacies. There are 92,749 taxis, 287,948 private cars and 422,154 commercial transport vehicles. There are 203 post offices in the country. Yemen’s telephone line reached 1.3 million.
[Military] Yemen has a compulsory military service system. The Military Service Act stipulates that male citizens who are 18 years of age or older serve for two years. The total strength is 150,000, including 110,000 regular troops. The army has 90,000 people, the navy has 2,800 people, and there are two naval bases; the Air Force has 6,000 people. In December 2012, President Hardy announced the military restructuring plan, the country was reclassified into seven military regions, the Republican Guards number was revoked, and special operations forces were newly established. In addition, there are the Central Security Army and the police, the Coast Guard, the Horde Armed Forces and Security Bureau. More than 90% of Yemen’s weapons and equipment are provided by Russia, and a few are provided by the United States and Western countries.
也门通讯社（简称萨巴社）为官方通讯社。1990 年也门统一后，由原北也门萨巴通讯社（创建于1968年）和原南也门亚丁通讯社（创建于1970年）合并而成。每日用阿拉伯文和英文对外发稿。1993年 起该社实现用计算机网络收发稿件，并在美、英、埃及等9个国家和地区设有驻外记者站。萨巴社现为阿拉伯通讯联盟及不结盟通讯社成员。
[Cultural Education] Free education is offered in primary and secondary schools nationwide. Primary schools implement a compulsory education system and are committed to expanding basic, technical and vocational education. There are 9517 primary and junior high schools (including 623 primary schools and junior high schools), 3003 high schools (including 615 high school religious schools), 7 public universities, and 8 private universities. The University of Sana’a was founded in 1970. It has nine colleges, one language center, and branches in six places. The University of Aden has nine colleges and is a comprehensive university. In March 2005, as part of the “National Strategy for Basic Education”, the government also launched the “Development Basic Education Project”, which was funded by the World Bank, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the Yemeni government.
[Press and Publication] After the reunification of Yemen in 1990, the number of newspapers and magazines published rapidly, and the government, various party organizations, and independent people all had publications, as well as some professional newspapers or periodicals. The main Arabic newspapers are: “Revolution”, “Republic”, “Political News”, “October 14th”, “September 26th”, English newspapers: “Yemen Times”, “Yemen Post Newspaper and Yemen Observer.
The Yemen News Agency (referred to as Saba) is the official news agency. After the unification of Yemen in 1990, it was formed by the merger of the former North Yemen Saba News Agency (founded in 1968) and the former South Yemen Aden News Agency (founded in 1970). Published daily in Arabic and English. Since 1993, the agency has used computer networks to send and receive manuscripts, and has established foreign correspondents in nine countries and regions including the United States, Britain and Egypt. Saba is now a member of the Arab Communications Alliance and the Non-Aligned News Agency.
The Sana’a Radio Station (state-run) was built in 1948 and broadcast in Arabic and English, broadcasting for 19 hours a day. Aden Radio (State-run) was founded in August 1954 and broadcast in Arabic, broadcast 15 hours a day, 19 hours a Friday.
Sana TV (State-run), built in 1975. Play 15 hours a day. Aden TV (State-run) was completed in September 1964 and is broadcast 7-8 hours a day.
[External Relations] After the reunification of Yemen, the government reaffirmed its observance of all agreements and international treaties signed by the South and the North respectively with the countries, abiding by the UN Charter and the Charter of the League of Arab States; pursuing a policy of peace and non-alignment; adhering to good-neighborliness and friendship, peaceful coexistence, Do not interfere in internal affairs and advocate peaceful settlement of disputes and differences between countries. In recent years, the relationship between the United States and the United States has also become a diplomatic focus, bilateral exchanges of visits have increased, and the United States has also increased economic and military assistance. Within the region, it has further restored and developed relations with the Gulf countries and is committed to maintaining the unity of the Arab countries. Yemen has established diplomatic relations with more than 100 countries.