Republic of Turkey 土耳其共和国

【国 名】土耳其共和国(Republic of Turkey)。

【面 积】78.36万平方公里,其中97%位于亚洲的小亚细亚半岛,3%位于欧洲的巴尔干半岛。

【人 口】8200万(2018年),土耳其族占80%以上,库尔德族约占15%。土耳其语为国语。99%的居民信奉伊斯兰教,其中85%属逊尼派,其余为什叶派(阿拉维派);少数人信仰基督教和犹太教。

【首 都】安卡拉(Ankara),人口535万,年最高气温30℃,最低气温-6℃。

【政 体】总统制共和政体。

【货 币】土耳其里拉(Turkish Lira),1里拉约合1.2人民币。

【国家元首】总统雷杰普•塔伊普•埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan),2014年8月通过全民直选当选土耳其总统。2018年6月24日连任,7月9日就职。

【主要节日】新年:1月1日;国家主权和儿童日:4月23日;青年和体育节:5月19日;胜利日:8月30日;共和国成立日:10月29日。

【简 况】地跨亚、欧两洲,邻格鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆、伊朗、伊拉克、叙利亚、希腊和保加利亚,濒地中海、爱琴海、马尔马拉海和黑海。海岸线长7200公里,陆地边境线长2648公里。南部沿海地区属亚热带地中海式气候,内陆为大陆型气候。

土耳其人史称突厥,8世纪起由阿尔泰山一带迁入小亚细亚,13世纪末建立奥斯曼帝国,16世纪达到鼎盛期,20世纪初沦为英、法、德等国的半殖民地。1919年,凯末尔领导民族解放战争反抗侵略并取得胜利,1923年10月29日建立土耳其共和国,凯末尔当选首任总统。

[Country name] Republic of Turkey.

[Dimensions] 783,600 square kilometers, of which 97% are located in Asia’s Asia Minor Peninsula and 3% in Europe’s Balkans.

[People] 82 million (2018), the Turks account for more than 80%, and the Kurds account for about 15%. Turkish is the national language. 99% of the residents believe in Islam, 85% of whom are Sunni, the rest are Shia (Alawite); a few believe in Christianity and Judaism.

[The capital] Ankara has a population of 5.35 million, with an annual maximum temperature of 30 ° C and a minimum temperature of -6 ° C.

[Government] The presidential system of republican government.

[Currency] Turkish Lira, 1 lira is about 1.2 yuan.

[Head of State] President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who was elected President of Turkey through direct elections in August 2014. Re-elected on June 24, 2018, and took office on July 9.

[Main Festival] New Year: January 1; National Sovereignty and Children’s Day: April 23; Youth and Sports Festival: May 19; Victory Day: August 30; Republic’s Inauguration Day: October 29.

[Brief] across the Asian and European continents, neighboring Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Greece and Bulgaria, the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. The coastline is 7,200 kilometers long and the land border is 2,648 kilometers long. The southern coastal region has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with a continental climate.

The history of the Turks was called Turkic. It moved from the Altai Mountains to Asia Minor in the 8th century. It established the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 13th century. It reached its peak in the 16th century. In the early 20th century, it became a semi-colonial country of Britain, France and Germany. In 1919, Kemal led the national liberation war against aggression and won. On October 29, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was established and Kemal was elected as the first president.

【政 治】2002年11月至2015年6月,正义与发展党(以下简称“正发党”)在土连续单独执政,政绩较为突出,执政地位相对稳固。2015年6月,土举行议会选举,正发党赢得40.8%的选票,连续第四次成为议会第一大党,但因议席未过半数,失去单独执政地位,该党主席达乌特奥卢组建跨党派联合政府失败。11月,土再次举行议会选举,正发党以49.5%的得票率成功获得过半议席,重新获得单独执政权。该党主席达乌特奥卢组建新内阁并于11月30日顺利通过议会信任投票。2016年5月22日,正发党召开特别大会,选举产生新任党主席耶尔德勒姆,总统埃尔多安授权耶尔德勒姆组阁。5月29日,新内阁通过议会信任投票正式就任。2016年7月15日,土发生未遂军事政变,后迅速被土政府挫败,土社会基本恢复稳定。2017年4月16日,土耳其修宪公投获得通过,根据宪法修正案,土将改行总统制,允许总统兼任政党职务,废除总理一职。2017年5月21日,正发党召开特别大会,埃尔多安总统重新当选党主席。2018年6月24日,土同时进行总统选举和议会选举。埃尔多安赢得52.59%的选票,成功连任总统。正发党与民族行动党组成的“人民联盟”赢得53.66%的选票,占据议会多数。7月9日,埃尔多安总统举行就职典礼,任命副总统和政府各部部长,土正式实行总统制新政体。

【宪 法】现行宪法于1982年11月7日生效,是土第3部宪法。宪法规定:土为民族、民主、政教分离和实行法制的国家。

【议 会】全称为土耳其大国民议会,是土最高立法机构。共设600个议席,议员根据各省人口比例经选举产生,任期5年。实行普遍直接选举制,18岁以上公民享有选举权和被选举权。只有超过全国选票10%的政党或政党联盟才可拥有议会席位。本届议会于2018年7月产生,是土第27届议会。

【政府】又称部长会议。2018年7月9日,土成立总统制改革后首任政府,为土第66届政府。共有16个部门,包括外交部、内政部、司法部、国防部、教育部等。

【行政区划】土耳其行政区划等级为省、县、乡、村。全国共分为81个省。

【司法机构】中央一级的法院有宪法法院、上诉法院、行政事务法院、审计法院等。

【重要人物】雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安:总统。1954年生于伊斯坦布尔,毕业于马尔马拉大学经贸学院。曾任美德党伊斯坦布尔党部主席。1994年3月,当选伊斯坦布尔市市长。2001年8月,创建正义与发展党并任主席。2002年11月,正义与发展党赢得议会选举。2003年3月,埃出任总理。2007年和2011年两度连任。2014年8月,当选土第12任总统。2018年6月,连任土耳其总统。2018年7月9日正式就职。已婚,有二子二女。

福阿特·奥克塔伊:副总统。1964年生于约兹加特。毕业于屈库奥瓦大学管理学专业,在底特律韦恩州立大学获制造工程和管理学硕士及产业工程学博士学位。航空和汽车领域专家,先后在福特、通用、克莱斯勒等多家企业任职。2008年至2012年,任土耳其航空公司主管战略规划和事业发展事务的副总经理。2012年至2016年任总理府灾害应急管理署署长。2016年至2018年任总理府办公厅主任,兼任土耳其航空公司董事会成员、土耳其电信公司董事会副主席。2018年7月出任副总统。已婚,有三个子女,懂英语。

穆斯塔法·申托普:议长。1968年生于泰基尔达省。本科毕业于伊斯坦布尔大学法学院,硕士和博士毕业于马尔马拉大学公共法专业,先后任马尔马拉大学研究员、副教授、教授等职。2012年至2015年任正发党副主席,2018年7月至2019年2月任土大国民议会副议长。系第24、25、26、27届大国民议会议员,第26届大国民议会宪法委员会主席。2019年2月,当选土大国民议会议长。已婚,有四个子女。精通英语、阿拉伯语。

[Politics] From November 2002 to June 2015, the Justice and Development Party (hereinafter referred to as the “Zhengfa Party”) continued to be in power alone, with outstanding political achievements and relatively stable ruling status. In June 2015, the soil held parliamentary elections, the DF was winning 40.8% of the votes, and for the fourth time in a row it became the largest party in the parliament. However, due to the fact that no more than half of the seats were lost, the party’s chairman, Davutoglu, lost its sole ruling status. The formation of a cross-party coalition government failed. In November, the soil held parliamentary elections again. The Orthodox Party successfully won more than half of the seats with a vote of 49.5% and regained the sole ruling power. The party’s chairman, Davutoglu, formed a new cabinet and successfully passed the parliamentary vote of confidence on November 30. On May 22, 2016, the Orthodox Party held an extraordinary meeting to elect the new party chairman Yildirim, and President Erdogan authorized Yildirim to form a cabinet. On May 29, the new cabinet officially took office through the confidence vote of the parliament. On July 15, 2016, an attempted military coup took place in the soil, and was quickly defeated by the Turkish government. The soil society basically returned to stability. On April 16, 2017, the Turkish constitutional referendum was passed. According to the constitutional amendment, the Turkish government will change its presidential system, allowing the president to serve as a political party and abolish the post of prime minister. On May 21, 2017, the Orthodox Party held an extraordinary meeting and President Erdogan was re-elected as the party chairman. On June 24, 2018, Turkey held presidential and parliamentary elections simultaneously. Erdogan won 52.59% of the votes and was re-elected as president. The “People’s Union” formed by the Orthodox Party and the National Action Party won 53.66% of the votes and occupied the majority of the parliament. On July 9, President Erdogan held an inauguration ceremony, appointing the vice president and ministers of the government, and formally implementing a new presidential system.

[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on November 7, 1982, and it is the third constitution of the soil. The Constitution stipulates that the country is a country where the nation, democracy, separation of government and religion, and the implementation of the legal system.

[Meetings] Fully known as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, it is the highest legislative body in the country. A total of 600 seats are set up. Members are elected according to the proportion of the population of each province for a term of five years. A universal direct election system is in place, and citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote and to be elected. Only political parties or political party coalitions that exceed 10% of the national ballots can have seats in the parliament. The current parliament was produced in July 2018 and is the 27th parliament of the soil.

[Government] Also known as the Council of Ministers. On July 9, 2018, the first government after the establishment of the presidential system was the 66th government. There are 16 departments, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of National Defense, and the Ministry of Education.

[Administrative Division] The administrative division of Turkey is classified into provinces, counties, townships and villages. The country is divided into 81 provinces.

[Judiciary] The courts at the central level include the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal, the Administrative Court, and the Court of Audit.

[Important] Recep Tayyip Erdogan: President. Born in Istanbul in 1954, graduated from the Marmara University School of Economics and Trade. Former chairman of the Istanbul Party of the Virtue Party. In March 1994, he was elected mayor of Istanbul. In August 2001, the Justice and Development Party was established as the chairman. In November 2002, the Justice and Development Party won parliamentary elections. In March 2003, Egypt became prime minister. Re-elected twice in 2007 and 2011. In August 2014, he was elected the 12th president of the soil. In June 2018, he was re-elected as President of Turkey. Formally inaugurated on July 9, 2018. Married, there are two sons and two women.

Fuate Oktay: Vice President. Born in Yozgat in 1964. He graduated from the University of Qukuova with a degree in Management and holds a Master’s degree in Manufacturing Engineering and Management and a Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from Wayne State University in Detroit. Experts in the aviation and automotive fields have worked in Ford, GM, Chrysler and many other companies. From 2008 to 2012, he served as Deputy General Manager of Strategic Planning and Career Development for Turkish Airlines. From 2012 to 2016, he served as Director of the Disaster Emergency Management Department of the Prime Minister’s Office. From 2016 to 2018, he served as the director of the Office of the Prime Minister’s Office, and also served as a member of the board of directors of Turkish Airlines and the vice chairman of the board of the Turkish telecommunications company. In July 2018, he became the vice president. Married, with three children, knows English.

Mustafa Shentop: Speaker. Born in 1968 in the province of Tekirdag. He graduated from the Faculty of Law of Istanbul University. He holds a master’s degree and a doctoral degree in public law from Marmara University. He has served as a researcher, associate professor and professor at Marmara University. From 2012 to 2015, he served as the vice chairman of the Zhengfa Party. From July 2018 to February 2019, he served as deputy speaker of the National Assembly of the National University of Turkmenistan. He is a member of the 24th, 25th, 26th and 27th National Congress and the chairman of the Constitutional Committee of the 26th Grand National Assembly. In February 2019, he was elected president of the National Assembly. Married with four children. Proficient in English and Arabic.

【经 济】上世纪80年代实行对外开放政策以来,土经济实现跨越式发展,由经济基础较为落后的传统农业国向现代化的工业国快速转变。自2002年正发党上台以来,土加大基础设施建设投入,不断改善投资环境以吸引外资,大力发展对外贸易,经济建设取得较大成就。2003年至2015年,土经济总量从3049亿美元增长至7200亿美元;人均国民收入从4559美元增至9261美元。2018年土国内生产总值7840亿美元,同比增长2.6%,人均国民生产总值9632美元。

【资 源】矿产资源丰富,主要有花岗石、大理石、硼矿、铬、钍和煤等,总值超过2万亿美元。其中,花岗石和大理石储量占世界40%,品种数量均居世界第一。三氧化二硼储量7000万吨,价值3560亿美元;钍储量占全球总储量的22%;铬矿储量1亿吨,居世界前列。此外,黄金、白银、煤储量分别为516吨、1100吨和155亿吨。石油、天然气资源匮乏,需大量进口。水资源短缺,人均拥水量只有1430立方米。

【工 业】工业基础好,主要有食品加工、纺织、汽车、采矿、钢铁、石油、建筑、木材和造纸等产业。

【农 业】农业基础较好,主要农产品有烟草、棉花、稻谷、橄榄、甜菜、甘橘、牲畜等。粮棉果蔬肉等主要农副产品基本实现自给自足,粮食自给率98.8%。近年来,农业机械化程度提高,机耕面积不断扩大。木材加工业发达。森林面积22万平方公里。

【旅游业】旅游业是土外汇收入重要来源之一。2018年外国游客总数达4611万人次,旅游收入295亿美元。主要旅游城市有:伊斯坦布尔、伊兹密尔、安塔利亚、布尔萨等。特洛伊、以弗所等古城遗址和卡帕多西亚、棉花堡是主要风景名胜地。

【财政金融】土金融市场虽受欧债危机冲击,但得益于实体经济快速增长,金融市场总体保持稳定。

【对外贸易】随着国民经济的快速发展,对外贸易总值和数量不断增加。主要进口商品为原油、天然气、化工产品、机械设备、钢铁等,主要出口产品是农产品、食品、纺织品、服装、金属产品、车辆及零配件等。近年来,钢铁、汽车、家电及机械产品等逐步进入国际市场。2017年外贸总额3908亿美元,其中进口2338亿美元,出口1570亿美元。

【军 事】1921年,凯末尔创建国民军。1952年,土加入北约。土武装部队包括陆军、海军(包括海军航空兵和海军陆战队)、空军、海岸警卫队和宪兵。总统是武装部队最高统帅。最高军事委员会是武装部队内部事务最高决策机构。总参谋部是武装部队的最高作战指挥机构。国家安全委员会是最高国防决策机构。国防部是同总参谋部进行合作的最高行政机构。实行义务兵役制,服役年龄为21岁,服役期限6-12个月。2018年8月起,土开始实行有偿免除兵役制度,1994年1月1日前出生者可通过缴纳1.5万里拉免除兵役,仅需接受21天基础培训。实行军队职业化措施,精减指挥机关人员,技术军人文职化,实行军官和技术军人合同制等。

土现役正规军总兵力64.7万。北约在土设有东南欧盟军司令部、战术空军司令部。美国在土设有16个军事基地和设施。土在塞浦路斯土族地区有3万人的驻军。

[Economics] Since the implementation of the policy of opening to the outside world in the 1980s, the local economy has achieved leap-forward development, with a rapid transition from a traditional agricultural country with a relatively backward economic base to a modern industrial country. Since the party was in power in 2002, the construction of infrastructure construction in the country has been continuously improved, the investment environment has been continuously improved to attract foreign investment, foreign trade has been vigorously developed, and economic construction has made great achievements. From 2003 to 2015, the total economic volume of the earth increased from 304.9 billion US dollars to 720 billion US dollars; the per capita national income increased from 4559 US dollars to 9261 US dollars. In 2018, the GDP of the country was 784 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 2.6%, and the per capita GDP was 9,632 US dollars.

[Resources] Rich in mineral resources, mainly including granite, marble, boron ore, chromium, antimony and coal, with a total value of more than 2 trillion US dollars. Among them, granite and marble reserves account for 40% of the world, and the number of varieties ranks first in the world. The reserves of boron trioxide are 70 million tons, valued at 356 billion US dollars; the reserves of germanium account for 22% of the world’s total reserves; the reserves of chromium ore are 100 million tons, ranking the world’s forefront. In addition, gold, silver and coal reserves were 516 tons, 1,100 tons and 15.5 billion tons respectively. Oil and natural gas resources are scarce and require a large amount of imports. Water shortages, per capita water holdings only 1430 cubic meters.

[Industrial] Good industrial base, mainly in food processing, textile, automotive, mining, steel, petroleum, construction, wood and paper industries.

[Agriculture] The agricultural base is good. The main agricultural products are tobacco, cotton, rice, olives, beets, sweet oranges and livestock. The main agricultural and sideline products such as grain, cotton, fruit and vegetable are basically self-sufficient, and the food self-sufficiency rate is 98.8%. In recent years, the degree of mechanization of agriculture has increased, and the area of ​​machine farming has continued to expand. The wood processing industry is well developed. The forest area is 220,000 square kilometers.

[Tourism] Tourism is one of the important sources of foreign exchange earnings. In 2018, the total number of foreign tourists reached 46.11 million, and the tourism income was 29.5 billion US dollars. The main tourist cities are: Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Bursa and so on. The ancient city sites such as Troy and Ephesus and Cappadocia and Pamukkale are the main scenic spots.

[Financial Finance] Although the land financial market was affected by the European debt crisis, it benefited from the rapid growth of the real economy, and the financial market remained generally stable.

[Foreign Trade] With the rapid development of the national economy, the total value and quantity of foreign trade has been increasing. The main imported commodities are crude oil, natural gas, chemical products, machinery and equipment, steel, etc. The main export products are agricultural products, food, textiles, clothing, metal products, vehicles and spare parts. In recent years, steel, automobiles, home appliances and machinery products have gradually entered the international market. In 2017, the total foreign trade volume was 390.8 billion US dollars, of which imports were 233.8 billion US dollars and exports were 157 billion US dollars.

[Military] In 1921, Kemal created the National Army. In 1952, the soil joined NATO. The Turkish armed forces include the Army, the Navy (including the Naval Air Force and the Marine Corps), the Air Force, the Coast Guard, and the Gendarmerie. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The Supreme Military Council is the highest decision-making body for the internal affairs of the armed forces. The General Staff is the highest operational command of the armed forces. The National Security Council is the highest defense decision-making body. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest administrative body that cooperates with the General Staff. The compulsory military service system is implemented, with a service age of 21 years and a service term of 6-12 months. Beginning in August 2018, the soil began to implement the system of paid exemption from military service. Those born before January 1, 1994 can be exempted from military service by paying 15,000 lire, and only need 21 days of basic training. We will implement military professionalization measures, streamline the personnel of the commanding organs, and literate the technical personnel, and implement the contract system for military officers and technical soldiers.

The total military strength of the current active army is 647,000. NATO has a Southeastern European Army Command and a Tactical Air Command in the soil. The United States has 16 military bases and facilities in the soil. There are 30,000 troops stationed in the Turkish Cypriot region.

【文化教育】2012年3月,土议会对义务教育制度进行改革,规定义务教育由原来的8年延长至12年,并改为小学4年,初中4年和职业专科学校4年的模式。土共有各类教育学校6万余所,在校学生约2544万人,教师约119万人。

现有大学206所。著名高等学府有安卡拉大学、哈杰泰普大学、中东技术大学、比尔肯特大学、伊斯坦布尔大学、海峡大学、爱琴海大学。

【新闻出版】发行报纸约2459种,杂志约2522种。《自由报》、《国民报》和《晨报》为土传统三大报。《每日新闻》是主要的英文报纸。

主要通讯社:阿纳多卢通讯社,半官方,创建于1920年。多安通讯社,非官方,成立于1999年。

土耳其国家广播电视机构成立于1964年,半官方,对外用38种语言广播。全国共有电视台258家,各类广播电台1087家,通讯社24家。1994年4月,议会通过《私营广播电视机构及节目法》。

【对外关系】奉行在“普世价值”与国家利益之间寻求最大平衡的外交政策,联美、入欧、睦邻是其外交政策三大支柱,同时重视发展同包括中国、日本、韩国在内的亚太及中亚、巴尔干和非洲国家关系,注重外交多元化。近年来,土凭借其日益增强的综合国力和地缘战略优势,外交上更加积极进取。西亚北非地区局势动荡以来,深度介入利比亚、叙利亚、伊核等地区热点问题,以提升自身对地区事务的影响力和塑造力。

[Cultural Education] In March 2012, the Turkish Parliament reformed the compulsory education system, which stipulated that compulsory education was extended from the original eight years to 12 years, and changed to four years of primary school, four years of junior high school and four years of vocational college. There are more than 60,000 educational schools in the country, with about 25.44 million students and 1.19 million teachers.

There are 206 universities available. The prestigious institutions of higher learning include Ankara University, Hajterp University, Middle East Technical University, Bilkent University, Istanbul University, Straits University, and Aegean University.

[Press and Publication] About 2,459 newspapers were distributed, and about 2,522 magazines were published. “Freedom News”, “National Daily” and “Morning News” are the three major newspapers of the soil tradition. The Daily News is the main English newspaper.

The main news agency: Anadolu News Agency, semi-official, was founded in 1920. Doan News Agency, unofficial, was established in 1999.

The Turkish National Radio and Television Agency was established in 1964 and is semi-official, broadcasting in 38 languages. There are 258 TV stations nationwide, 1,087 radio stations of various types, and 24 news agencies. In April 1994, the Parliament passed the Private Broadcasting and Television Institutions and Programs Act.

[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy that seeks the greatest balance between “universal values” and national interests, United States, Europe, and neighbors are the three pillars of its foreign policy, while attaching importance to development including China, Japan, and South Korea. The relationship between Asia-Pacific and Central Asia, the Balkans and African countries focuses on diplomatic pluralism. In recent years, with its increasing comprehensive national strength and geostrategic advantages, the country has become more aggressive in diplomacy. Since the turmoil in West Asia and North Africa, it has been deeply involved in hot issues in Libya, Syria, and Iranian nuclear areas to enhance its influence and shaping power on regional affairs.