Republic of Turkey 土耳其共和国
【国 名】土耳其共和国（Republic of Turkey）。
【货 币】土耳其里拉（Turkish Lira），1里拉约合1.2人民币。
【国家元首】总统雷杰普•塔伊普•埃尔多安（Recep Tayyip Erdogan），2014年8月通过全民直选当选土耳其总统。2018年6月24日连任，7月9日就职。
[Country name] Republic of Turkey.
[Dimensions] 783,600 square kilometers, of which 97% are located in Asia’s Asia Minor Peninsula and 3% in Europe’s Balkans.
[People] 82 million (2018), the Turks account for more than 80%, and the Kurds account for about 15%. Turkish is the national language. 99% of the residents believe in Islam, 85% of whom are Sunni, the rest are Shia (Alawite); a few believe in Christianity and Judaism.
[The capital] Ankara has a population of 5.35 million, with an annual maximum temperature of 30 ° C and a minimum temperature of -6 ° C.
[Government] The presidential system of republican government.
[Currency] Turkish Lira, 1 lira is about 1.2 yuan.
[Head of State] President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who was elected President of Turkey through direct elections in August 2014. Re-elected on June 24, 2018, and took office on July 9.
[Main Festival] New Year: January 1; National Sovereignty and Children’s Day: April 23; Youth and Sports Festival: May 19; Victory Day: August 30; Republic’s Inauguration Day: October 29.
[Brief] across the Asian and European continents, neighboring Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Greece and Bulgaria, the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea. The coastline is 7,200 kilometers long and the land border is 2,648 kilometers long. The southern coastal region has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with a continental climate.
The history of the Turks was called Turkic. It moved from the Altai Mountains to Asia Minor in the 8th century. It established the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 13th century. It reached its peak in the 16th century. In the early 20th century, it became a semi-colonial country of Britain, France and Germany. In 1919, Kemal led the national liberation war against aggression and won. On October 29, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was established and Kemal was elected as the first president.
[Politics] From November 2002 to June 2015, the Justice and Development Party (hereinafter referred to as the “Zhengfa Party”) continued to be in power alone, with outstanding political achievements and relatively stable ruling status. In June 2015, the soil held parliamentary elections, the DF was winning 40.8% of the votes, and for the fourth time in a row it became the largest party in the parliament. However, due to the fact that no more than half of the seats were lost, the party’s chairman, Davutoglu, lost its sole ruling status. The formation of a cross-party coalition government failed. In November, the soil held parliamentary elections again. The Orthodox Party successfully won more than half of the seats with a vote of 49.5% and regained the sole ruling power. The party’s chairman, Davutoglu, formed a new cabinet and successfully passed the parliamentary vote of confidence on November 30. On May 22, 2016, the Orthodox Party held an extraordinary meeting to elect the new party chairman Yildirim, and President Erdogan authorized Yildirim to form a cabinet. On May 29, the new cabinet officially took office through the confidence vote of the parliament. On July 15, 2016, an attempted military coup took place in the soil, and was quickly defeated by the Turkish government. The soil society basically returned to stability. On April 16, 2017, the Turkish constitutional referendum was passed. According to the constitutional amendment, the Turkish government will change its presidential system, allowing the president to serve as a political party and abolish the post of prime minister. On May 21, 2017, the Orthodox Party held an extraordinary meeting and President Erdogan was re-elected as the party chairman. On June 24, 2018, Turkey held presidential and parliamentary elections simultaneously. Erdogan won 52.59% of the votes and was re-elected as president. The “People’s Union” formed by the Orthodox Party and the National Action Party won 53.66% of the votes and occupied the majority of the parliament. On July 9, President Erdogan held an inauguration ceremony, appointing the vice president and ministers of the government, and formally implementing a new presidential system.
[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on November 7, 1982, and it is the third constitution of the soil. The Constitution stipulates that the country is a country where the nation, democracy, separation of government and religion, and the implementation of the legal system.
[Meetings] Fully known as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, it is the highest legislative body in the country. A total of 600 seats are set up. Members are elected according to the proportion of the population of each province for a term of five years. A universal direct election system is in place, and citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote and to be elected. Only political parties or political party coalitions that exceed 10% of the national ballots can have seats in the parliament. The current parliament was produced in July 2018 and is the 27th parliament of the soil.
[Government] Also known as the Council of Ministers. On July 9, 2018, the first government after the establishment of the presidential system was the 66th government. There are 16 departments, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of National Defense, and the Ministry of Education.
[Administrative Division] The administrative division of Turkey is classified into provinces, counties, townships and villages. The country is divided into 81 provinces.
[Judiciary] The courts at the central level include the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal, the Administrative Court, and the Court of Audit.
[Important] Recep Tayyip Erdogan: President. Born in Istanbul in 1954, graduated from the Marmara University School of Economics and Trade. Former chairman of the Istanbul Party of the Virtue Party. In March 1994, he was elected mayor of Istanbul. In August 2001, the Justice and Development Party was established as the chairman. In November 2002, the Justice and Development Party won parliamentary elections. In March 2003, Egypt became prime minister. Re-elected twice in 2007 and 2011. In August 2014, he was elected the 12th president of the soil. In June 2018, he was re-elected as President of Turkey. Formally inaugurated on July 9, 2018. Married, there are two sons and two women.
Fuate Oktay: Vice President. Born in Yozgat in 1964. He graduated from the University of Qukuova with a degree in Management and holds a Master’s degree in Manufacturing Engineering and Management and a Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from Wayne State University in Detroit. Experts in the aviation and automotive fields have worked in Ford, GM, Chrysler and many other companies. From 2008 to 2012, he served as Deputy General Manager of Strategic Planning and Career Development for Turkish Airlines. From 2012 to 2016, he served as Director of the Disaster Emergency Management Department of the Prime Minister’s Office. From 2016 to 2018, he served as the director of the Office of the Prime Minister’s Office, and also served as a member of the board of directors of Turkish Airlines and the vice chairman of the board of the Turkish telecommunications company. In July 2018, he became the vice president. Married, with three children, knows English.
Mustafa Shentop: Speaker. Born in 1968 in the province of Tekirdag. He graduated from the Faculty of Law of Istanbul University. He holds a master’s degree and a doctoral degree in public law from Marmara University. He has served as a researcher, associate professor and professor at Marmara University. From 2012 to 2015, he served as the vice chairman of the Zhengfa Party. From July 2018 to February 2019, he served as deputy speaker of the National Assembly of the National University of Turkmenistan. He is a member of the 24th, 25th, 26th and 27th National Congress and the chairman of the Constitutional Committee of the 26th Grand National Assembly. In February 2019, he was elected president of the National Assembly. Married with four children. Proficient in English and Arabic.
[Economics] Since the implementation of the policy of opening to the outside world in the 1980s, the local economy has achieved leap-forward development, with a rapid transition from a traditional agricultural country with a relatively backward economic base to a modern industrial country. Since the party was in power in 2002, the construction of infrastructure construction in the country has been continuously improved, the investment environment has been continuously improved to attract foreign investment, foreign trade has been vigorously developed, and economic construction has made great achievements. From 2003 to 2015, the total economic volume of the earth increased from 304.9 billion US dollars to 720 billion US dollars; the per capita national income increased from 4559 US dollars to 9261 US dollars. In 2018, the GDP of the country was 784 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 2.6%, and the per capita GDP was 9,632 US dollars.
[Resources] Rich in mineral resources, mainly including granite, marble, boron ore, chromium, antimony and coal, with a total value of more than 2 trillion US dollars. Among them, granite and marble reserves account for 40% of the world, and the number of varieties ranks first in the world. The reserves of boron trioxide are 70 million tons, valued at 356 billion US dollars; the reserves of germanium account for 22% of the world’s total reserves; the reserves of chromium ore are 100 million tons, ranking the world’s forefront. In addition, gold, silver and coal reserves were 516 tons, 1,100 tons and 15.5 billion tons respectively. Oil and natural gas resources are scarce and require a large amount of imports. Water shortages, per capita water holdings only 1430 cubic meters.
[Industrial] Good industrial base, mainly in food processing, textile, automotive, mining, steel, petroleum, construction, wood and paper industries.
[Agriculture] The agricultural base is good. The main agricultural products are tobacco, cotton, rice, olives, beets, sweet oranges and livestock. The main agricultural and sideline products such as grain, cotton, fruit and vegetable are basically self-sufficient, and the food self-sufficiency rate is 98.8%. In recent years, the degree of mechanization of agriculture has increased, and the area of machine farming has continued to expand. The wood processing industry is well developed. The forest area is 220,000 square kilometers.
[Tourism] Tourism is one of the important sources of foreign exchange earnings. In 2018, the total number of foreign tourists reached 46.11 million, and the tourism income was 29.5 billion US dollars. The main tourist cities are: Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Bursa and so on. The ancient city sites such as Troy and Ephesus and Cappadocia and Pamukkale are the main scenic spots.
[Financial Finance] Although the land financial market was affected by the European debt crisis, it benefited from the rapid growth of the real economy, and the financial market remained generally stable.
[Foreign Trade] With the rapid development of the national economy, the total value and quantity of foreign trade has been increasing. The main imported commodities are crude oil, natural gas, chemical products, machinery and equipment, steel, etc. The main export products are agricultural products, food, textiles, clothing, metal products, vehicles and spare parts. In recent years, steel, automobiles, home appliances and machinery products have gradually entered the international market. In 2017, the total foreign trade volume was 390.8 billion US dollars, of which imports were 233.8 billion US dollars and exports were 157 billion US dollars.
[Military] In 1921, Kemal created the National Army. In 1952, the soil joined NATO. The Turkish armed forces include the Army, the Navy (including the Naval Air Force and the Marine Corps), the Air Force, the Coast Guard, and the Gendarmerie. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The Supreme Military Council is the highest decision-making body for the internal affairs of the armed forces. The General Staff is the highest operational command of the armed forces. The National Security Council is the highest defense decision-making body. The Ministry of National Defense is the highest administrative body that cooperates with the General Staff. The compulsory military service system is implemented, with a service age of 21 years and a service term of 6-12 months. Beginning in August 2018, the soil began to implement the system of paid exemption from military service. Those born before January 1, 1994 can be exempted from military service by paying 15,000 lire, and only need 21 days of basic training. We will implement military professionalization measures, streamline the personnel of the commanding organs, and literate the technical personnel, and implement the contract system for military officers and technical soldiers.
The total military strength of the current active army is 647,000. NATO has a Southeastern European Army Command and a Tactical Air Command in the soil. The United States has 16 military bases and facilities in the soil. There are 30,000 troops stationed in the Turkish Cypriot region.
[Cultural Education] In March 2012, the Turkish Parliament reformed the compulsory education system, which stipulated that compulsory education was extended from the original eight years to 12 years, and changed to four years of primary school, four years of junior high school and four years of vocational college. There are more than 60,000 educational schools in the country, with about 25.44 million students and 1.19 million teachers.
There are 206 universities available. The prestigious institutions of higher learning include Ankara University, Hajterp University, Middle East Technical University, Bilkent University, Istanbul University, Straits University, and Aegean University.
[Press and Publication] About 2,459 newspapers were distributed, and about 2,522 magazines were published. “Freedom News”, “National Daily” and “Morning News” are the three major newspapers of the soil tradition. The Daily News is the main English newspaper.
The main news agency: Anadolu News Agency, semi-official, was founded in 1920. Doan News Agency, unofficial, was established in 1999.
The Turkish National Radio and Television Agency was established in 1964 and is semi-official, broadcasting in 38 languages. There are 258 TV stations nationwide, 1,087 radio stations of various types, and 24 news agencies. In April 1994, the Parliament passed the Private Broadcasting and Television Institutions and Programs Act.
[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy that seeks the greatest balance between “universal values” and national interests, United States, Europe, and neighbors are the three pillars of its foreign policy, while attaching importance to development including China, Japan, and South Korea. The relationship between Asia-Pacific and Central Asia, the Balkans and African countries focuses on diplomatic pluralism. In recent years, with its increasing comprehensive national strength and geostrategic advantages, the country has become more aggressive in diplomacy. Since the turmoil in West Asia and North Africa, it has been deeply involved in hot issues in Libya, Syria, and Iranian nuclear areas to enhance its influence and shaping power on regional affairs.