Republic of the Philippines 菲律宾共和国
【国名】菲律宾共和国（Republic of the Philippines）。
【首都】 大马尼拉市（Metro Manila），人口1288万（2015年10月）。年均气温28℃。
【国家元首】罗德里戈·罗亚·杜特尔特（Rodrigo Roa Duterte），2016年6月就任。
[Country name] Republic of the Philippines.
[Area] 29.97 million square kilometers.
[Population] 109 million (August 2015). The Malays account for more than 85% of the country’s population. Others include the Tagalog, the Ilo, the Bonbon, the Visaya, and the Bicol. The minority and foreign descendants are Chinese and Arab. Indians, Spaniards and Americans; there are only a handful of Aboriginal people. There are more than 70 languages. Mandarin is Filipino based on Tagalog, and English is the official language. About 85% of the nationals believe in Catholicism, 4.9% believe in Islam, a few believe in independent religion and Protestantism, Chinese believe in Buddhism, and Aboriginal people believe in primitive religion.
[Capital] Metro Manila, with a population of 12.88 million (October 2015). The annual average temperature is 28 °C.
[Head of State] Rodrigo Roa Duterte, took office in June 2016.
[Important Festival] Independence Day (National Day): June 12th; Badan Day (commemorating World War II killed soldiers): April 9th; Heroes Day (commemorating the National Father Rizal Martyr): December 30th; Christian main festivals (such as Christmas, etc.).
[Profile] is located in southeast Asia. The North Bus Strait is far opposite to Taiwan Province of China. The south and southwest are separated from the West Coast of Sulawesi, the Balabac Strait is facing Indonesia and Malaysia, the West China Sea is west, and the Pacific Ocean is east. There are more than 7,000 islands in total, of which 11 major islands such as Luzon Island, Mindanao Island and Samar Island account for 96% of the country’s total area. The coastline is about 18,533 kilometers long. It is a monsoon rainforest climate with high temperature and rain, high humidity and many typhoons. The annual average temperature is 27 °C, and the annual precipitation is 2000-3000 mm.
Around the 14th century, the Philippines had some separatist kingdoms composed of indigenous and Malay immigrants, the most famous of which was the Sulu Kingdom that emerged in the 1970s. In 1521, Magellan led the Spanish expedition to the Philippine Islands. Since then, Spain has gradually encroached on the Philippines and ruled for more than 300 years. On June 12, 1898, the Philippines declared independence and established the Republic of the Philippines. In the same year, the United States occupied the Philippines on the basis of the Paris Treaty signed after the Spanish war. In 1942, the Philippines was occupied by Japan. After the end of the Second World War, the Philippines once again became a US colony. On July 4, 1946, the United States agreed to the independence of the Philippines. After the Philippines became independent, the Liberal Party and the Kuomintang took turns to govern. In 1965, Kuomintang candidate Marcos was elected the sixth president after World War II and was re-elected three times. In August 1983, the leader of the opposition party, Benigno Aquino, was murdered, causing political instability. On February 7, 1986, the Philippines held a presidential election in advance. Beninho Aquino’s wife, Corazon Aquino, served as president with the support of the people, the Catholic Church and the military. Since then, Ramos and Estrada have been elected presidents in constitutional terms. In January 2001, Estrada was forced to step down due to a bribery scandal, and Vice President Arroyo succeeded him as president. In June 2004, Arroyo was elected president. In June 2010, Liberal Party candidate Aquino III became the 15th President of the Philippines. In June 2016, the Democratic People’s Power Party candidate Duterte became the 16th president of the Philippines.
[Politics] Implement the presidential system. The President is the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. President Duterte advocates cracking down on crime, drugs and corruption, vigorously carrying out the fight against terrorism, reshaping people’s trust and confidence in the government, and conducting dialogues with organizations such as the Philippine Communist Party and the Southern Moro Islamic Liberation Front to promote national unity and nationality. reconciliation. In addition to terrorism and separatist activities in the southern region, the Philippine political office is generally stable.
[Constitution] After independence, three constitutions were promulgated. The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on February 2, 1987, and was promulgated by President Corazon Aquino on February 11 of the same year. The Constitution stipulates that the executive, legislative and judicial powers shall be divided into two groups; the president shall have administrative power and shall be elected directly by the voters for a term of six years and shall not be re-elected; the president has no right to enforce the martial law and has no right to dissolve the parliament and shall not be arrested arbitrarily. Opposition; prohibiting military personnel from interfering in politics; safeguarding human rights, banning individual dictatorships; and carrying out land reforms. After Duterte took office, he pushed the constitutional agenda. The core appeal was to change the Philippine government to a federal system to promote the peace process in the southern Philippines.
[Parliament] Called Congress. The highest legislative body consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 24 members and is directly elected by the whole country. The term of office is 6 years. It is re-elected 1/2 every three years and can be re-elected for two consecutive terms. The House of Representatives consists of 250 members, 200 of which are distributed by provinces and municipalities according to the proportion of the population, and are elected from various constituencies in the country; 25 are appointed by the winning party and 25 are appointed by the president. The House of Representatives is appointed for a term of three years and can be re-elected for three consecutive terms. The current Congress was elected in July 2016. The current Senate President Soto, the Speaker of the House of Arroyo.
【政府】本届政府内阁于2016年6月组成。截至2019年1月，内阁成员33名：外交部长特奥多罗·洛钦（Teodoro Lopez Locsin），文官长萨尔瓦多·梅地亚尔蒂（Salvador Medialdea），总统发言人萨尔瓦多·班尼洛（Salvador Panelo），财政部长卡洛斯·多明计斯（Carlos Dominguez III），司法部长维塔利亚诺·阿圭雷（Vitaliano Aguirre II），内务和地方政务部长艾多瓦多·阿尼奥（Eduardo Año），卫生部长弗朗西斯科·杜克（Francisco Duke），农业部长艾曼努尔·皮诺（Manny Pinol），公造部长马克·维拉（Mark Villar），信息和通讯技术部长罗多佛·萨拉利马（Rodolfo Salalima），交通部长亚瑟·杜伽德（Arthur Tugade），教育部长莱昂诺·布里安斯（Leonor Briones），社会福利部长朱迪·塔奎瓦诺（Judy Taguiwalo），劳工部长西尔维斯特·贝劳（Silvestre Bello III），预算部长本杰明·迪科诺（Benjamin Diokno），国防部长德尔芬·洛伦扎纳（Delfin Lorenzana），科技部长方图纳托·德拉·皮纳（Fortunato de la Pena），农业改革部长拉斐尔·马里亚诺（Rafael V.Mariano），环境与自然资源部长罗伊·西玛图（Roy Cimatu），旅游部长贝纳德特·罗慕洛·普娅特（Bernadette Romulo Puyat），贸工部长拉蒙·洛佩兹（Ramon Lopez），能源部长阿方索·库西（Alfonso Cusi），高等教育委员会主席帕特里西亚·里古安南（Patricia Licuanan），国家经济发展署署长厄内斯托·佩尼亚（Ernesto Penia），总统新闻部长马丁·安达纳尔（Martin Andanar），国家安全顾问赫莫基内斯·埃斯佩伦（Hermogenes Esperon），内阁事务部长莱安西奥·埃瓦斯科（Leoncio Evasaco, Jr.），总统特别助理昆汀（Jesus Melchor Quitain），，穆斯林事务国家委员会主席亚思敏·布斯兰·劳（Yasmin Busran-lao），海外菲人委员会主席伊梅尔达·尼可拉斯（Imelda M. Nicolas），棉兰老发展署主席鲁瓦哈提·安东尼诺（Luwalhati R. Antonino），国家减贫委员会主席黎萨·马萨（Liza Maza），和平进程顾问杰西·杜瑞泽（Jesus Dureza）。【行政区划】 全国划分为吕宋、维萨亚和棉兰老三大部分。全国设有首都地区、科迪勒拉行政区、棉兰老穆斯林自治区等18个地区，下设81个省和117个市。
【司法机构】司法权属最高法院和各级法院。最高法院由１名首席法官和14名陪审法官组成，均由总统任命，拥有最高司法权；下设上诉法院、地方法院和市镇法院。现任首席大法官卢卡斯·贝萨明（Lucas Bersamin）。检察工作由司法部检察长办公室负责，总检察长何塞·卡利达（Jose Calida）。
[Government] The current government cabinet was formed in June 2016. As of January 2019, there were 33 cabinet members: Foreign Minister Teodoro Lopez Locsin, Civil Service Chief Salvador Medialdea, Presidential Spokesperson Salvador Bennello (Salvador) Panelo), Finance Minister Carlos Dominguez III, Attorney General Vitaliano Aguirre II, Minister of Internal Affairs and Local Government Eduardo (Eduardo) Año), Minister of Health Francisco Duke, Minister of Agriculture Manny Pinol, Minister of Public Works Mark Villar, Minister of Information and Communication Technology Rodovhasa Rodolfo Salalima, Minister of Transportation Arthur Tugade, Minister of Education Leonor Briones, Minister of Social Welfare Judy Taguiwalo, Labour Minister Silvestre Bello III, budget minister Benjamin Diokno, defense minister Delfin Loren Zana), Minister of Science and Technology Fortunato de la Pena, Minister of Agricultural Reform Rafael V. Mariano, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources Roy Simatu (Roy Cimatu), Tourism Minister Bernadette Romulo Puyat, Minister of Trade and Industry Ramon Lopez, Energy Minister Alfonso Cusi ), Patricia Licuanan, chairman of the Higher Education Commission, Ernesto Penia, Director of the National Economic Development Agency, and Martin Andanar, Presidential Information Minister , National Security Adviser Hermogenes Esperon, Cabinet Minister Leocio Evasaco, Jr., Special Assistant to the President, Jesus Melchor Quitain, Muslim Yasmin Busran-lao, Chairman of the National Committee for Affairs, Imelda M. Nicolas, Chairman of the Overseas Filipino Committee, and Roy, Chairman of the Mindanao Development Agency Luwalhati R. Antonino, President of the National Committee for Poverty Reduction Liza Maza, and consultant for peace process, Jesus Dureza. [Administrative Division] The country is divided into the third part of Luzon, Visaya and Medan. There are 18 regions including the Capital Region, the Cordillera Administrative Region, and the Muslim Autonomous Region of Mindanao, with 81 provinces and 117 municipalities.
[Judiciary] Judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and courts at all levels. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 14 jury judges, all appointed by the President and having the highest judicial power; there are appeal courts, district courts and town courts. The current Chief Justice, Lucas Bersamin. The procuratorial work is carried out by the Office of the Attorney General of the Ministry of Justice, and Attorney General Jose Calida.
（1）民主人民力量党（PDP-LAPAN）：执政党。成立于1982年，由前参议长阿奎里诺·皮门特尔二世为反对马科斯独裁政权创建而成，成员主要来自菲南部达沃市、卡加延省等地区。1983年，PDP-LABAN与前参议员阿基诺二世（前总统阿基诺三世之父）领导的人民力量党（PEOPLE POWER PARTY）结盟，成为第一次人民力量革命的主要政治力量之一。马科斯政权倒台后，该党正式定名为民主人民力量党（PDP-LABAN），并加入科拉松·阿基诺领导的执政联盟。1986年，PDP-LABAN内部分裂，皮门特尔二世领导的分支稳定发展，地方上力量主要集中于南部达沃地区。该党主席为现任总统杜特尔特，总裁为前参议长皮门特尔三世，秘书长为前众议长阿尔瓦雷兹。
（4）民族主义人民联盟（NPC—Nationalist People’s Coalition），是前总统埃斯特拉达的执政联盟—民众奋斗党（LAMP）成员之一。2000年10月，埃被弹劾后，该党成为独立党派。现为众议院第二大党。该党支持修改宪法。为防止总统权力过大，主张实行议会制政体及实行两党制，支持加快国有企业私有化。该党领袖是许寰戈。
（5）摩洛民族解放阵线（Moro National Liberation Front，简称“摩解”）：南部穆斯林武装组织。1968年创立，旨在棉兰老地区建立独立的伊斯兰国家。1987年南部各省举行公投，建立由棉兰老岛四省组成的“棉兰老穆斯林自治区”（ARMM），密苏阿里任主席。1996年，政府与摩解达成和平协议。2001年，密苏阿里与阿罗约政府发生利益冲突，其支持者于11月在霍洛岛发动武装叛乱。政府迅速平叛，宣布密犯有叛乱罪。密潜逃至马来西亚沙巴，被马政府逮捕并于2002年1月引渡回菲。2007年2月，阿罗约总统下令执行与摩解的和平协议条款，希望通过和平、发展、多种信仰对话及国际合作实现与摩解的最终和解，解决菲南部冲突。
（6）摩洛伊斯兰解放阵线（Moro Islamic Liberation Front，简称“摩伊解”）：菲最大的穆斯林反政府组织。现有武装力量1.25万人，主要活跃在棉兰老岛。1978年，以哈希姆·萨拉马（Hashim SALAMAT）为首的强硬派从摩解脱离后建立。2003年萨拉马去世后，穆拉特（Al Haj Ebrahim MURAD）任主席。主张建立独立的伊斯兰国家，坚持武装斗争。摩伊解与政府虽多次签署停火协议，但均未能得到有效执行。2000年4月摩伊解与政府冲突升级为“全面战争”，摩伊解的营地被政府军全部攻占，其武装力量溃散后，继续以小股武装袭击政府军和民用设施。自2001年开始，阿罗约政府与摩伊解重开和谈，并曾签署停火协议与和平协议，但双方武装冲突仍时有发生。2003年，南部地区发生多起恐怖爆炸案件，政府认为是摩伊解所为，宣布通缉其主要领导人，威胁要将摩伊解列为恐怖组织。此后，在马来西亚协调下，双方进行多轮谈判，取得了一定进展。阿基诺总统主张同“摩伊解”等分离组织进行全面和谈，推动外国斡旋调停，促进国家团结和民族和解。2012年10月，菲政府宣布同“摩伊解”达成和平框架协议，这标志着菲向着结束南部棉兰老地区持续多年的民族冲突迈出重要一步。2014年3月正式签署此和平协议。
（7）菲律宾共产党（Communist Party of the Philippines）：成立于1930年，1967年发生分裂。1968年，在何塞·西逊（Jose Sison）主持下进行改组重建，此后发展迅速，20世纪80年代中期党员达到3万多人。主张通过武装斗争和建立统一战线，夺取国家政权。1969年，菲共在中吕宋建立新人民军，开展武装斗争。新人民军现有1.1万人。菲政府自1993年起与菲共领导的全国民主阵线举行和谈。双方时谈时战，迄未达成实质性和平协议。“9·11事件”后，菲政府对新人民军采取了强硬措施，包括军事打击。2002年，菲政府将新人民军宣布为恐怖组织，并促使美国和欧盟也将新人民军列为国际恐怖组织，冻结其海外资产。菲共与政府关系破裂，双方和谈停顿。2004年2月和谈重启，但由于美国政府将菲共及其武装列入“恐怖组织”名单，导致导致谈判陷入停顿。2016年8月26日，菲总统杜特尔特派出和谈小组同菲共在奥斯陆达成十点共识，包括无限期停火、赦免政治犯、加快政治解决进程等。但由于双方立场差异较大且不时爆发冲突，和谈再度陷于停滞。
其他政党有民主行动党（Aksyon Demokratiko）、地方发展优先党（Promdi-Probinsiya Muna Development lnitiative）、改革党（Reporma）、民主战斗党（LDP-Lanban ng Demokratikong Pilipino）、民族党（Nationalista Party）等。
[Parties and groups] There are more than 100 large and small political parties, most of which are local small parties. The main political parties and groups are:
(1) Democratic People’s Power Party (PDP-LAPAN): The ruling party. Founded in 1982, the former Senate President Aquilino Pimentel II created the dictatorship against Marcos. The members are mainly from Davao City and Cagayan Province in the south of the Philippines. In 1983, PDP-LABAN formed an alliance with the PEOPLE POWER PARTY led by former Senator Aquino II (the father of former President Aquino III) and became one of the main political forces of the first People’s Power Revolution. After the fall of the Marcos regime, the party officially named the Democratic People’s Power Party (PDP-LABAN) and joined the ruling coalition led by Corazon Aquino. In 1986, PDP-LABAN split internally, and the branch led by Pimentel II developed steadily. The local forces were mainly concentrated in the southern Davao region. The party’s chairman is the current president Duterte, the president is former Senate President Pimentel III, and the secretary-general is former Speaker of the House Alvarez.
(2) Liberal Party: Founded in 1946 by the 5th President of the Philippines, Manuel Rojas. The early members were mainly liberals split from the Philippine Nationalist Party. In the late 1970s, under the leadership of Secretary-General Aquino (former father of Aquino), the party opposed the Marcos dictatorship and was one of the main forces behind the overthrow of the Marcos regime. After the Arroyo administration came to power in 2001, the party joined the ruling coalition and later left the ruling coalition and elected Aquino III to participate in the 2010 presidential election. Ah was elected to the 15th president of the Philippines with a 42% vote. In 2016, the party’s candidate, Lenny Robredo, was elected the 16th Vice President of the Philippines. The current party chairman is former Minister of Communications and Communications Avaya, and the current president is current Vice President Lenny Robredo.
(3) Christian Democratic Democratic Party (LAKAS-CMD): The former President Ramos was founded at the end of 1991 and was formed by the integration of the People’s Power Party, the National Christian Democracy Coalition, the Philippine Muslim Democratic Union, and the Solidarity Party. It advocates the implementation of a two-party system, expands the power of local governments through constitutional amendments, reforms the electoral system, and revise the presidential term from six years to four years, and can be re-elected for two terms; it advocates achieving national reconciliation through negotiations and promoting social stability. Economically attach importance to agricultural development, increase employment, help poverty, accelerate the process of privatization; advocate economic diplomacy and pursue an open policy. In 1992, the party won the election and became the ruling party. The 1998 general election was defeated by the Philippine People’s Struggle Party Alliance. After Arroyo became president in 2001, the party became the core of the ruling coalition. In October 2002, the party re-organized and reorganized the ruling coalition in response to the 2004 general election. The party’s chairman is Ferdinand Martin Romu Jardes, the president is Senator Ramon Rivera, and former President Ramos is the honorary chairman.
(4) The Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC) is a member of the former President Estrada’s ruling coalition, the People’s Struggle Party (LAMP). In October 2000, after Egypt was impeached, the party became an independent party. Now the second largest party in the House of Representatives. The party supports the revision of the constitution. In order to prevent the president from being too powerful, he advocated the implementation of the parliamentary system and the implementation of the two-party system, and supported the acceleration of the privatization of state-owned enterprises. The leader of the party is Xu Weige.
(5) Moro National Liberation Front (“Motion”): Southern Muslim armed groups. Founded in 1968, it aims to establish an independent Islamic state in the Mindanao region. In 1987, a referendum was held in the southern provinces to establish the “Mulan Old Muslim Autonomous Region” (ARMM), which is composed of the four provinces of Mindanao. In 1996, the government reached a peace agreement with the resolution. In 2001, Missouri and the Arroyo government had a conflict of interest, and their supporters launched an armed rebellion on the island of Jolo in November. The government quickly rebelled and declared the crime of rebellion. Mi Mi fled to Sabah, Malaysia, was arrested by the Malaysian government and extradited to the Philippines in January 2002. In February 2007, President Arroyo ordered the implementation of the peace agreement with the resolution, and hoped to achieve a final reconciliation with the resolution through peace, development, multi-faith dialogue and international cooperation to resolve the conflict in the southern Philippines.
(6) Moro Islamic Liberation Front (Moy Islamic Liberation Front): The largest Muslim anti-government organization in the Philippines. The existing armed forces are 12,500 people, mainly active in Mindanao. In 1978, the hardliners headed by Hashim SALAMAT were established after the disintegration. After the death of Salama in 2003, Al Haj Ebrahim MURAD was the chairman. Advocate the establishment of an independent Islamic state and adhere to the armed struggle. Although the Moi and the government signed the ceasefire agreement several times, they failed to be effectively implemented. In April 2000, the conflict between the Moi and the government escalated into a “comprehensive war.” The camp of Moi’s solution was completely captured by the government. After its armed forces collapsed, it continued to attack government troops and civilian facilities with small units. Since 2001, the Arroyo government has reopened peace talks with Moi, and has signed a ceasefire agreement and a peace agreement, but armed conflicts between the two sides still occur from time to time. In 2003, there were many terrorist bombings in the southern region. The government believed that it was the case of Moi’s solution and announced that its main leader wanted to dismiss Moi as a terrorist organization. Since then, under the coordination of Malaysia, the two sides have conducted several rounds of negotiations and made some progress. President Aquino advocated a comprehensive peace talks with separate organizations such as the “May Solution” to promote foreign mediation and promote national unity and national reconciliation. In October 2012, the Philippine government announced a peace framework agreement with the “May Solution”, which marked an important step for the Philippines to end the ethnic conflict that lasted for many years in the southern Mindanao region. The peace agreement was formally signed in March 2014.
(7) The Communist Party of the Philippines: Established in 1930, split in 1967. In 1968, under the auspices of Jose Sison, the reorganization was carried out. Since then, it has developed rapidly. In the mid-1980s, the number of party members reached more than 30,000. It advocates the seizure of state power through armed struggle and the establishment of a united front. In 1969, the Philippine Communist Party established a new People’s Army in Central Luzon and carried out an armed struggle. The New People’s Army currently has 11,000 people. Since 1993, the Philippine government has held peace talks with the National Democratic Front led by the Philippine Communist Party. The two sides talked about the time war and have not reached a substantive peace agreement. After the “9.11 incident”, the Philippine government took tough measures against the New People’s Army, including military strikes. In 2002, the Philippine government announced the New People’s Army as a terrorist organization and urged the United States and the European Union to also list the New People’s Army as an international terrorist organization and freeze its overseas assets. The relationship between the Philippine Communist Party and the government broke down and the peace talks between the two sides paused. The peace talks resumed in February 2004, but the US government listed the Philippine Communist Party and its armed forces on the list of “terrorist organizations”, which led to the suspension of negotiations. On August 26, 2016, Philippine President Duterte sent a peace talks group to reach a 10-point consensus with the Philippine Communist Party in Oslo, including an indefinite ceasefire, pardoning political prisoners, and accelerating the political settlement process. However, due to the large differences in positions between the two sides and the outbreak of conflicts from time to time, the peace talks have once again stalled.
Other political parties include the Aksyon Demokratiko, the Promdi-Probinsiya Muna Development lnitiative, the Reporma, the LDP-Lanban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, and the Nationalista Party.
[important person] Rodrigo Roja Duterte: President. Born on March 28, 1945 in the province of Wright, central Philippines. In 1986, he graduated from the Department of Political Science at the University of La Siem in the Philippines with a bachelor’s degree. In 1972, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in law from the St. Patrick’s Law School and passed the bar exam in the same year. From 1977 to 1986, he served as deputy mayor of Davao City. In 1988, he was elected mayor of Davao City and was re-elected twice in 1992 and 1995. In 1998, he was elected as a member of Davao City. In 2001, he was re-elected as Mayor of Davao and re-elected in 2004 and 2007. In 2010, he was elected deputy mayor of Davao City. In 2013, he was elected mayor of Davao City and will serve until June 2016. In May 2016, he was elected the 16th President of the Philippines and took office on June 30th, with a term of office until 2022.
Lenny Robredo: Vice President. Born on April 23, 1964 in Naka, South Carolina, Philippines. In 1982, he was admitted to the University of the Philippines at Diliman College to pursue economics. In 1986, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in economics. In the same year, he entered the University of Nueva Cáceres to pursue law studies. In 1992, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in law. From 1986 to 1996, he worked in the Bicol Basin Development Project Office. He passed the judicial examination in 1996 and subsequently entered the Public Prosecutor’s Office of the Ministry of Justice as a legal consultant and lawyer. In 2005, he joined the Liberal Party and Chairman of the South Carolina Marines Constituency. In May 2013, he was elected to the House of Representatives. In May 2016, he was elected as the 16th Vice President of the Philippines. In 1987, he married Jesse Robredo (Chinese name Lin Bingzhi), and the two had three women. Lin Bingzhi died in an air crash in 2012.
[Economy] An export-oriented economy has a large dependence on the external market. The tertiary industry has a prominent position in the national economy, and agriculture and manufacturing also account for a considerable proportion. In the late 1960s, an open policy was adopted to actively attract foreign investment, and economic development achieved remarkable results. After the 1980s, due to the Western economic recession and the political turmoil of its own, economic development slowed down noticeably. In the early 1990s, the Ramos government adopted a series of measures to revitalize the economy, and the economy began to fully recover and maintained a high growth rate. The Asian financial crisis that erupted in 1997 had little impact on the Philippines, but its economic growth slowed again. After President Duterte took office, he increased investment in infrastructure construction and agriculture, promoted tax reform, and maintained rapid economic growth. However, he also faced problems such as high inflation, insufficient government financial resources, and serious economic impact on corruption. The main economic data are as follows:
Gross domestic product (2017): $389 billion
Per capita GDP (2017): $3,593
GDP growth rate (2017): 6.7%
Currency name: Peso
Exchange rate (January 2019): 1 US dollar ≈ 52 pesos
Inflation rate (2017): 3.2%
Unemployment rate (2017): 5.7%
[Resources] There are more than 20 kinds of minerals such as copper, gold, silver, iron, chromium and nickel. Copper reserves are about 4.8 billion tons, nickel is 1.09 billion tons, and gold is 136 million tons. Geothermal resources are expected to have 2.09 billion barrels of crude oil standard energy. The oil reserves in the northwestern part of Palawan are about 350 million barrels.
[Industrial] In 2016, the industrial output value was US$93.988 billion, an increase of 8.5% year-on-year. Among them, the output value of mining, manufacturing, construction and power energy were 2.407 billion US dollars, 59.893 billion US dollars, 22.098 billion US dollars and 9.59 billion US dollars, accounting for 0.7%, 16.3%, 6% and 2.6% of GDP respectively.
[Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries] The output value of agriculture, forestry and fishery in 2016 was 29.423 billion US dollars, accounting for 8.0% of GDP. Among them, the output value of agriculture and forestry is 25.533 billion US dollars, accounting for 7% of GDP; the output value of fishery is 3.89 billion US dollars, accounting for 1% of GDP. The main export products are: coconut oil, bananas, fish and shrimp, sugar and sugar products, shredded coconut, pineapple and pineapple juice, unprocessed tobacco, natural rubber, coconut meal and seaweed.
The forest area is 15.79 million hectares with a coverage rate of 53%. There are precious woods such as ebony and sandalwood.
It is rich in aquatic resources and has more than 2,400 species of fish. The tuna resources are among the highest in the world. The developed seawater and freshwater fishery covers an area of 2,080 square kilometers.
[Service Industry] In 2016, the service industry output value was about 7.85 trillion pesos, an increase of 8.1% over the previous year. It accounts for 59.1% of GDP. The Philippines is one of the world’s leading labor exporting countries, with more than 10 million workers working overseas. In 2016, Philippine overseas labor remittances reached US$26.9 billion, up 5% year-on-year and accounting for 7.3% of GDP.
[Tourism] One of the important sources of foreign exchange earnings. The main tourist spots are: Baisheng Beach, Blue Harbor, Baguio City, Mayong Volcano, and the original terraces of Ifugao.
[Transportation] Mainly by road and sea. The railway is underdeveloped and concentrated in Luzon Island. Air transportation is mainly operated by shipping companies such as Philippine Airlines, and there are flights between major islands across the country.
Railway: The total length is 1200 kilometers.
Highway: The total length is about 216,000 kilometers. Passenger traffic accounts for 90% of the country’s total transportation volume, and freight volume accounts for 65% of the national transportation volume.
Water transport: The total length is 3,219 kilometers. There are hundreds of large and small ports in the country, and there are more than 1,000 merchant ships. The main ports are Manila, Cebu, Yilang, Zamboanga and so on.
Air transport: 203 airports of various types. Domestic routes cover more than 40 cities and have signed international shipping agreements with more than 30 countries. The main airports are Ninoy Aquino International Airport in the capital Manila, Mactan International Airport in Cebu City and Davao Airport.
(Source: Philippine National Railway, Land Transport Office, Marine Industry Bureau, Philippine Airlines)
中国驻菲律宾共和国大使：赵鉴华。馆址：4896 Pasay Road，Dasmarinas Village，Makati，Metro Manila Philippines。电话：00632–8443148；传真：8452465。电子信箱：firstname.lastname@example.org 。经商处电话：8195991；传真：8184553。签证处电话：8482396；传真：8482460。
菲律宾驻华大使：何塞·圣地亚哥·罗马纳（Jose Santiago L. Sta. Romana）。馆址：北京市朝阳区建国门外秀水北街23号。电话：010–65321872，65322518，65322451。
[External Relations] Pursuing an independent foreign policy, it has established diplomatic relations with 126 countries. The objectives of foreign policy are: to ensure national security, sovereignty and territorial integrity; to promote social development, to maintain the competitiveness of the Philippines in the world; to protect the rights and interests of Philippine overseas citizens; to enhance the international image of the Philippines; and to develop mutually beneficial relations with countries.
[Relationship with China] Established diplomatic relations on June 9, 1975. In recent years, President Hu Jintao (2005), Premier Wen Jiabao (2007), Jia Qinglin, CPPCC Chairman (2009), Li Keqiang (2017), and President Xi Jinping (2018) visited the Philippines. President Arroyo (9 visits to China during his tenure), President Aquino III (2011), and President Duterte (2016, 2017) visited China.
Since 2016, important bilateral exchanges of visits and meetings have mainly included: In October 2016, Philippine President Duterte paid a state visit to China. In November, President Xi Jinping held a bilateral meeting with Duterte during the 25th informal meeting of the leaders of the APEC leaders in Peru. In March 2017, Vice Premier Wang Yang of the State Council visited the Philippines. In May, Philippine President Duterte came to China to attend the “Belt and Road” international cooperation summit forum. In November, President Xi Jinping held a bilateral meeting with Philippine President Duterte during the 26th informal meeting of leaders of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Vietnam. In the same month, Premier Li Keqiang went to the Philippines to attend the series of leaders of East Asian cooperation leaders and paid an official visit to the Philippines. In April 2018, Philippine President Duterte came to China to attend the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2018. In the meantime, President Xi Jinping held a bilateral meeting with him. In September, Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Ji Bingxuan visited the Philippines. In October, State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Yi visited the Philippines. In November, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to the Philippines.
In 2017, bilateral trade volume was US$51.28 billion, up 8.5% year-on-year, of which China’s exports were US$32.04 billion, up 7.4%, and imports were US$19.23 billion, up 10.5%. The Chinese direct investment in the Philippines was US$53.84 million, a year-on-year increase of 67.2%. The Philippines invested 5 million US dollars in China, down 93.6% year-on-year. By the end of 2017, China had invested a total of 770 million U.S. dollars in the Philippines, and the Philippines had invested a total of 3.31 billion U.S. dollars in China. The contract value of the Chinese contracted project in the Philippines was 21.33 billion U.S. dollars, and the turnover was 15.04 billion U.S. dollars.
Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines to the Philippines: Zhao Jianhua. Website: 4896 Pasay Road, Dasmarinas Village, Makati, Metro Manila Philippines. Phone: 00632–8443148; fax: 8452465. E-mail: email@example.com. Business Office Tel: 8195991; Fax: 8184553. Visa Office Tel: 8482396; Fax: 8482460.
Philippine Ambassador to China: Jose Santiago L. Sta. Romana. Venue: No. 23 Xiushui North Street, Jianguomen, Chaoyang District, Beijing. Tel: 010–65321872, 65325518, 65322451.
[Education] The Constitution stipulates that compulsory education is implemented in primary and secondary schools. The government attaches importance to education, encourages private schools, provides long-term low-interest loans to private schools, and is exempt from property taxes. The government attaches importance to education and encourages private schools to provide long-term, low-interest loans to private schools and is exempt from property taxes. Primary and secondary education is mainly based on government education. As of 2006, there were 44,302 primary and secondary schools nationwide, with a primary school enrollment rate of 91% and a secondary school enrollment rate of 60%. Higher education is mainly controlled by private individuals. There are 1,599 higher education institutions in the country, with a total of 2.44 million students. Famous universities include the University of the Philippines, Ateneo University, De La Salle University and Ateneo University.
[Press and Publication] Major English Daily: Manila Bulletin, Philippine Star, Philippine Daily Inquirer, Daily Tribune, Manila Times, Manila Standards, Business World “The Commercial Mirror” “Malaya Business Observer”. Feiwen Daily: “Forward News.” Huawen Daily: World Journal, Philippine Business Daily, Philippine Times, United Daily News and Philippine China News.
The Department of Information of the Presidential Palace: Formerly known as the Press Office of the Presidential Office, it is responsible for formulating national media policies, publishing government information, operating state-owned media, maintaining communication and guidance with the Philippine private media community, and registering and managing foreign media and communication agencies in the Philippines. The main news units of its subordinates are as follows:
Philippine News Agency: The official news agency, established on March 1, 1973. It has news exchange relations with news agencies in 15 countries and regions such as China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan, and Japan, and has working links with the Associated Press and Reuters.
People’s TV: The predecessor was the Philippine government television station founded in 1974. The source of funding was government financial allocation and operating income. Mainly for the government to voice, broadcast news and public information programs, documentaries and so on.
National Radio: One of the oldest radio stations in the Philippines, covering major cities across the country.
The news organizations include the National Journalist Club, the Press Photographers Association, and the Publishers Association. There are 257 publishing institutions across the country.
There are 629 radio stations across the country, including 488 commercial radio stations, 51 non-commercial radio stations, 32 government-owned, 10 religious stations, and 7 educational stations. There are 137 television stations, of which the Broadcasting Bureau and the People’s TV Station are of an official nature, and the rest are privately owned. The languages used by Philippine radio stations and television stations are mainly English, Filipino and Chinese.
【军事】 1901年建立保安队。1936年以保安队为基础建立陆军。1946年以陆军为基础建立国防军，分海、陆、空和保安军四个军种。1950年4月19日正式改称菲律宾武装部队，并将3月22日（1897年菲反抗西班牙殖民统治成立革命政府的日期）定为建军节。总统是最高统帅。武装部队司令部为三军最高指挥机构，总参谋长是最高军事指挥官。国防部是三军行政管理机构。现任国防部长德尔芬·洛伦扎纳（Delfin Lorenzana）,武装部队总参谋长马德里加尔Benjamin Rasco Madrigal Jr. 。实行志愿兵役制，服役期三年以上。
[Financial Finance] In 2016, the Philippines’ fiscal revenue was US$46.23 billion, a year-on-year increase of 4.12%. Fiscal expenditures were US$53.67 billion, a year-on-year increase of 14.3%. The fiscal deficit was 7.44 billion US dollars, accounting for 2.4% of GDP. As of the end of 2017, foreign exchange reserves were $81.47 billion. In 2016, the total external debt was 45.389 billion US dollars, accounting for 14.74% of GDP.
(Source: Ministry of Finance, Central Bank of the Philippines)
The main banks are: Capital Bank, with assets of USD 15.5 billion; and Filipino Bank with assets of USD 13.8 billion.
[Trade] has trade relations with 150 countries. In 2016, the foreign trade volume of the Philippines was US$137.39 billion, an increase of 5.8% over the previous year. Of this total, exports were US$56.23 billion, down 4.4% year-on-year; imports were US$81.16 billion, up 14.2% year-on-year. In recent years, the Philippine government has actively developed foreign trade, promoted the diversification of export commodities and the diversification of the foreign trade market, and the structure of import and export commodities has undergone significant changes. The export value of non-traditional export commodities such as ready-to-wear, electronic products, handicrafts, furniture, and fertilizers has already surpassed the export value of traditional commodities such as minerals and raw materials.
[Foreign Capital] According to data released by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of the Philippines, the Philippines absorbed foreign direct investment in 2016 at US$4.61 billion, down 10.7% year-on-year, mainly from the Netherlands, Australia, the United States, Japan, and Singapore, mainly to manufacturing, water and electricity supply. , service industry and other industries.
[Foreign Aid] According to the statistics of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the total amount of official development assistance to the Philippines in the OECD countries and multilateral aid recipients reached US$3.523 billion in 2015, the largest source being the Japanese government, accounting for 38.5%.
[People’s Life] According to the statistics of the National Statistics Office, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Labor in 2009, the average annual income of Filipino families is 206,000 pesos. In recent years, the living standards of the people have been slower. In June 2012, the ratio of poor households was 27.9%. In 2012, the consumer price index rose by 2.8% year-on-year. The average life expectancy is 70 years old and the birth rate is 1.9%.
(Source: National Statistics Office, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor)
[Military] The security team was established in 1901. In 1936, the army was established on the basis of the security team. In 1946, the National Defense Force was established on the basis of the Army, divided into four branches of the sea, land, air and security forces. On April 19, 1950, it was officially renamed the Philippine Armed Forces, and on March 22 (the date when the Philippine rebellion against the Spanish colonial rule established the revolutionary government in 1897) was designated as the Army Day. The president is the supreme commander. The Armed Forces Command is the highest command of the three armed forces, and the Chief of Staff is the highest military commander. The Ministry of National Defense is the administrative organ of the three armed forces. The current Secretary of Defense, Delfin Lorenzana, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, Mr. Benjamin Rasco Madrigal Jr. The implementation of the voluntary military service system, serving more than three years.
The Philippine armed forces are composed of regular army, reserve and paramilitary units, of which the regular army has a total strength of 127,000. The army has 86,000 people and has 10 infantry divisions, 1 light armored brigade, and 5 engineering brigades. The Navy has 23,000 people. It has a fleet of 1 Marine Corps standby force, North Luzon, South Luzon, West, Central, East Mindan, and West Mindanao. The Air Force has 18,000 people and has 3 Air Force divisions and 8 combat/support teams. The defense budget for 2016 is 25 billion pesos.
The National Police Force was formally formed in January 1991 and is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Local Government. With a total strength of 95,500, it is the paramilitary force behind the Philippine armed forces. There are national police headquarters and police stations in all regions, provinces, counties, cities and towns. The current police chief, Oscar Albayalde.
[Relationship with the United States] The Philippines was once a US colony, and the two countries have maintained close allied relations for a long time. The two countries signed a mutual defense treaty and a joint defense assistance agreement. In 1991, the Philippine Senate abolished the Philippine-US military base agreement and ended the 93-year garrison of the United States in Philippine. In 1998, the two countries signed the “Visit Force Agreement.” The agreement brought the US military back to the Philippines and the two countries resumed large-scale joint military exercises. The “9.11” incident has significantly strengthened military cooperation between the Philippines and the United States. The Philippine government supports the US anti-terrorist operations and the wars against Afghanistan and Iraq, opening military facilities to the United States, and providing logistics services. The United States promised to provide new military equipment to the Philippines, increase military economic assistance to the Philippines, and send experts to the Philippines to assist in counter-terrorism training. In August 2016, US Secretary of State Kerry visited the Philippines. In November 2017, US President Trump went to the Philippines to attend a series of meetings of leaders of East Asian cooperation.
The United States is the second largest official aid country and the second largest trading partner of the Philippines. As of now, the United States has invested more than $2 billion in Philippine energy and power. In 2017, the United States was the third largest source of tourists for the Philippines, with 500,000 visitors to the Philippines. The United States is also the largest labor exporting country of the Philippines, with 3 million workers and expatriates in the United States.
[Relationship with Japan] Established diplomatic relations in July 1956. The Philippines actively supports Japan’s political role in international affairs commensurate with its economic impact. Japan is the Philippines’ largest donor and largest trading partner. In October 2008, the Philippine Senate reviewed and approved the economic partnership agreement signed by Fiji in 2006. In June 2014, Aquino III visited Japan. In January 2016, Emperor Akihito and Michiko of Japan visited the Philippines. In August 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Kenichi Kishida visited the Philippines. In October, Philippine President Duterte visited Japan. In October 2017, Philippine President Duterte visited Japan again.
[Relationship with ASEAN Countries] The Philippines has listed its relations with other ASEAN countries as the key direction of its foreign policy and has played its role in regional and international affairs on the basis of ASEAN. The Philippines actively participated in and promoted the various cooperation and economic integration processes within ASEAN. In 2017, it served as the rotating presidency of ASEAN. Since August 2018, he has served as the coordinating country of China-ASEAN relations for a term of three years.
Closer to Malaysia, the two sides have disputes over the territorial sovereignty of Sabah. In recent years, Ma Wei has actively assisted the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front peace talks. In October 2012, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib visited the Philippines. In February 2014, Aquino III visited Malaysia. In March, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib visited the Philippines. In November 2016, Philippine President Duterte visited Malaysia.
Good relations with Thailand. The two countries established the bilateral joint committee chaired by the foreign minister in 1993. In 1999, the two sides established the mechanism of the Trade Joint Commission. In January 2012, Thai Prime Minister Yingluck visited the Philippines.
Cooperation with Indonesia on counter-terrorism, combating transnational crimes, dividing sea borders, strengthening economic and trade investment, and reforming the United Nations. In March 2011, Aquino III visited Indonesia. In May 2014, Indonesian President Susilo visited the Philippines. In February 2015, Indonesian President Zoco visited the Philippines. In September 2016, Philippine President Duterte visited Indonesia.
Good relationship with Singapore. New is the fourth largest trading partner and important source of tourists for the Philippines. In March 2011, Aquino III visited Singapore. In April 2014, Singaporean President Chen Qingyan visited the Philippines. In December 2016, Philippine President Duterte visited Singapore.
Relations with ASEAN countries such as Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar are good, and exchanges and mutually beneficial cooperation in various fields are constantly developing.