Republic of Singapore 新加坡共和国
【国 名】 新加坡共和国（Republic of Singapore）。
【面 积】 722.5平方公里。
【人 口】 总人口564万（2018年6月），公民和永久居民399万。华人占75%左右，其余为马来人、印度人和其他种族。马来语为国语，英语、华语、马来语、泰米尔语为官方语言，英语为行政用语。主要宗教为佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、基督教和印度教。
【首 都】 新加坡（Singapore）。
【国家元首】 总统哈莉玛·雅各布（Halimah Yacob），2017年9月14日就任，任期6年。
【简 况】 热带城市国家。位于马来半岛南端、马六甲海峡出入口，北隔柔佛海峡与马来西亚相邻，南隔新加坡海峡与印度尼西亚相望。由新加坡岛及附近63个小岛组成，其中新加坡岛占全国面积的88.5%。地势低平，平均海拔15米，最高海拔163米，海岸线长193公里。属热带海洋性气候，常年高温潮湿多雨。年平均气温24℃～32℃，日平均气温26.8℃，年平均降水量2345毫米，年平均湿度84.3%。
[Country name] Republic of Singapore.
[area] 722.5 square kilometers.
[People] The total population is 5.64 million (June 2018), with 3.99 million citizens and permanent residents. The Chinese account for about 75%, and the rest are Malays, Indians and other races. Malay is the national language, English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil are the official languages, and English is the administrative language. The main religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity and Hinduism.
[City] Singapore (Singapore).
[Head of State] President Halimah Yacob, who took office on September 14, 2017, for a six-year term.
[Important Festival] Chinese New Year: The Chinese New Year. Tamil New Year: April and May. Vesak Day: Mayday in May. National Day: August 9. Eid al-Fitr: The beginning of the new moon in the Islamic calendar in October. Christmas: December 25. Singapore’s statutory public holidays total 11 days, in addition to the above, there are New Year’s Day, Easter, Haji Festival, Labor Day and so on.
[profile] Tropical city countries. It is located at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula, at the entrance to the Straits of Malacca, adjacent to Malaysia in the north of the Johor Strait, and across the Singapore Strait to the south. It consists of Singapore Island and 63 small islands nearby, of which Singapore Island accounts for 88.5% of the country’s total area. The terrain is low, with an average elevation of 15 meters, a maximum elevation of 163 meters and a coastline of 193 kilometers. It is a tropical maritime climate with high temperature, humidity and rain all year round. The annual average temperature is 24 °C ~ 32 °C, the daily average temperature is 26.8 °C, the annual average precipitation is 2345 mm, and the annual average humidity is 84.3%.
The ancient name is Temasek. The 8th century belonged to the dynasty of the Buddha. The 18th to 19th centuries were part of the Malay Johor Kingdom. In 1819, the British Stanford Raffles arrived in Singapore, contracted with the Sultan of Johor and began to set up a new trading post. In 1824, Xinyi became a British colony, becoming a re-export trader in the Far East and a major military base in Southeast Asia. It was occupied by Japan in 1942. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the British resumed colonial rule and were classified as a direct colony the following year. In 1959, he became self-governing and became an autonomous state. Britain retains its powers of national defense, diplomacy, constitution modification, and declaration of state of emergency. In September 1963, it formed the Malaysian Federation with Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak. On August 9, 1965, he left Malaysia and established the Republic of Singapore. In September of the same year, he became a member of the United Nations and joined the Commonwealth in October.
【政 治】 独立以来，人民行动党长期执政，政绩突出，地位稳固，历届大选均取得压倒性优势。李光耀自新1965年独立后长期担任总理，1990年交棒给吴作栋。1993年举行独立后首次总统全民选举，原副总理、新加坡职工总会秘书长王鼎昌当选为首位民选总统。2004年8月，李显龙接替吴作栋出任总理，并于2006年5月、2011年5月和2015年9月三度连任。2015年3月，李光耀逝世。
【宪 法】 1963年9月，新加坡并入马来西亚后，颁布了州宪法。1965年12月，州宪法经修改成为新加坡共和国宪法，并规定马来西亚宪法中的一些条文适用于新加坡。
【国 会】 实行一院制，任期5年。国会可提前解散，大选须在国会解散后3个月内举行。国会议员分为民选议员、非选区议员和官委议员。其中民选议员由公民选举产生。非选区议员从得票率最高的反对党未当选候选人中任命，最多不超过6名，从而确保国会中有非执政党的代表。官委议员由总统根据国会特别遴选委员会的推荐任命，任期两年半，以反映独立和无党派人士意见。本届国会2015年9月11日选举产生，共有议员92人。其中民选议员89人（其中人民行动党83人，工人党6人），非选区议员3人。现任议长陈川仁（Tan Chuan Jin）。
【政 府】 本届内阁于2015年9月28日组成，至今已进行多次小幅改组。主要成员有：总理李显龙（Lee Hsien Loong），副总理兼国家安全统筹部长张志贤（Teo Chee Hean），副总理兼经济及社会政策统筹部长尚达曼（Tharman Shanmugaratnam），以及外交、财政等各部部长共19人。
【司法机构】 设最高法院和总检察署。最高法院由高庭和上诉庭组成。1994年，废除上诉至英国枢密院的规定，确定最高法院上诉庭为终审法庭。最高法院大法官由总理推荐、总统委任。大法官梅达顺（Sundaresh Menon），总检察长黄鲁胜。
[Politics] Since independence, the PAP has been in power for a long time, with outstanding political achievements and stable status. All previous general elections have achieved overwhelming advantages. Lee Kuan Yew served as Prime Minister for a long time since independence in 1965. In 1990, he handed over to Goh Chok Tong. In 1993, the first presidential election was held after independence. The former Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary General of the Singapore Workers’ Federation, Wang Dingchang, was elected as the first elected president. In August 2004, Lee Hsien Loong succeeded Goh Chok Tong as Prime Minister and was re-elected in May 2006, May 2011 and September 2015. In March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew passed away.
[Constitution] In September 1963, after Singapore was incorporated into Malaysia, the state constitution was promulgated. In December 1965, the state constitution was amended to become the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, and some provisions of the Malaysian Constitution were applied to Singapore.
The Constitution stipulates that the parliamentary republican system is implemented. The president is the head of state. In 1992, the National Assembly enacted the presidential election bill, which stipulated that the president would be elected from parliamentary elections to elected from 1993, and the term of office was changed from four years to six years. The president appoints the majority leader of the parliament as the prime minister; the president and the parliament jointly exercise legislative power. The President has the power to veto the government budget and the appointment of public sector positions; to review the implementation of the Internal Security Act and the Religious Harmony Act; and to investigate corruption cases. The President must first seek the advice of the Presidential Advisory Council when exercising the authority of the main civil servant. In February 2017, the Singapore Parliament passed the presidential election amendment bill, revised the elected presidential system, and implemented the reserve election mechanism. Under this mechanism, if any of the Chinese, Malay, Indian, and other ethnic groups went through five Neither of the presidents has a presidency, and the next presidential election will be given priority to the candidate. In September 2017, the former Malay National Assembly President Halima was elected to the presidency and was elected as the only eligible candidate to become the first elected president under the system of presidential elections.
[National Association] Implement a one-chamber system for a term of five years. Congress can be disbanded in advance, and the election must be held within three months of the dissolution of the parliament. Members of Parliament are divided into elected members, non-elected members, and government members. Among them, elected members are elected by citizens. Non-constituency members are appointed from the unelected candidates of the opposition party with the highest number of votes, up to a maximum of six, thus ensuring that there are representatives of non-ruling parties in the Congress. The Official Committee is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Special Selection Committee of the National Assembly for a two-and-a-half-year term to reflect the views of independent and non-partisan individuals. The current parliament was elected on September 11, 2015, with a total of 92 members. Among them, 89 are elected members (including 83 from the People’s Action Party and 6 from the Workers’ Party) and 3 non-elected members. The current speaker is Tan Chuan Jin.
[Government] The current cabinet was formed on September 28, 2015 and has been reorganized several times. The main members are: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Security Coordinator Teo Chee Hean, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic and Social Policy Coordinator Tharman Shanmugaratnam, and Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Finance A total of 19 people.
Government website: www.gov.sg.
[Judiciary] Set up the Supreme Court and the General Prosecutor’s Office. The Supreme Court consists of the High Court and the Court of Appeal. In 1994, the application to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was abolished and the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court was determined to be the Court of Final Appeal. The Supreme Court Justice is recommended by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President. Justice Sundaresh Menon, Attorney General Huang Lusheng.
【政 党】 已注册的政党共30多个。主要有：
（1）人民行动党（The People’s Action Party）：执政党。1954年11月由李光耀等人发起成立。从1959年至今一直保持执政党地位。李光耀长期任该党秘书长，1991年吴作栋接任。2004年12月，李显龙接替吴作栋出任该党秘书长。现任党主席颜金勇（Gan Kim Yong）。
（2）工人党（The Worker’s Party）：1957年11月创立。近年来影响有所扩大。1981年起，在大选中数次赢得议席。2015年大选中获6席。现任主席林瑞莲（Lim Swee Lian），秘书长毕丹星（Pritam Singh）。
【经 济】 属外贸驱动型经济，以电子、石油化工、金融、航运、服务业为主，高度依赖中、美、日、欧和周边市场，外贸总额是GDP的四倍。经济曾长期高速增长，1960～1984年间GDP年均增长9%。1997年受到亚洲金融危机冲击，但并不严重。2001年受全球经济放缓影响，经济出现2%的负增长，陷入独立之后最严重衰退。为刺激经济发展，政府提出“打造新的新加坡”，努力向知识经济转型，并成立经济重组委员会，全面检讨经济发展政策，积极与世界主要经济体商签自由贸易协定。2008年受国际金融危机影响，金融、贸易、制造、旅游等多个产业遭到冲击。新加坡政府采取积极应对措施，加强金融市场监管，努力维护金融市场稳定，提升投资者信心并降低通胀率，并推出新一轮刺激经济政策。2010年经济增长14.5%。2011年，受欧债危机负面影响，经济增长再度放缓。2012年至2016年经济增长率介于1%-2%之间。2017年2月，新加坡“未来经济委员会”发布未来十年经济发展战略，提出经济年均增长2%至3%、实现包容发展、建设充满机遇的国家等目标，并制定深入拓展国际联系、推动并落实产业转型蓝图、打造互联互通城市等七大发展战略。
[Political Party] There are more than 30 registered political parties. There are:
(1) The People’s Action Party: The ruling party. In November 1954, it was initiated by Lee Kuan Yew and others. From 1959 to the present, he has maintained the status of the ruling party. Lee Kuan Yew served as the secretary general of the party for a long time. In 1991, Wu Zuodong took over. In December 2004, Lee Hsien Loong succeeded Goh Chok Tong as the party secretary. The current party chairman, Gan Kim Yong.
(2) The Worker’s Party: Founded in November 1957. The impact has expanded in recent years. Since 1981, he has won several seats in the general election. In the 2015 general election, 6 seats were won. The current chairman, Lim Swee Lian, and the secretary-general, Pritam Singh.
[important person] Hallima Jacob: President. Born in Singapore in August 1954, Malay, Muslim. Graduated from the University of Singapore (predecessor of the National University of Singapore) with a doctorate in law. After graduating from university, he joined the National Staff Association. In 2001, he was elected as a member of the Jurong Constituency, and was re-elected in 2006 and 2011. In May 2011, he served as Minister of State for Social Development, Youth and Sports. In November 2012, he was appointed Minister of State for Social and Family Development. In January 2013, he was elected as the ninth speaker of the Singapore Parliament and re-elected in January 2016. In August 2017, he stepped down as the speaker and elected to the presidency. In September, he was elected the eighth president of Singapore for a six-year term.
Lee Hsien Loong: Prime Minister. Born in Singapore in 1952. After enlisting in 1971, he won a scholarship to study in the UK. In 1974, he received a first class honours degree in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, England and a diploma in computer science. In 1978, he participated in Army command and staff training in Kansas, USA. In 1979, he received a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Administration. After returning to China, he served as chief of staff of the armed forces and director of joint operations and planning. In June 1984, he was promoted to the rank of general. In December of the same year, he was elected to the House of Representatives. He has served as Chairman of the National Economic Committee, Acting Minister of Trade and Industry, Minister of Trade and Industry, and Deputy Prime Minister. He has concurrently served as Minister of State for Trade and Industry, Second Minister of Defense and Chairman of the Financial Management Bureau. He served as Minister of Finance from November 2001 to May 2011. . In August 2004, he served as prime minister. Re-elected three times in May 2006, May 2011 and September 2015.
[Economics] It is a foreign trade-driven economy. It is mainly engaged in electronics, petrochemical, financial, shipping and service industries. It is highly dependent on China, the United States, Japan, Europe and surrounding markets. The total foreign trade is four times that of GDP. The economy has experienced rapid growth for a long time, with an average annual GDP growth of 9% between 1960 and 1984. In 1997, it was hit by the Asian financial crisis, but it was not serious. In 2001, affected by the global economic slowdown, the economy experienced a 2% negative growth and the most serious recession after independence. In order to stimulate economic development, the government proposed to “build a new Singapore”, strive to transform into a knowledge economy, set up an economic restructuring committee, comprehensively review economic development policies, and actively negotiate free trade agreements with major world economies. In 2008, affected by the international financial crisis, many industries such as finance, trade, manufacturing and tourism were hit. The Singapore government has taken proactive measures to strengthen financial market supervision, strive to maintain financial market stability, enhance investor confidence and reduce inflation, and launch a new round of stimulus policies. In 2010, the economy grew by 14.5%. In 2011, due to the negative impact of the European debt crisis, economic growth slowed again. From 2012 to 2016, the economic growth rate is between 1% and 2%. In February 2017, Singapore’s “Future Economic Committee” released its economic development strategy for the next ten years, proposing targets such as an average annual growth rate of 2% to 3%, achieving inclusive development, and building a country full of opportunities, and formulating in-depth international links and promoting It also implements seven major development strategies, such as the blueprint for industrial transformation and the creation of interconnected cities.
The specific economic data for 2017 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: $323.9 billion.
Per capita GDP: 55,000 US dollars.
GDP growth rate: 3.6%.
Currency: Singapore Dollar (Singapore Dollar).
Exchange rate against the US dollar (average 2017): $1 ≈ 1.3807 Singapore dollars.
Inflation rate: 0.6%.
Unemployment rate: 2.2%.
【资 源】 自然资源匮乏。
【工 业】 主要包括制造业和建筑业。制造业产品主要包括电子、化学与化工、生物医药、精密机械、交通设备、石油产品、炼油等产品。新是世界第三大炼油中心。
【农 业】 用于农业生产的土地占国土总面积1%左右，产值占国民经济不到0.1%，绝大部分粮食、蔬菜从马来西亚、中国、印度尼西亚和澳大利亚进口。
[Resources] Lack of natural resources.
[Industrial] Mainly includes manufacturing and construction. Manufacturing products mainly include electronics, chemicals and chemicals, biomedicine, precision machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, oil refining and other products. New is the third largest refining center in the world.
[Agriculture] The land used for agricultural production accounts for about 1% of the total land area, and the output value accounts for less than 0.1% of the national economy. Most of the food and vegetables are imported from Malaysia, China, Indonesia and Australia.
[Service industry] Including financial services, retail and wholesale trade, hotel tourism, transportation and telecommunications, business services, etc., is the leader of economic growth.
[Tourism] One of the main sources of foreign exchange. Visitors are mainly from China, ASEAN countries, Australia, India and Japan. The main attractions are: Sentosa Island, Botanical Garden, Night Zoo and more.
[Transportation] The transportation is developed and the facilities are convenient. It is an important entrepot in the world and an aviation center connecting Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania.
Railway: It is mainly based on the subway, and another light rail railway is connected to the subway.
Highway: The total length is about 3,300 kilometers, and the whole island road network extends in all directions.
Water transport: one of the world’s busiest ports and one of Asia’s major transit hubs, the world’s largest fuel supply port. There are more than 200 routes connecting more than 600 ports around the world. In 2017, the port handled a total of 626 million tons of freight, with a total container throughput of 34 million cases.
Air Transport: Singapore Changi Airport has been rated as the world’s best airport for many years and has opened routes to about 200 cities in more than 60 countries. In 2017, the number of flights took off and landed 341,000, with a passenger volume of 62.20 million passengers and a cargo volume of 2.13 million tons.
(Source: Statistics Singapore, Ministry of Trade and Industry)
[Financial Finance] In 2017, the fiscal revenue was S$75.1 billion and the surplus was S$1.2 billion. In 2018, the new foreign exchange reserves were 287.6 billion US dollars. No external debt.
【军 事】 新加坡武装部队组建于1965年。总统为三军统帅。实行义务兵役制，服役期2～3年。现役部队总兵力约7.25万。另有预备役25万人，准军事部队10.8万人。新加坡军队主要在国外训练。1971年与英国、澳大利亚、新西兰和马来西亚组成“五国联防”。重视全民防卫教育。致力于建设第三代“智能”军队。新加坡2018年国防预算为112亿美元。
【文 化】 在保留各民族传统文化的同时，鼓励向新加坡统一民族文化演变。
[Foreign Trade] is an important pillar of the national economy. In 2018, Singapore’s total foreign trade in goods was about $7736 billion, an increase of 9.2% year-on-year. Of this total, imports were US$ 366.5 billion, an increase of 10.6%, and exports were US$ 407.1 billion, an increase of 7.9%. The main imported commodities are electronic vacuum tubes, crude oil, processed petroleum products, office and data processor parts. The main export commodities are refined oil, electronic components, chemicals and industrial machinery. The main trading partners are: China, Malaysia, EU, Indonesia, and the United States.
[Foreign Investment] Promote a “regionalized economic development strategy” and vigorously invest overseas. As of the end of 2016, foreign direct investment totaled 764.6 billion Singapore dollars, mainly concentrated in the financial services industry and manufacturing. The main direct investment countries are China, the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Malaysia.
[Inward Investment] As of the end of 2016, Singapore has attracted a total of 135.95 billion new direct overseas investments, mostly concentrated in the financial services industry and manufacturing. The main sources of direct investment are the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.
[People’s Life] In 2017, the per capita GDP was 55,000 US dollars. The government unified the construction of public housing units, with a residential housing rate of 90%. The average life expectancy is 82 years old, the literacy rate is 97% (over 15 years old), there are 23 doctors per 10,000 people, and there are 110 private cars per thousand people.
[Military] The Singapore Armed Forces were formed in 1965. The president is the commander of the three armed forces. The compulsory military service system is implemented, and the service period is 2 to 3 years. The total strength of the active service forces is about 72,500. There are also 250,000 reservemen and 108,000 paramilitary units. The Singaporean army is mainly trained abroad. In 1971, he formed the “Five-Country Joint Defense” with the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia. Pay attention to national defense education. Committed to building the third generation of “smart” troops. Singapore’s defense budget for 2018 is $11.2 billion.
[Cultural] While preserving the traditional culture of each ethnic group, it encourages the unification of national culture into Singapore.
【教 育】 新加坡的教育制度强调双语、体育、道德教育，创新和独立思考能力并重。双语政策要求学生除了学习英文，还要兼通母语。政府推行“资讯科技教育”，促使学生掌握电脑知识。学校绝大多数为公立，著名高等院校包括新加坡国立大学、南洋理工大学、新加坡管理大学和新加坡科技设计大学等。
[Education] Singapore’s education system emphasizes bilingualism, physical education, and moral education. Both innovation and independent thinking are equally important. The bilingual policy requires students to have a native language in addition to learning English. The Government has implemented “information technology education” to encourage students to master computer knowledge. The vast majority of schools are public, and the famous universities include the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Management University and Singapore University of Technology and Design.
[Press and Publication] English newspapers include “Straits Times”, “Business Times” and “New Newspaper”; Chinese newspapers include “Lianhe Zaobao”, “United Evening News” and “Xinming Daily”; Malay newspaper has “Daily News”; The Tamil newspaper has the Tamil Daily.
Radio stations broadcast in Malay, English, Mandarin and Tamil.
The TV network covers the whole country. The New Media Group is a combination of a number of companies operating TV and radio. It mainly operates 6 channels including Channel 5, Channel 8, Asia News, and broadcasts Chinese, English, Malay and Tamil programs. There are also private channels and TV channels established by the private newspaper holding group.
[External Relations] Based on ASEAN, it is committed to safeguarding ASEAN’s unity and cooperation and promoting ASEAN’s greater role in regional affairs. Facing Asia, focusing on developing cooperation with Asian countries, especially China, Japan, South Korea, India and other important countries; “Big country balance” advocates establishing a strategic balance pattern between the United States, China, Japan and India in the Asia-Pacific region; highlighting economic diplomacy and actively promoting trade and investment liberalization, and has signed bilateral free trade agreements with many countries. Has joined the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (CPTPP) and completed the domestic approval process. It has initiated the establishment of an inter-continental cooperation mechanism such as the Asia-Europe Meeting and the East Asia-Latin America Forum. Actively promote the signing of the Inter-State Anti-Piracy Cooperation Agreement (ReCAAP) in Asia, and the Information Sharing Center established under the agreement was formally established in November 2006. A total of 175 countries have established diplomatic relations.