Republic of Korea 大韩民国

【国 名】 大韩民国(Republic of Korea)。

【面 积】 约10万平方公里。

【人 口】 约5100万。为单一民族,通用韩国语,50%左右的人口信奉基督教、佛教等宗教。

【首 都】 首尔(Seoul),人口约1000万,面积605平方公里,年均气温11.6℃。

【国家元首】 总统文在寅(Moon Jae-in),2017年5月当选并就任。

【重要节日】 春节:农历正月初一;独立纪念日:3月1日;光复节:8月15日,纪念从日本殖民统治下光复(1945年)和大韩民国建国(1948年);中秋节:农历八月十五;开天节:10月3日,传说中古朝鲜的建国日。

【简 况】 位于亚洲大陆东北部朝鲜半岛南半部。东、南、西三面环海。属温带季风气候,年均气温13℃-14℃,年均降水量约1300-1500毫米。

1910年至1945年,朝鲜半岛沦为日本殖民地。1945年8月日本投降,美苏军队分别进驻半岛南北部。1948年8月15日半岛南半部建立大韩民国,李承晚出任首届总统。1960年李承晚下台,同年8月尹潽善任总统。1961年朴正熙发动军事政变,此后长期执政。1979年朴正熙遇刺身亡,全斗焕发动政变,于1980年出任总统。1987年韩国修改宪法,实行总统直选,同年卢泰愚当选第13届总统。此后金泳三、金大中、卢武铉、李明博、朴槿惠和文在寅先后当选第14届至19届总统。

[Country name] Republic of Korea.

[Area] About 100,000 square kilometers.

[People] About 51 million. For a single nation, GM Korean, about 50% of the population believes in Christianity, Buddhism and other religions.

[Capital] Seoul, with a population of about 10 million, an area of ​​605 square kilometers, with an average annual temperature of 11.6 °C.

[Head of State] President of the University of Hong Kong (Moon Jae-in), elected in May 2017 and took office.

[Important Festival] Spring Festival: the first day of the first lunar month; Independence Day: March 1; Guangfu Festival: August 15th, commemorating the restoration of the Japanese colonial rule (1945) and the founding of the Republic of Korea (1948); Mid-Autumn Festival: Lunar August 15th; Kaitian Festival: October 3rd, the legendary ancient North Korea’s founding day.

[Profile] Located in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula in the northeast of the Asian continent. The east, south and west are surrounded by the sea. It is a temperate monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 13°C-14°C and an average annual precipitation of about 1300-1500mm.

From 1910 to 1945, the Korean peninsula became a Japanese colony. In August 1945, Japan surrendered, and the US and Soviet troops entered the north and south of the peninsula. On August 15, 1948, the Republic of Korea was established in the southern half of the peninsula, and Li Chengyin became the first president. In 1960, Li Chengyue stepped down. In August of the same year, Yin Yu was the president. In 1961, Park Chung-hee launched a military coup and has been in power for a long time. In 1979, Park Chung-hee was stabbed and killed. Quan Dou-hwan launched a coup and became president in 1980. In 1987, South Korea amended its constitution and implemented direct presidential election. In the same year, Lu Taiyu was elected the 13th president. Since then, Jin Yongsan, Jin Dazhong, Roh Moo-hyun, Lee Myung-bak, Park Geun-hye and Wen Zai-Yi have been elected as the 14th to 19th Presidents.

【宪 法】 1987年10月全民投票通过现行宪法,1988年2月25日生效。宪法规定,总统享有作为国家元首、政府首脑和武装力量总司令的权力,任期5年,不得连任。

【议 会】 国会,立法机构。主要职能包括:审议各项法案;审议国家预决算;监察政府工作;批准对外条约以及同意宣战或媾和、弹劾总统和主要政府官员、否决总统的紧急命令等。实行一院制,共300个议席,议员任期4年。第20届国会2016年4月选出。国会设1名议长和2名副议长,由议员投票选举产生,现任议长文喜相,副议长李柱荣、朱昇镕。

【政 府】 设18部、5处、17厅,总统兼任政府首脑,国务总理辅助总统工作。现任总理李洛渊,2017年5月就任。现任内阁主要成员有:经济副总理兼企划财政部长官洪南基、社会副总理兼教育部长官柳恩惠、科学技术信息通信部长官俞英民、外交部长官康京和、统一部长官赵明均、法务部长官朴相基、国防部长官郑景斗、行政安全部长官金富谦、文化体育观光部长官都钟焕、农林畜产食品部长官李开浩、产业通商资源部长官成允模、保健福祉部长官朴凌厚、环境部长官赵明来、雇佣劳动部长官李载甲、女性家族部长官陈善美、国土交通部长官金贤美、海洋水产部长官金荣春、中小风险企业部长官洪钟学。

【主要网址】 总统府:http://www.president.go.kr

外交部:http://www.mofa.go.kr

【行政区划】 全国划分为1个特别市:首尔特别市;2个特别自治市(道):世宗特别自治市、济州特别自治道;8个道:京畿道、江原道、忠清北道、忠清南道、全罗北道、全罗南道、庆尚北道、庆尚南道;6个广域市:釜山、大邱、仁川、光州、大田、蔚山。

【司法机构】 审判机关有大法院、高等法院、地方法院和家庭法院。大法院是最高审判机关,院长由总统任命,须经国会同意,任期6年,不得连任,现任院长金命洙。另设有宪法裁判所,现任所长刘南锡。

检察机关有大检察厅、高等检察厅和地方检察厅,隶属法务部。大检察厅是最高检察机关,检察总长由总统任命,无须国会同意。现任检察总长文武一。

[Constitution] In October 1987, the referendum passed the current Constitution, which came into force on February 25, 1988. According to the Constitution, the President has the power to be the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The term of office is five years and cannot be re-elected.

[Parliament] Congress, legislative body. The main functions include: reviewing various bills; reviewing national budgets and final accounts; monitoring government work; approving foreign treaties and agreeing to declare war or defamation, impeaching the president and major government officials, and vetoing the president’s urgent orders. A one-chamber system is implemented with a total of 300 seats, and the term of office of the members is four years. The 20th Congress was elected in April 2016. The Congress has one speaker and two deputy speakers, elected by the members of the parliament. The current speaker is Wen Xixiang, deputy speaker Li Zhurong and Zhu Shengyu.

[Government] There are 18, 5, and 17 halls. The president is also the head of the government. The prime minister assists the president. The current Prime Minister, Li Luoyuan, took office in May 2017. The current cabinet members include: Hong Nanji, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Planning and Finance, Deputy Minister of Education and Minister of Education, Liu Enhui, Minister of Science, Technology, Information and Communication, Yu Yingmin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kang Jinghe, and Minister of Justice Zhao Mingjun, Minister of Justice, Park Xiangji Zheng Dedou, Minister of National Defense, Jin Fuqian, Minister of Administration and Security, Zhong Huan, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Li Kaihao, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Food, Minister of Industry, Trade and Resources, Cheng Yunmo, Minister of Health and Welfare, Park Linghou, Minister of Environment, Zhao Minglai, Employment Labor Minister Li Zaijia, female family minister Chen Shanmei, Minister of Land and Resources Communications Jin Xianmei, Minister of Marine and Fisheries Jin Rongchun, and Minister of Small and Medium Venture Enterprises Hong Zhongxue.

[Main Website] Presidential Palace: http://www.president.go.kr

Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mofa.go.kr

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into a special city: Seoul Special City; 2 special municipalities (Tao): Sejong Special Municipality, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province; 8 Roads: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungcheongnam-nam Road, Jeollabuk-do, Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do; 6 wide-area cities: Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan.

[Judiciary] There are large courts, high courts, local courts and family courts. The Grand Court is the highest judicial organ. The President is appointed by the President and must be approved by the National Assembly for a term of six years. He is not eligible for re-election. There is also a constitutional referee, the current director Liu Nanxi.

The procuratorate has a large procuratorate, a high procuratorate and a local procuratorate, and is affiliated with the Ministry of Justice. The Grand Prosecutor’s Office is the highest prosecutor’s office, and the Attorney General is appointed by the President without the consent of the National Assembly. The current chief procurator, Wen Wuyi.

【主要政党】 共同民主党:前身为金大中领导的新政治国民会议。1997年金大中当选总统,该党成为执政党。2003年分裂为开放国民党和民主党,2008年2月合并为统合民主党,7月改名民主党。2011年12月,民主党与市民统合党、韩国劳动组合总联盟合并为民主统合党。2013年5月改名民主党。2014年3月与以安哲秀为代表的政治力量联合组成新政治民主联合党。2015年12月改名共同民主党。2017年5月,该党候选人文在寅赢得大选。2018年6月,该党在国会补缺选举中获胜,在国会拥有130个席位。

自由韩国党:前身为1990年成立的民主自由党,1995年改名为新韩国党,1997年新韩国党和韩国民主党合并,改称大国家党。2012年2月改名为新国家党,2016年12月该党部分议员退党,2017年2月更名为自由韩国党。现为最大在野党,在国会拥有113个席位。

正未来党:2018年2月,由国民之党和正党合并而来,成为韩国第三大党,在国会拥有30个席位。

民主和平党:2018年2月,由国民之党部分成员脱党组建,在国会拥有14个席位。

正义党:前身为进步正义党,2013年7月更名为正义党,在国会拥有6个席位。

【重要人物】 文在寅:总统。1953年1月生于韩国庆尚南道巨济市,毕业于韩国庆熙大学法学系。1982年与前总统卢武铉合作,担任人权律师。2003年起历任卢武铉政府的总统民政首席秘书、市民社会首席秘书、总统政务特别助理、总统秘书室长等职。2012年4月当选国会议员,同年参加总统大选,以微弱票差落败。2017年5月9日在大选中获胜,10日宣誓就职。

李洛渊:国务总理。1952年生于全罗南道。毕业于首尔大学法学专业。在韩国三大报之一的《东亚日报》任职20余年,历任该报驻日本记者、论说委员、国际部长等。金大中政府时期进入政界,四次当选国会议员。2002年起历任新千年民主党发言人、卢武铉当选总统发言人、统合民主新党发言人,曾任党的院内代表、最高委员、事务总长、中央选举对策委员会共同委员长等职。2014年7月至2017年5月任全罗南道知事。2017年5月31日就任国务总理。

[Major political party] The Common Democratic Party: Formerly known as the New Political National Conference led by Kim Dae-jung. In 1997, Kim Dae-jung was elected president and the party became the ruling party. In 2003, it split into the Open Kuomintang and the Democratic Party. In February 2008, it merged into the Unified Democratic Party and in July it was renamed the Democratic Party. In December 2011, the Democratic Party and the Citizens’ Union and the Korean Labor Union General Union merged into the Democratic Integration Party. In May 2013, it was renamed the Democratic Party. In March 2014, he formed a new political and democratic coalition party with political forces represented by An Zhexiu. In December 2015, it was renamed the Common Democratic Party. In May 2017, the party’s candidate, Wen Zai, won the election. In June 2018, the party won the congressional election and had 130 seats in Congress.

The Free Korean Party: formerly known as the Democratic Liberal Party established in 1990, was renamed the New Korea Party in 1995. In 1997, the New Korea Party and the Korean Democratic Party merged and renamed the Grand National Party. In February 2012, it was renamed the New National Party. In December 2016, some members of the party retired from the party. In February 2017, they were renamed the Free Korean Party. Now the largest opposition party, with 113 seats in Congress.

The Zhengfu Party: In February 2018, the National Party and the Zhengdang Party merged to become the third largest party in South Korea and have 30 seats in the National Assembly.

Democratic Peace Party: In February 2018, some members of the National Party were separated from the party and formed 14 seats in Congress.

Justice Party: Formerly known as the Progressive Justice Party, it was renamed the Justice Party in July 2013 and has six seats in Congress.

[Important figures] Wen Zai: President. Born in January 1953 in Geoje, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, he graduated from the Law Department of Kyung Hee University, Korea. In 1982, he co-operated with former President Roh Moo-hyun as a human rights lawyer. Since 2003, he has served as the chief secretary of the presidential civil affairs of the Roh Moo-hyun government, the chief secretary of the civil society, the special assistant to the presidential government, and the president’s secretary. In April 2012, he was elected as a member of parliament. In the same year, he participated in the presidential election and lost with a weak vote. On May 9, 2017, he won the election and was sworn in on the 10th.

Li Luoyuan: Prime Minister. Born in 1952 in Jeollanam-do. Graduated from Seoul University with a major in law. He has served in the East Asia Daily, one of the three major newspapers in Korea, for more than 20 years. He has served as a journalist, commentator, and international minister. During the Jin Dazhong government, he entered the political circle and was elected to the parliament for four times. Since 2002, he has served as a spokesperson for the New Millennium Democratic Party, a spokesman for Roh Moo-hyun’s election as president, and a spokesperson for the New Democratic Party. He served as the party’s representative, the top member, the chief of affairs, and the chairman of the Central Election Countermeasures Committee. From July 2014 to May 2017, he served as Governor of Jeollanam-do. On May 31, 2017, he became the Prime Minister.

【经 济】 20世纪60年代,韩国经济开始起步。70年代以来,持续高速增长,人均国民生产总值从1962年的87美元增至1996年的10548美元,创造了“汉江奇迹”。1996年加入经济合作与发展组织(OECD),同年成为世界贸易组织(WTO)创始国之一。1997年亚洲金融危机后,韩国经济进入中速增长期。

产业以制造业和服务业为主,造船、汽车、电子、钢铁、纺织等产业产量均进入世界前10名。大企业集团在韩国经济中占有十分重要的地位,目前主要大企业集团有三星、现代汽车、SK、LG等。

2008年,受国际金融危机影响,韩国经济明显下滑。韩国政府迅速采取包括大规模财政刺激等一系列政策,金融市场全面回暖,实体经济企稳回升,企业和消费者信心不断增强,成为经济合作与发展组织成员国中率先走出谷底的国家。2017年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值(2017年):1.5万亿美元。

人均国民收入(2017年):2.92万美元。

经济增长率(2017年):3.1%。

货币名称:韩元。

汇率:1美元≈1120韩元(实行浮动汇率制)。

【资 源】 矿产资源较少,已发现的矿物有280多种,其中有经济价值的50多种。有开采利用价值的矿物有铁、无烟煤、铅、锌、钨等,但储量不大。自然资源匮乏,主要工业原料均依赖进口。

【工 业】 工矿业产值占GDP的30%,半导体销售额居世界第1位,粗钢产量居世界第6位。

【农 业】 现有耕地面积175.9公顷,主要分布在西部和南部平原、丘陵地区。农业人口约占总人口的6.8%。农业产值(含渔业和林业)占GDP的2.6%。

[Economy] In the 1960s, the Korean economy began to take off. Since the 1970s, sustained high-speed growth, per capita GDP has increased from 87 US dollars in 1962 to 10548 US dollars in 1996, creating a “Hanjiang miracle.” In 1996, he joined the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and in the same year became one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the Korean economy entered a period of medium-speed growth.

The industry is dominated by manufacturing and service industries, and the output of shipbuilding, automobile, electronics, steel, textile and other industries has entered the top 10 in the world. Large enterprise groups occupy a very important position in the Korean economy. At present, major large enterprise groups include Samsung, Hyundai, SK, and LG.

In 2008, affected by the international financial crisis, the Korean economy fell significantly. The South Korean government quickly adopted a series of policies including large-scale fiscal stimulus, the financial market rebounded, the real economy stabilized and rebounded, and the confidence of enterprises and consumers continued to increase. It became the first country among the member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (2017): $1.5 trillion.

Per capita national income (2017): $29,200.

Economic growth rate (2017): 3.1%.

Currency name: Korean won.

Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 1120 won (implemented floating exchange rate system).

[Resources] There are fewer mineral resources, and more than 280 minerals have been discovered, including more than 50 economic value. Minerals with mining value are iron, anthracite, lead, zinc, tungsten, etc., but the reserves are not large. Natural resources are scarce and major industrial raw materials are dependent on imports.

[Industrial] Industrial and mining output accounts for 30% of GDP, semiconductor sales ranks first in the world, and crude steel production ranks sixth in the world.

[Agriculture] The existing cultivated land area is 175.9 hectares, mainly distributed in the western and southern plains and hilly areas. The agricultural population accounts for about 6.8% of the total population. Agricultural output (including fisheries and forestry) accounts for 2.6% of GDP.

【旅游业】 韩国旅游业较为发达。近年来,韩政府将旅游业确定为战略产业,积极鼓励和发展旅游业,通过对外宣传“韩流”文化、简化热点旅游地区入境手续、完善国内旅游市场、改善国内旅游硬件设施、提升相关服务水平,吸引国外游客。据韩方统计,2017年访韩外国游客为1334万人次。2018年1月至10月,访韩外国游客为1267万人次。

【交通运输】陆、海、空交通运输均较发达。全国已建成铁路网和高速公路网。

铁路:铁路总长约3900公里。2004年3月,首尔-釜山高速铁路开通,全长412公里,最高时速300公里。

公路:公路总长约10.7万公里,其中高速公路约4200公里。登记的汽车有2200多万辆。

水运:以海运为主。主要港口有:釜山、浦项、仁川、群山、木浦、济州、丽水等。

空运:开通国内航线21条,国际航线350条(其中外国航空公司航线210条),现有8个国际机场:仁川、金浦、济州、金海、清州、大邱、襄阳、务安。

【财政金融】 2017年韩国财政收支情况(单位:万亿韩元):财政收入375.6万亿韩元,财政支出346.4万亿韩元。截至2018年底,韩国外汇储备约为4037亿美元。

【对外贸易】 2017年外贸总额10521亿美元,贸易收支顺差953亿美元,增长6.6%。其中,出口5737亿美元,增长15.8%;进口4784亿美元,增长17.8%。和世界上180多个国家和地区有经贸关系,中国、美国、日本是韩国三大主要贸易伙伴国。

主要进口产品有原油、半导体、天然气、石油制品、半导体零部件、钢板、煤炭、通讯器材、电缆等。主要出口产品有汽车及零部件、半导体、有线无线通讯器材、船舶、石油制品、平板液晶显示器、个人电脑、影视器材等。

【外国资本】 20世纪60年代和70年代,外国直接投资仅占资本流入的一小部分,80年代起韩国逐步放宽外商投资限制。1997年金融危机后,韩加大引进外资力度。

[Tourism] Korea’s tourism industry is relatively developed. In recent years, the Korean government has identified tourism as a strategic industry, actively encouraged and developed tourism, publicized the “Korean Wave” culture, simplified entry procedures for hot tourist areas, improved the domestic tourism market, improved domestic tourism hardware facilities, and improved related services. Level and attract foreign tourists. According to the statistics of the ROK, the number of foreign tourists visiting Korea in 2017 was 13.34 million. From January to October 2018, the number of foreign tourists visiting Korea was 12.67 million.

[Transportation] Land, sea and air transportation are relatively developed. The railway network and expressway network have been built nationwide.

Railway: The total length of the railway is about 3,900 kilometers. In March 2004, the Seoul-Busan high-speed railway was opened with a total length of 412 kilometers and a top speed of 300 kilometers per hour.

Highway: The total length of the road is about 107,000 kilometers, of which the expressway is about 4,200 kilometers. There are more than 22 million registered cars.

Water transport: mainly by sea. The main ports are: Busan, Pohang, Incheon, Gunsan, Mokpo, Jeju, and Yeosu.

Air transportation: 21 domestic routes and 350 international routes (including 210 foreign airlines). There are 8 international airports: Incheon, Gimpo, Jeju, Gimhae, Cheongju, Daegu, Fuyang and Muan.

[Financial Finance] The fiscal revenue and expenditure of South Korea in 2017 (unit: trillion won): fiscal revenue of 375.6 trillion won and fiscal expenditure of 346.4 trillion won. As of the end of 2018, South Korea’s foreign exchange reserves were approximately $403.7 billion.

[Foreign Trade] In 2017, the total foreign trade volume was 105.21 billion US dollars, and the trade balance of trade surplus was 95.3 billion US dollars, an increase of 6.6%. Among them, exports were US$573.7 billion, up 15.8%; imports were US$478.4 billion, up 17.8%. It has economic and trade relations with more than 180 countries and regions in the world. China, the United States and Japan are the three major trading partners of South Korea.

The main imported products are crude oil, semiconductors, natural gas, petroleum products, semiconductor parts, steel plates, coal, communication equipment, and cables. The main export products are automobiles and parts, semiconductors, wired and wireless communication equipment, ships, petroleum products, flat panel LCD monitors, personal computers, video equipment and so on.

[Foreign Capital] In the 1960s and 1970s, foreign direct investment only accounted for a small portion of capital inflows. Since the 1980s, South Korea has gradually relaxed restrictions on foreign investment. After the 1997 financial crisis, the Republic of Korea increased the introduction of foreign investment.

【经济团体】 大韩商工会议所:1948年7月正式成立。是韩国最大的民间经济团体,现有正式会员企业5.5万家,在韩国内有71家分支机构。主要职能是:调查了解企业情况,向政府提出政策性意见和建议。作为民间团体,对国内生产、物价等进行统计调查;组织、领导会员企业的技工培训和技术交流活动;负责与国外经济团体的交流与合作;负责发放原产地证明等。1992年8月成立韩中民间经济协议会,在北京设有代表处。会长朴容晚。

韩国贸易协会:成立于1946年。有会员企业8.6万家。主要职能是:研究韩国的贸易政策,向政府提出意见和建议;向会员企业提供各种贸易咨询和信息服务,促进与世界各国的贸易合作,代培贸易专业人员。多次协助中方在韩举办贸易展,并组织韩企业赴华考察,组派采购团,在北京设有国际事务支部。会长金仁浩。

全国经济人联合会:成立于1961年。由制造业、贸易、金融、建设等各行业67个团体、韩国具有代表性的431家大企业及4个名誉会员组成。主要职能是:代表大企业向政府提出政策性意见和建议;协助会员企业加强与国际经济组织和国外企业的联系;研究交流经营理论和经营方法;调查研究国内外经济动向;加强与社会各界的联系,组织会员企业开展各项公益事业。设有中国委员会,2003年5月成立全经联中国论坛。会长许昌秀。

中小企业中央会:成立于1962年。由中小企业行业协会组成,2006年改用现名,有500多家注册会员企业。主要职能是:维护中小企业利益,代表中小企业向政府提出政策性建议;通过下属行业组织指导中小企业发展,开展中小企业经营研究,向会员企业提供各种信息和咨询;管理赴韩外国劳工事务。会长朴成泽。

【军 事】 实行义务兵役制。陆军和海军陆战队服役期为21个月,空军为24个月,海军为23个月。总统为三军最高统帅。国防部长官郑景斗(2018年9月就任),参谋长联席会议主席朴汉基(2018年10月就任)。现有总兵力65.5万,其中陆军52.2万,海军6.8万,空军6.5万。预备役304万。2019年国防预算约46.69万亿韩元,较上年增长8.2%。

【教 育】 1953年起实行小学六年制义务教育,从1993年起普及初中三年义务教育。高等教育机构80%为私立。2019年教育预算约75.2万亿韩元,较上年增长10.2%。

全国各类学校(公立、私立)近2万所,学生1100多万人,教师50多万人。著名大学有首尔大学、延世大学、高丽大学等。

[Economic Group] The Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Formally established in July 1948. It is the largest private economic group in Korea, with 55,000 official member companies and 71 branches in Korea. The main functions are: investigating the situation of the company and making policy recommendations and suggestions to the government. As a civil society, it conducts statistical investigations on domestic production and prices; organizes and leads technician training and technical exchange activities of member companies; is responsible for exchanges and cooperation with foreign economic groups; and is responsible for issuing certificates of origin. In August 1992, the Korea-China Civil Economics Association was established and a representative office was established in Beijing. President Park Yong is late.

Korea Trade Association: Established in 1946. There are 86,000 member companies. The main functions are: research on Korea’s trade policy, advice and suggestions to the government; provide various trade consulting and information services to member companies, promote trade cooperation with countries around the world, and promote trade professionals. He has assisted the Chinese side in holding trade exhibitions in Korea for many times, and organized Korean companies to visit China, set up a purchasing group, and set up an international affairs branch in Beijing. President Jin Renhao.

National Federation of Economic Persons: Established in 1961. It consists of 67 groups in various industries such as manufacturing, trade, finance, and construction, 431 large companies represented by Korea, and four honorary members. The main functions are: to provide policy advice and suggestions to the government on behalf of large enterprises; to assist member companies to strengthen ties with international economic organizations and foreign companies; to study and exchange business theory and management methods; to investigate and study economic trends at home and abroad; Contact, organize member companies to carry out various public welfare undertakings. With the China Council, the All-China Forum was established in May 2003. President Xu Changxiu.

Central Committee for SMEs: Established in 1962. It is composed of SME industry associations. In 2006, it changed its current name and has more than 500 registered member companies. The main functions are: safeguarding the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises, making policy recommendations to the government on behalf of small and medium-sized enterprises; guiding the development of small and medium-sized enterprises through subordinate industry organizations, conducting research on small and medium-sized enterprises, providing various information and consultations to member companies; and managing foreign labor affairs in Korea . President Park Cheng-soo.

[Military] Implement compulsory military service. The Army and Marine Corps have a 21-month service period, the Air Force has 24 months, and the Navy has 23 months. The president is the supreme commander of the three armed forces. Minister of National Defense Zheng Jingdou (supplied in September 2018), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Park Han-ki (in October 2018). The total strength of the company is 655,000, of which the army is 522,000, the navy is 68,000, and the air force is 65,000. Reserves are 3.04 million. In 2019, the national defense budget was about 46.69 trillion won, an increase of 8.2% over the previous year.

[Education] Since 1953, the six-year compulsory education for primary schools has been implemented. Since 1993, compulsory education for junior high schools has been popularized. 80% of higher education institutions are private. The education budget for 2019 was about 75.2 trillion won, an increase of 10.2% over the previous year.

There are nearly 20,000 schools (public and private) in the country, with more than 11 million students and more than 500,000 teachers. Famous universities include Seoul National University, Yonsei University, and Korea University.

【韩朝关系】 朝鲜战争停战后,朝鲜半岛长期处于政治对立、军事对峙、经济隔绝状态。1990年9月至1991年12月,朝韩先后举行5次总理会谈,签署《南北和解、互不侵犯及交流合作协议书》,发表《朝鲜半岛无核化共同宣言》,朝韩关系有所改善。此后受金日成逝世及朝核等问题影响,朝韩关系趋冷。

1998至2008年,韩国金大中和卢武铉两任政府分别奉行对朝“阳光政策”及“和平与繁荣政策”,推进南北和解合作。2000年6月和2007年10月,金大中、卢武铉分别访朝,同金正日举行首脑会晤,发表《南北共同宣言》和《南北关系发展与和平繁荣宣言》。其间朝韩举行多次官方会谈和一系列民间交流活动,签署多项合作协议。

2008年至2016年李明博、朴槿惠任韩国总统期间,南北关系时有起伏。2014年2月双方举行高级别会谈和离散亲属会面。2015年8月和10月,双方先后举行高级别磋商和离散亲属会面。2016年2月韩方关闭开城工业园。

2018年朝韩关系取得积极进展。1月,双方重启板门店热线、西海军事热线,举行高级别会谈。2月,朝方派金永南、金与正出席韩国平昌冬奥会开幕式,派朝鲜劳动党中央委员会副委员长、统战部部长金英哲出席闭幕式。韩国国家安保室长郑义溶、国家情报院院长徐薰作为文在寅总统特使访朝,会见朝鲜劳动党委员长金正恩。4月,金正恩委员长同文在寅总统在板门店举行首次领导人会晤,发表《板门店宣言》。5月双方再次会晤。9月,文在寅访朝,双方第三次会晤,签署《9月平壤共同宣言》。9月,韩朝共同联络办事处正式成立。10月,双方举行第10次北南将军级军事会谈和山林领域合作会议。12月,朝韩军方对非军事区内试点拆除哨所情况进行互查。同月,朝韩在板门店举行东西部铁路公路对接项目开工仪式。2019年1月,朝鲜最高领导人金正恩发表新年贺词,表明进一步发展朝韩关系意愿,韩方对此表示欢迎。

[Korean-North Korean Relations] After the Korean War, the Korean peninsula has long been in political opposition, military confrontation, and economic isolation. From September 1990 to December 1991, the DPRK and the ROK held five prime ministerial talks, signed the “Agreement on North-South Reconciliation, Non-Aggression and Exchange and Cooperation”, and issued the “Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” improve. Since then, due to the death of Kim Il Sung and the DPRK nuclear issue, the relationship between the DPRK and the ROK has become cold.

From 1998 to 2008, the two governments of South Korea’s Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun pursued the “sunshine policy” and the “peace and prosperity policy” respectively, and promoted North-South reconciliation cooperation. In June 2000 and October 2007, Kim Tae-chung and Roh Moo-hyun visited the DPRK respectively, held a summit meeting with Kim Jong Il, and issued the “South-North Joint Declaration” and the “Declaration on the Development and Peaceful Prosperity of North-South Relations.” During the period, the DPRK and China held several official talks and a series of non-governmental exchange activities and signed a number of cooperation agreements.

During the period from 2008 to 2016, when Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye were presidents of South Korea, there was an ups and downs in North-South relations. In February 2014, the two sides held high-level talks and met with separated relatives. In August and October 2015, the two sides held high-level consultations and meetings with separated relatives. In February 2016, the Korean side closed the Kaesong Industrial Park.

Positive progress has been made in North Korea relations in 2018. In January, the two sides restarted the Panmunjom hotline and the West Sea military hotline to hold high-level talks. In February, the DPRK sent Jin Yongnan and Jin Hezhen to attend the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics in South Korea, and sent the Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the Minister of United Front Work, Jin Yingzhe, to attend the closing ceremony. Zheng Yurong, head of the National Security Office of South Korea, and Xu Xun, President of the National Intelligence Service, visited the DPRK as the special envoy of President Wen Hao and met with Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea. In April, Chairman Kim Jong-un, Tong Wen, held the first meeting of leaders at the Panmunjom in the President’s meeting in Panmunjom and published the Panmunjom Declaration. The two sides met again in May. In September, Wen was in a visit to the DPRK, and the two sides met for the third time and signed the “Pyongyang Joint Declaration in September.” In September, the Korea-DPRK Joint Liaison Office was formally established. In October, the two sides held the 10th North-South General Military Talks and Mountain Forest Cooperation Conference. In December, the Korean and Korean military sides conducted a mutual investigation of the pilot demolition of the post in the demilitarized zone. In the same month, the DPRK and Korea held the groundbreaking ceremony for the docking project of the east and west railways and highways in Panmunjom. In January 2019, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un delivered a New Year message, indicating that he would further develop the willingness to relations between the DPRK and the ROK. The ROK side welcomed this.

【新闻出版】 新闻出版业发达。共有新闻机构230多家,从业人员4万多人。报社120多家,杂志种类繁多。《朝鲜日报》(1920年3月创刊)、《中央日报》(1965年9月创刊)、《东亚日报》(1920年4月创刊)是三大全国性韩文日报。

通讯社:联合通讯社,1980年由合同通讯社和东洋通讯社合并而成,1999年兼并内外通讯社。该通讯社在北京、华盛顿、纽约、洛杉矶、东京、巴黎、伦敦、曼谷、莫斯科等地设有分社,同40多家外国通讯社签有新闻交换协定或合作协议。

有10家全国性广播公司,另有地方广播公司59家,有线广播公司81家。

韩国广播公司(KBS):1927年开始试播,自1953年开始对外广播。政府控股广播公司,拥有全国性广播网,目前用韩、英、汉、法、日等11种语言播音。电视台成立于1961年12月。自1996年7月起开通多频道卫星电视节目,主要以数字信号播放。

文化广播公司(MBC):1961年12月开办,拥有全国性广播网。电视台成立于1969年8月,在各大城市有卫星转播站。

首尔广播公司(SBS):1991年12月开播。

[Press and Publication] The press and publication industry is developed. There are more than 230 news agencies and more than 40,000 employees. There are more than 120 newspapers and magazines. The Chosun Ilbo (founded in March 1920), the Central Daily News (founded in September 1965), and the East Asia Daily (founded in April 1920) are the three national Korean daily newspapers.

News Agency: United News Agency, which was formed by the merger of Contract News Agency and Toyo News Agency in 1980. In 1999, it merged with domestic and foreign news agencies. The news agency has branches in Beijing, Washington, New York, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Paris, London, Bangkok, Moscow, etc., and has signed news exchange agreements or cooperation agreements with more than 40 foreign news agencies.

There are 10 national broadcasting companies, 59 local broadcasting companies and 81 cable broadcasting companies.

Korean Broadcasting Corporation (KBS): Started trial broadcasting in 1927 and began broadcasting in 1953. The government-controlled broadcaster has a nationwide broadcast network and is currently broadcasting in 11 languages ​​including Korean, English, Chinese, French and Japanese. The TV station was established in December 1961. Since July 1996, multi-channel satellite TV programs have been launched, mainly broadcasted by digital signals.

Cultural Broadcasting Corporation (MBC): Launched in December 1961, it has a national broadcasting network. The TV station was established in August 1969 and has satellite relay stations in major cities.

Seoul Broadcasting Corporation (SBS): Launched in December 1991.

【对外关系】 二次大战后,韩国长期以对美外交为主。20世纪70年代初开始推行门户开放政策。1988年卢泰愚政府上台后,大力推行“北方外交”,发展与社会主义国家关系。其后历届政府均推行积极外交政策,近年来基本形成了以韩美同盟为基轴、加强美、中、日、俄四大国外交、积极参与地区与国际事务的多层次、全方位外交格局。

韩国与190个国家建立了外交关系,驻外外交机构163个。

【同美国的关系】 韩美1949年1月建交。1953年10月韩美签署《韩美共同防御条约》,确立军事同盟关系。目前美国在韩国有2.85万驻军,掌握韩军战时指挥权,对韩国负有安全防卫义务。2017年2月,美国防部长马蒂斯访韩。3月,美国务卿蒂勒森访韩。6月,韩国总统文在寅访美,同美国总统特朗普会晤。11月,美国总统特朗普访韩,与韩国总统文在寅会晤。2018年2月,美国副总统彭斯参加平昌冬奥会开幕式,美国总统顾问伊万卡·特朗普参加平昌冬奥会闭幕式。2018年5月、9月,韩国总统文在寅两次访美,与美国总统特朗普举行会谈。2018年11月,韩国总统文在寅在APEC领导人非正式会议期间同美国副总统彭斯会晤。

据韩方统计,2018年1-11月,韩美贸易额1198.2亿美元,韩方顺差127.5亿美元。

【同日本的关系】 韩日1965年建交。两国在各领域有着广泛的交流与合作,但历史等问题仍是干扰两国关系的因素。2017年5月,韩国总统文在寅特使文喜相访问日本。同月,韩国总统文在寅同日本首相安倍晋三通电话。7月,文在寅总统在德国汉堡与安倍晋三首相会晤。2018年2月,安倍晋三首相出席平昌冬奥会开幕式,并会见文在寅总统。2018年4月,文在寅总统与安倍晋三首相通电话。2018年5月,文在寅总统赴日本出席第七次中日韩领导人会议,同安倍晋三首相会晤。

据韩方统计,2018年1-11月,韩日贸易额784.9亿美元,韩方逆差221.7亿美元。

【同俄罗斯的关系】 韩国与前苏联1990年9月建交。前苏联解体后,韩国与俄罗斯继续保持外交关系。2017年5月,韩国总统文在寅同俄罗斯总统普京通电话。7月,文在寅总统和普京总统在德国汉堡会晤。9月,文在寅总统访俄,同普京总统会晤。2018年6月,文在寅总统访俄,同普京会晤。9月,韩国国务总理李洛渊访问赴俄罗斯,会见普京总统,出席第四届东方经济论坛。10月,俄罗斯联邦委员会主席瓦伦缇娜·伊万诺夫娃·马特维延科访问韩国,会见文在寅总统。2018年11月,韩国总统文在寅在APEC领导人非正式会议期间同俄罗斯总统普京会晤。

据韩方统计,2018年1-11月,韩俄贸易额227.6亿美元,韩方逆差93亿美元。

[External Relations] After the Second World War, South Korea has long been dominated by US diplomacy. The open door policy was introduced in the early 1970s. After the government of Lu Taiyu came to power in 1988, he vigorously promoted “Northern diplomacy” and developed relations with the socialist countries. Since then, successive governments have all implemented active foreign policy. In recent years, they have basically formed a multi-level and all-round diplomatic pattern based on the ROK-US alliance and strengthening the diplomacy of the four major countries of the United States, China, Japan and Russia and actively participating in regional and international affairs.

South Korea has established diplomatic relations with 190 countries and 163 foreign diplomatic agencies.

[Relationship with the United States] Korea and the United States established diplomatic relations in January 1949. In October 1953, South Korea and the United States signed the “Han-US Joint Defense Treaty” to establish military alliances. At present, the United States has 28,500 troops stationed in South Korea. It has the commanding power of the Korean army in wartime and has a duty of security and defense against South Korea. In February 2017, US Defense Minister Matisse visited South Korea. In March, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited South Korea. In June, South Korean President Wen’s visit to the United States met with US President Trump. In November, US President Trump visited South Korea and met with South Korean President Wen Zai. In February 2018, US Vice President Penns attended the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics. US Presidential Advisor Ivanka Trump attended the closing ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics. In May and September 2018, South Korean President Wen Zai visited the United States twice and held talks with US President Trump. In November 2018, South Korean President Wen Zai met with US Vice President Peng Si during the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting.

According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between South Korea and the United States was 119.82 billion U.S. dollars, and the surplus of the South Korean side was 12.75 billion U.S. dollars.

[Relationship with Japan] Korea and Japan established diplomatic relations in 1965. The two countries have extensive exchanges and cooperation in various fields, but issues such as history are still factors that interfere with the relationship between the two countries. In May 2017, South Korean President Wen’s special envoy Wen Xixiang visited Japan. In the same month, South Korean President Wen was on the phone with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In July, President Wen Yu met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Hamburg, Germany. In February 2018, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe attended the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics and met with President Wen. In April 2018, President Wen was on the phone with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In May 2018, President Wen Yu went to Japan to attend the 7th China-Japan-ROK Leaders’ Meeting and met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.

According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between Korea and Japan was 78.49 billion U.S. dollars, and the Korean deficit was 22.17 billion U.S. dollars.

[Relationship with Russia] South Korea established diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union in September 1990. After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, South Korea and Russia continued to maintain diplomatic relations. In May 2017, South Korean President Wen was on the phone with Russian President Putin. In July, President Wen Yu and President Putin met in Hamburg, Germany. In September, Wen expressed his visit to Russia and met with President Putin. In June 2018, Wen was in a meeting with President Putin and met with Putin. In September, South Korean Prime Minister Lee Loon-woo visited Russia and met with President Putin to attend the 4th Eastern Economic Forum. In October, the Chairman of the Russian Federation Council, Valentina Ivanov Matviyanko, visited South Korea and met with President Wen. In November 2018, South Korean President Wen Zaiyu met with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting.

According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between South Korea and Russia was 22.76 billion U.S. dollars, and the deficit of the South Korean side was 9.3 billion U.S. dollars.