Republic of Korea 大韩民国
【国 名】 大韩民国（Republic of Korea）。
【面 积】 约10万平方公里。
【人 口】 约5100万。为单一民族，通用韩国语，50%左右的人口信奉基督教、佛教等宗教。
【首 都】 首尔（Seoul），人口约1000万，面积605平方公里，年均气温11.6℃。
【国家元首】 总统文在寅（Moon Jae-in），2017年5月当选并就任。
【简 况】 位于亚洲大陆东北部朝鲜半岛南半部。东、南、西三面环海。属温带季风气候，年均气温13℃-14℃，年均降水量约1300-1500毫米。
[Country name] Republic of Korea.
[Area] About 100,000 square kilometers.
[People] About 51 million. For a single nation, GM Korean, about 50% of the population believes in Christianity, Buddhism and other religions.
[Capital] Seoul, with a population of about 10 million, an area of 605 square kilometers, with an average annual temperature of 11.6 °C.
[Head of State] President of the University of Hong Kong (Moon Jae-in), elected in May 2017 and took office.
[Important Festival] Spring Festival: the first day of the first lunar month; Independence Day: March 1; Guangfu Festival: August 15th, commemorating the restoration of the Japanese colonial rule (1945) and the founding of the Republic of Korea (1948); Mid-Autumn Festival: Lunar August 15th; Kaitian Festival: October 3rd, the legendary ancient North Korea’s founding day.
[Profile] Located in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula in the northeast of the Asian continent. The east, south and west are surrounded by the sea. It is a temperate monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 13°C-14°C and an average annual precipitation of about 1300-1500mm.
From 1910 to 1945, the Korean peninsula became a Japanese colony. In August 1945, Japan surrendered, and the US and Soviet troops entered the north and south of the peninsula. On August 15, 1948, the Republic of Korea was established in the southern half of the peninsula, and Li Chengyin became the first president. In 1960, Li Chengyue stepped down. In August of the same year, Yin Yu was the president. In 1961, Park Chung-hee launched a military coup and has been in power for a long time. In 1979, Park Chung-hee was stabbed and killed. Quan Dou-hwan launched a coup and became president in 1980. In 1987, South Korea amended its constitution and implemented direct presidential election. In the same year, Lu Taiyu was elected the 13th president. Since then, Jin Yongsan, Jin Dazhong, Roh Moo-hyun, Lee Myung-bak, Park Geun-hye and Wen Zai-Yi have been elected as the 14th to 19th Presidents.
【宪 法】 1987年10月全民投票通过现行宪法，1988年2月25日生效。宪法规定，总统享有作为国家元首、政府首脑和武装力量总司令的权力，任期5年，不得连任。
【议 会】 国会，立法机构。主要职能包括：审议各项法案；审议国家预决算；监察政府工作；批准对外条约以及同意宣战或媾和、弹劾总统和主要政府官员、否决总统的紧急命令等。实行一院制，共300个议席，议员任期4年。第20届国会2016年4月选出。国会设1名议长和2名副议长，由议员投票选举产生，现任议长文喜相，副议长李柱荣、朱昇镕。
【政 府】 设18部、5处、17厅，总统兼任政府首脑，国务总理辅助总统工作。现任总理李洛渊，2017年5月就任。现任内阁主要成员有：经济副总理兼企划财政部长官洪南基、社会副总理兼教育部长官柳恩惠、科学技术信息通信部长官俞英民、外交部长官康京和、统一部长官赵明均、法务部长官朴相基、国防部长官郑景斗、行政安全部长官金富谦、文化体育观光部长官都钟焕、农林畜产食品部长官李开浩、产业通商资源部长官成允模、保健福祉部长官朴凌厚、环境部长官赵明来、雇佣劳动部长官李载甲、女性家族部长官陈善美、国土交通部长官金贤美、海洋水产部长官金荣春、中小风险企业部长官洪钟学。
[Constitution] In October 1987, the referendum passed the current Constitution, which came into force on February 25, 1988. According to the Constitution, the President has the power to be the head of state, the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The term of office is five years and cannot be re-elected.
[Parliament] Congress, legislative body. The main functions include: reviewing various bills; reviewing national budgets and final accounts; monitoring government work; approving foreign treaties and agreeing to declare war or defamation, impeaching the president and major government officials, and vetoing the president’s urgent orders. A one-chamber system is implemented with a total of 300 seats, and the term of office of the members is four years. The 20th Congress was elected in April 2016. The Congress has one speaker and two deputy speakers, elected by the members of the parliament. The current speaker is Wen Xixiang, deputy speaker Li Zhurong and Zhu Shengyu.
[Government] There are 18, 5, and 17 halls. The president is also the head of the government. The prime minister assists the president. The current Prime Minister, Li Luoyuan, took office in May 2017. The current cabinet members include: Hong Nanji, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Planning and Finance, Deputy Minister of Education and Minister of Education, Liu Enhui, Minister of Science, Technology, Information and Communication, Yu Yingmin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kang Jinghe, and Minister of Justice Zhao Mingjun, Minister of Justice, Park Xiangji Zheng Dedou, Minister of National Defense, Jin Fuqian, Minister of Administration and Security, Zhong Huan, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Li Kaihao, Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Food, Minister of Industry, Trade and Resources, Cheng Yunmo, Minister of Health and Welfare, Park Linghou, Minister of Environment, Zhao Minglai, Employment Labor Minister Li Zaijia, female family minister Chen Shanmei, Minister of Land and Resources Communications Jin Xianmei, Minister of Marine and Fisheries Jin Rongchun, and Minister of Small and Medium Venture Enterprises Hong Zhongxue.
[Main Website] Presidential Palace: http://www.president.go.kr
Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mofa.go.kr
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into a special city: Seoul Special City; 2 special municipalities (Tao): Sejong Special Municipality, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province; 8 Roads: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, Chungcheongnam-nam Road, Jeollabuk-do, Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do; 6 wide-area cities: Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan.
[Judiciary] There are large courts, high courts, local courts and family courts. The Grand Court is the highest judicial organ. The President is appointed by the President and must be approved by the National Assembly for a term of six years. He is not eligible for re-election. There is also a constitutional referee, the current director Liu Nanxi.
The procuratorate has a large procuratorate, a high procuratorate and a local procuratorate, and is affiliated with the Ministry of Justice. The Grand Prosecutor’s Office is the highest prosecutor’s office, and the Attorney General is appointed by the President without the consent of the National Assembly. The current chief procurator, Wen Wuyi.
[Major political party] The Common Democratic Party: Formerly known as the New Political National Conference led by Kim Dae-jung. In 1997, Kim Dae-jung was elected president and the party became the ruling party. In 2003, it split into the Open Kuomintang and the Democratic Party. In February 2008, it merged into the Unified Democratic Party and in July it was renamed the Democratic Party. In December 2011, the Democratic Party and the Citizens’ Union and the Korean Labor Union General Union merged into the Democratic Integration Party. In May 2013, it was renamed the Democratic Party. In March 2014, he formed a new political and democratic coalition party with political forces represented by An Zhexiu. In December 2015, it was renamed the Common Democratic Party. In May 2017, the party’s candidate, Wen Zai, won the election. In June 2018, the party won the congressional election and had 130 seats in Congress.
The Free Korean Party: formerly known as the Democratic Liberal Party established in 1990, was renamed the New Korea Party in 1995. In 1997, the New Korea Party and the Korean Democratic Party merged and renamed the Grand National Party. In February 2012, it was renamed the New National Party. In December 2016, some members of the party retired from the party. In February 2017, they were renamed the Free Korean Party. Now the largest opposition party, with 113 seats in Congress.
The Zhengfu Party: In February 2018, the National Party and the Zhengdang Party merged to become the third largest party in South Korea and have 30 seats in the National Assembly.
Democratic Peace Party: In February 2018, some members of the National Party were separated from the party and formed 14 seats in Congress.
Justice Party: Formerly known as the Progressive Justice Party, it was renamed the Justice Party in July 2013 and has six seats in Congress.
[Important figures] Wen Zai: President. Born in January 1953 in Geoje, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea, he graduated from the Law Department of Kyung Hee University, Korea. In 1982, he co-operated with former President Roh Moo-hyun as a human rights lawyer. Since 2003, he has served as the chief secretary of the presidential civil affairs of the Roh Moo-hyun government, the chief secretary of the civil society, the special assistant to the presidential government, and the president’s secretary. In April 2012, he was elected as a member of parliament. In the same year, he participated in the presidential election and lost with a weak vote. On May 9, 2017, he won the election and was sworn in on the 10th.
Li Luoyuan: Prime Minister. Born in 1952 in Jeollanam-do. Graduated from Seoul University with a major in law. He has served in the East Asia Daily, one of the three major newspapers in Korea, for more than 20 years. He has served as a journalist, commentator, and international minister. During the Jin Dazhong government, he entered the political circle and was elected to the parliament for four times. Since 2002, he has served as a spokesperson for the New Millennium Democratic Party, a spokesman for Roh Moo-hyun’s election as president, and a spokesperson for the New Democratic Party. He served as the party’s representative, the top member, the chief of affairs, and the chairman of the Central Election Countermeasures Committee. From July 2014 to May 2017, he served as Governor of Jeollanam-do. On May 31, 2017, he became the Prime Minister.
【经 济】 20世纪60年代，韩国经济开始起步。70年代以来，持续高速增长，人均国民生产总值从1962年的87美元增至1996年的10548美元，创造了“汉江奇迹”。1996年加入经济合作与发展组织（OECD），同年成为世界贸易组织（WTO）创始国之一。1997年亚洲金融危机后，韩国经济进入中速增长期。
【资 源】 矿产资源较少，已发现的矿物有280多种，其中有经济价值的50多种。有开采利用价值的矿物有铁、无烟煤、铅、锌、钨等，但储量不大。自然资源匮乏，主要工业原料均依赖进口。
【工 业】 工矿业产值占GDP的30%，半导体销售额居世界第1位，粗钢产量居世界第6位。
【农 业】 现有耕地面积175.9公顷，主要分布在西部和南部平原、丘陵地区。农业人口约占总人口的6.8%。农业产值（含渔业和林业）占GDP的2.6%。
[Economy] In the 1960s, the Korean economy began to take off. Since the 1970s, sustained high-speed growth, per capita GDP has increased from 87 US dollars in 1962 to 10548 US dollars in 1996, creating a “Hanjiang miracle.” In 1996, he joined the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and in the same year became one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the Korean economy entered a period of medium-speed growth.
The industry is dominated by manufacturing and service industries, and the output of shipbuilding, automobile, electronics, steel, textile and other industries has entered the top 10 in the world. Large enterprise groups occupy a very important position in the Korean economy. At present, major large enterprise groups include Samsung, Hyundai, SK, and LG.
In 2008, affected by the international financial crisis, the Korean economy fell significantly. The South Korean government quickly adopted a series of policies including large-scale fiscal stimulus, the financial market rebounded, the real economy stabilized and rebounded, and the confidence of enterprises and consumers continued to increase. It became the first country among the member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The main economic data for 2017 are as follows:
Gross domestic product (2017): $1.5 trillion.
Per capita national income (2017): $29,200.
Economic growth rate (2017): 3.1%.
Currency name: Korean won.
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 1120 won (implemented floating exchange rate system).
[Resources] There are fewer mineral resources, and more than 280 minerals have been discovered, including more than 50 economic value. Minerals with mining value are iron, anthracite, lead, zinc, tungsten, etc., but the reserves are not large. Natural resources are scarce and major industrial raw materials are dependent on imports.
[Industrial] Industrial and mining output accounts for 30% of GDP, semiconductor sales ranks first in the world, and crude steel production ranks sixth in the world.
[Agriculture] The existing cultivated land area is 175.9 hectares, mainly distributed in the western and southern plains and hilly areas. The agricultural population accounts for about 6.8% of the total population. Agricultural output (including fisheries and forestry) accounts for 2.6% of GDP.
[Tourism] Korea’s tourism industry is relatively developed. In recent years, the Korean government has identified tourism as a strategic industry, actively encouraged and developed tourism, publicized the “Korean Wave” culture, simplified entry procedures for hot tourist areas, improved the domestic tourism market, improved domestic tourism hardware facilities, and improved related services. Level and attract foreign tourists. According to the statistics of the ROK, the number of foreign tourists visiting Korea in 2017 was 13.34 million. From January to October 2018, the number of foreign tourists visiting Korea was 12.67 million.
[Transportation] Land, sea and air transportation are relatively developed. The railway network and expressway network have been built nationwide.
Railway: The total length of the railway is about 3,900 kilometers. In March 2004, the Seoul-Busan high-speed railway was opened with a total length of 412 kilometers and a top speed of 300 kilometers per hour.
Highway: The total length of the road is about 107,000 kilometers, of which the expressway is about 4,200 kilometers. There are more than 22 million registered cars.
Water transport: mainly by sea. The main ports are: Busan, Pohang, Incheon, Gunsan, Mokpo, Jeju, and Yeosu.
Air transportation: 21 domestic routes and 350 international routes (including 210 foreign airlines). There are 8 international airports: Incheon, Gimpo, Jeju, Gimhae, Cheongju, Daegu, Fuyang and Muan.
[Financial Finance] The fiscal revenue and expenditure of South Korea in 2017 (unit: trillion won): fiscal revenue of 375.6 trillion won and fiscal expenditure of 346.4 trillion won. As of the end of 2018, South Korea’s foreign exchange reserves were approximately $403.7 billion.
[Foreign Trade] In 2017, the total foreign trade volume was 105.21 billion US dollars, and the trade balance of trade surplus was 95.3 billion US dollars, an increase of 6.6%. Among them, exports were US$573.7 billion, up 15.8%; imports were US$478.4 billion, up 17.8%. It has economic and trade relations with more than 180 countries and regions in the world. China, the United States and Japan are the three major trading partners of South Korea.
The main imported products are crude oil, semiconductors, natural gas, petroleum products, semiconductor parts, steel plates, coal, communication equipment, and cables. The main export products are automobiles and parts, semiconductors, wired and wireless communication equipment, ships, petroleum products, flat panel LCD monitors, personal computers, video equipment and so on.
[Foreign Capital] In the 1960s and 1970s, foreign direct investment only accounted for a small portion of capital inflows. Since the 1980s, South Korea has gradually relaxed restrictions on foreign investment. After the 1997 financial crisis, the Republic of Korea increased the introduction of foreign investment.
【军 事】 实行义务兵役制。陆军和海军陆战队服役期为21个月，空军为24个月，海军为23个月。总统为三军最高统帅。国防部长官郑景斗（2018年9月就任），参谋长联席会议主席朴汉基（2018年10月就任）。现有总兵力65.5万，其中陆军52.2万，海军6.8万，空军6.5万。预备役304万。2019年国防预算约46.69万亿韩元，较上年增长8.2%。
【教 育】 1953年起实行小学六年制义务教育，从1993年起普及初中三年义务教育。高等教育机构80%为私立。2019年教育预算约75.2万亿韩元，较上年增长10.2%。
[Economic Group] The Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Formally established in July 1948. It is the largest private economic group in Korea, with 55,000 official member companies and 71 branches in Korea. The main functions are: investigating the situation of the company and making policy recommendations and suggestions to the government. As a civil society, it conducts statistical investigations on domestic production and prices; organizes and leads technician training and technical exchange activities of member companies; is responsible for exchanges and cooperation with foreign economic groups; and is responsible for issuing certificates of origin. In August 1992, the Korea-China Civil Economics Association was established and a representative office was established in Beijing. President Park Yong is late.
Korea Trade Association: Established in 1946. There are 86,000 member companies. The main functions are: research on Korea’s trade policy, advice and suggestions to the government; provide various trade consulting and information services to member companies, promote trade cooperation with countries around the world, and promote trade professionals. He has assisted the Chinese side in holding trade exhibitions in Korea for many times, and organized Korean companies to visit China, set up a purchasing group, and set up an international affairs branch in Beijing. President Jin Renhao.
National Federation of Economic Persons: Established in 1961. It consists of 67 groups in various industries such as manufacturing, trade, finance, and construction, 431 large companies represented by Korea, and four honorary members. The main functions are: to provide policy advice and suggestions to the government on behalf of large enterprises; to assist member companies to strengthen ties with international economic organizations and foreign companies; to study and exchange business theory and management methods; to investigate and study economic trends at home and abroad; Contact, organize member companies to carry out various public welfare undertakings. With the China Council, the All-China Forum was established in May 2003. President Xu Changxiu.
Central Committee for SMEs: Established in 1962. It is composed of SME industry associations. In 2006, it changed its current name and has more than 500 registered member companies. The main functions are: safeguarding the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises, making policy recommendations to the government on behalf of small and medium-sized enterprises; guiding the development of small and medium-sized enterprises through subordinate industry organizations, conducting research on small and medium-sized enterprises, providing various information and consultations to member companies; and managing foreign labor affairs in Korea . President Park Cheng-soo.
[Military] Implement compulsory military service. The Army and Marine Corps have a 21-month service period, the Air Force has 24 months, and the Navy has 23 months. The president is the supreme commander of the three armed forces. Minister of National Defense Zheng Jingdou (supplied in September 2018), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Park Han-ki (in October 2018). The total strength of the company is 655,000, of which the army is 522,000, the navy is 68,000, and the air force is 65,000. Reserves are 3.04 million. In 2019, the national defense budget was about 46.69 trillion won, an increase of 8.2% over the previous year.
[Education] Since 1953, the six-year compulsory education for primary schools has been implemented. Since 1993, compulsory education for junior high schools has been popularized. 80% of higher education institutions are private. The education budget for 2019 was about 75.2 trillion won, an increase of 10.2% over the previous year.
There are nearly 20,000 schools (public and private) in the country, with more than 11 million students and more than 500,000 teachers. Famous universities include Seoul National University, Yonsei University, and Korea University.
[Korean-North Korean Relations] After the Korean War, the Korean peninsula has long been in political opposition, military confrontation, and economic isolation. From September 1990 to December 1991, the DPRK and the ROK held five prime ministerial talks, signed the “Agreement on North-South Reconciliation, Non-Aggression and Exchange and Cooperation”, and issued the “Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” improve. Since then, due to the death of Kim Il Sung and the DPRK nuclear issue, the relationship between the DPRK and the ROK has become cold.
From 1998 to 2008, the two governments of South Korea’s Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun pursued the “sunshine policy” and the “peace and prosperity policy” respectively, and promoted North-South reconciliation cooperation. In June 2000 and October 2007, Kim Tae-chung and Roh Moo-hyun visited the DPRK respectively, held a summit meeting with Kim Jong Il, and issued the “South-North Joint Declaration” and the “Declaration on the Development and Peaceful Prosperity of North-South Relations.” During the period, the DPRK and China held several official talks and a series of non-governmental exchange activities and signed a number of cooperation agreements.
During the period from 2008 to 2016, when Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye were presidents of South Korea, there was an ups and downs in North-South relations. In February 2014, the two sides held high-level talks and met with separated relatives. In August and October 2015, the two sides held high-level consultations and meetings with separated relatives. In February 2016, the Korean side closed the Kaesong Industrial Park.
Positive progress has been made in North Korea relations in 2018. In January, the two sides restarted the Panmunjom hotline and the West Sea military hotline to hold high-level talks. In February, the DPRK sent Jin Yongnan and Jin Hezhen to attend the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics in South Korea, and sent the Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the Minister of United Front Work, Jin Yingzhe, to attend the closing ceremony. Zheng Yurong, head of the National Security Office of South Korea, and Xu Xun, President of the National Intelligence Service, visited the DPRK as the special envoy of President Wen Hao and met with Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea. In April, Chairman Kim Jong-un, Tong Wen, held the first meeting of leaders at the Panmunjom in the President’s meeting in Panmunjom and published the Panmunjom Declaration. The two sides met again in May. In September, Wen was in a visit to the DPRK, and the two sides met for the third time and signed the “Pyongyang Joint Declaration in September.” In September, the Korea-DPRK Joint Liaison Office was formally established. In October, the two sides held the 10th North-South General Military Talks and Mountain Forest Cooperation Conference. In December, the Korean and Korean military sides conducted a mutual investigation of the pilot demolition of the post in the demilitarized zone. In the same month, the DPRK and Korea held the groundbreaking ceremony for the docking project of the east and west railways and highways in Panmunjom. In January 2019, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un delivered a New Year message, indicating that he would further develop the willingness to relations between the DPRK and the ROK. The ROK side welcomed this.
[Press and Publication] The press and publication industry is developed. There are more than 230 news agencies and more than 40,000 employees. There are more than 120 newspapers and magazines. The Chosun Ilbo (founded in March 1920), the Central Daily News (founded in September 1965), and the East Asia Daily (founded in April 1920) are the three national Korean daily newspapers.
News Agency: United News Agency, which was formed by the merger of Contract News Agency and Toyo News Agency in 1980. In 1999, it merged with domestic and foreign news agencies. The news agency has branches in Beijing, Washington, New York, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Paris, London, Bangkok, Moscow, etc., and has signed news exchange agreements or cooperation agreements with more than 40 foreign news agencies.
There are 10 national broadcasting companies, 59 local broadcasting companies and 81 cable broadcasting companies.
Korean Broadcasting Corporation (KBS): Started trial broadcasting in 1927 and began broadcasting in 1953. The government-controlled broadcaster has a nationwide broadcast network and is currently broadcasting in 11 languages including Korean, English, Chinese, French and Japanese. The TV station was established in December 1961. Since July 1996, multi-channel satellite TV programs have been launched, mainly broadcasted by digital signals.
Cultural Broadcasting Corporation (MBC): Launched in December 1961, it has a national broadcasting network. The TV station was established in August 1969 and has satellite relay stations in major cities.
Seoul Broadcasting Corporation (SBS): Launched in December 1991.
[External Relations] After the Second World War, South Korea has long been dominated by US diplomacy. The open door policy was introduced in the early 1970s. After the government of Lu Taiyu came to power in 1988, he vigorously promoted “Northern diplomacy” and developed relations with the socialist countries. Since then, successive governments have all implemented active foreign policy. In recent years, they have basically formed a multi-level and all-round diplomatic pattern based on the ROK-US alliance and strengthening the diplomacy of the four major countries of the United States, China, Japan and Russia and actively participating in regional and international affairs.
South Korea has established diplomatic relations with 190 countries and 163 foreign diplomatic agencies.
[Relationship with the United States] Korea and the United States established diplomatic relations in January 1949. In October 1953, South Korea and the United States signed the “Han-US Joint Defense Treaty” to establish military alliances. At present, the United States has 28,500 troops stationed in South Korea. It has the commanding power of the Korean army in wartime and has a duty of security and defense against South Korea. In February 2017, US Defense Minister Matisse visited South Korea. In March, US Secretary of State Tillerson visited South Korea. In June, South Korean President Wen’s visit to the United States met with US President Trump. In November, US President Trump visited South Korea and met with South Korean President Wen Zai. In February 2018, US Vice President Penns attended the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics. US Presidential Advisor Ivanka Trump attended the closing ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics. In May and September 2018, South Korean President Wen Zai visited the United States twice and held talks with US President Trump. In November 2018, South Korean President Wen Zai met with US Vice President Peng Si during the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting.
According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between South Korea and the United States was 119.82 billion U.S. dollars, and the surplus of the South Korean side was 12.75 billion U.S. dollars.
[Relationship with Japan] Korea and Japan established diplomatic relations in 1965. The two countries have extensive exchanges and cooperation in various fields, but issues such as history are still factors that interfere with the relationship between the two countries. In May 2017, South Korean President Wen’s special envoy Wen Xixiang visited Japan. In the same month, South Korean President Wen was on the phone with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In July, President Wen Yu met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Hamburg, Germany. In February 2018, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe attended the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics and met with President Wen. In April 2018, President Wen was on the phone with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. In May 2018, President Wen Yu went to Japan to attend the 7th China-Japan-ROK Leaders’ Meeting and met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between Korea and Japan was 78.49 billion U.S. dollars, and the Korean deficit was 22.17 billion U.S. dollars.
[Relationship with Russia] South Korea established diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union in September 1990. After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, South Korea and Russia continued to maintain diplomatic relations. In May 2017, South Korean President Wen was on the phone with Russian President Putin. In July, President Wen Yu and President Putin met in Hamburg, Germany. In September, Wen expressed his visit to Russia and met with President Putin. In June 2018, Wen was in a meeting with President Putin and met with Putin. In September, South Korean Prime Minister Lee Loon-woo visited Russia and met with President Putin to attend the 4th Eastern Economic Forum. In October, the Chairman of the Russian Federation Council, Valentina Ivanov Matviyanko, visited South Korea and met with President Wen. In November 2018, South Korean President Wen Zaiyu met with Russian President Vladimir Putin during the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting.
According to the statistics of the ROK, from January to November 2018, the trade volume between South Korea and Russia was 22.76 billion U.S. dollars, and the deficit of the South Korean side was 9.3 billion U.S. dollars.