Republic of Indonesia 印度尼西亚共和国

【国名】印度尼西亚共和国(Republic of Indonesia)。

【面积】1913578.68平方公里。

【人口】2.62亿,世界第四人口大国。有数百个民族,其中爪哇族人口占45%,巽他族14%,马都拉族7.5%,马来族 7.5%,其他26%。民族语言共有200多种,官方语言为印尼语。约87%的人口信奉伊斯兰教,是世界上穆斯林人口最多的国家。6.1%的人口信奉基督教,3.6%信奉天主教,其余信奉印度教、佛教和原始拜物教等。

【首都】雅加达(JAKARTA),人口1027.7万。

【国家元首】佐科·维多多(Joko Widodo)总统,2014年10月就任,任期至2019年。

【重要节日】伊斯兰教开斋节、宰牲节;民族觉醒日(纪念1908年印尼民族运动组织“至善社”成立)5月20日;独立日:8月17日。

[Country name] Republic of Indonesia.

[Area] 19,135.86.68 square kilometers.

[Population] 262 million, the world’s fourth most populous country. There are hundreds of ethnic groups, of which the Javanese population accounts for 45%, the Kazuo 14%, the Madura 7.5%, the Malay 7.5%, and the other 26%. There are more than 200 national languages, and the official language is Indonesian. About 87% of the population believes in Islam and is the country with the largest Muslim population in the world. 6.1% of the population believes in Christianity, 3.6% believe in Catholicism, and the rest believe in Hinduism, Buddhism and primitive fetishism.

[Capital] Jakarta (JAKARTA) with a population of 10.277 million.

[Head of State] President Joko Widodo, took office in October 2014 and will serve until 2019.

[Important Festival] Islam Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Adha; National Awakening Day (commemorating the establishment of the Indonesian National Movement Organization “Zhongshan Society” in 1908) May 20; Independence Day: August 17.

【政治】1945年8月17日独立后,先后武装抵抗英国、荷兰的入侵,其间曾被迫改为印度尼西亚联邦共和国并加入荷印联邦。1950年8月重新恢复为印度尼西亚共和国,1954年8月脱离荷印联邦。

1997年亚洲金融危机对印尼造成全面冲击,引起局势动荡。1998年5月,执政长达32年的苏哈托总统辞职,副总统哈比比接任总统。1999年10月,印尼人民协商会议(简称“人协”)选举瓦希德为总统,梅加瓦蒂为副总统。2001年7月23日,人协特别会议以渎职罪罢免瓦希德总统职务,梅加瓦蒂接任总统,哈姆扎·哈兹任副总统。2004年7月,印尼举行历史上首次总统直选,原政治安全统筹部长苏希洛和人民福利统筹部长尤素夫·卡拉(Muhammad Jusuf Kalla)通过两轮直选胜出。2009年7月,印尼举行第二次总统直选,苏希洛和原央行行长布迪约诺(Boediono)竞选搭档首轮胜出。2014年7月,印尼举行第三次总统直选,雅加达省长佐科·维多多(Joko Widodo)和前副总统尤素夫·卡拉搭档参选,战胜前陆军战略后备部队司令普拉博沃和前经济统筹部长哈达组合,于10月20日宣誓就任新一届正副总统,任期至2019年。

佐科政府提出建设海洋强国战略,以维护国家安全、发展经济及反腐倡廉为施政重点,致力于解决长期困扰印尼发展的基础设施较差的问题,吸引外资发展经济,加强对政府官员的监督,努力创建廉洁政府。

2005年8月,印尼政府与“亚齐独立运动”分离组织达成和平协议。2006年7月,印尼国会通过亚齐管理法。2006年12月以来,亚齐举行3次地方选举。在2017年2月省长选举中,伊万迪·尤素夫(Irwandi Yusuf)和诺法·伊利安夏(Nova Iriansyah)当选省长和副省长,任期至2022年。

2006年7月,印尼国会通过新《国籍法》,取消部分带有种族歧视和性别歧视的内容。2008年10月,印尼国会通过《消除种族歧视法》。

2002年至2005年,印尼连续发生第一次巴厘岛爆炸、雅加达万豪酒店爆炸、澳大利亚驻印尼使馆爆炸、第二次巴厘岛爆炸等重大恐怖袭击事件。2009年7月,雅加达万豪酒店和丽兹·卡尔顿酒店发生恐怖爆炸。近年来,印尼政府采取坚决措施打击恐怖主义,先后击毙和逮捕了一批恐怖分子,安全形势有所好转。但随着“伊斯兰国”势力发展,印尼一些恐怖组织宣布效忠,数百激进分子前往中东参加“圣战”,不少人又回流至印尼。2016年1月,印尼首都雅加达发生恐怖爆炸和枪击事件,2017年2月,印尼第三大城市万隆发生爆炸事件,2018年5月,印尼第二大城市泗水发生恐怖爆炸事件。

[Politics] After independence on August 17, 1945, he was armed to resist the invasion of Britain and the Netherlands. During this period, he was forced to change to the Federal Republic of Indonesia and join the Dutch-Indian Federation. In August 1950, it reverted to the Republic of Indonesia, and in August 1954 it left the Commonwealth of India.

The 1997 Asian financial crisis caused a full-scale impact on Indonesia, causing instability. In May 1998, President Suharto, who had been in power for 32 years, resigned, and Vice President Habibi took over as president. In October 1999, the Indonesian People’s Consultative Conference (“People’s Association”) elected Wahid as president and Megawati as vice president. On July 23, 2001, the special meeting of the People’s Association for the People’s Republic of China dismissed President Wahid from the crime of malfeasance. Megawati took over as president and Hamza Haz as vice president. In July 2004, Indonesia held the first direct presidential election in history. The former Minister of Political Security Coordination Su Xiluo and the Minister of Welfare Coordination of the People, Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, won through two rounds of direct elections. In July 2009, Indonesia held its second direct presidential election. Susilo and former central bank governor Boediono won the first round of the competition. In July 2014, Indonesia held its third direct presidential election. Jakarta Widodo, governor of Jakarta, and former Vice President Yusuf Kalla participated in the election, defeating former Army strategic reserve commander Prabowo and former The Economic Coordinating Minister Hada Group was sworn in as the new President and Vice President on October 20, and will serve until 2019.

The Zoco Government proposes to build a strategy of strengthening the country by maritime power, to safeguard national security, develop the economy, and fight corruption and promote clean government. It is committed to solving the problem of poor infrastructure that has long plagued Indonesia’s development, attracting foreign investment to develop the economy, and strengthening supervision of government officials. Work hard to create a clean government.

In August 2005, the Indonesian government reached a peace agreement with the Seychelles Independence Movement. In July 2006, the Indonesian Parliament passed the Aceh Management Act. Since December 2006, Aceh has held three local elections. In the February 2017 governor election, Irwandi Yusuf and Nova Iriansyah were elected governors and deputy governors for a term of 2022.

In July 2006, the Indonesian National Assembly passed a new Nationality Law to remove some of the content with racial discrimination and gender discrimination. In October 2008, the Indonesian Parliament passed the Law on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.

From 2002 to 2005, Indonesia experienced the first Bali bombing, the explosion of the Jakarta Marriott Hotel, the explosion of the Australian Embassy in Indonesia, and the second Bali bombing. In July 2009, a terrorist explosion occurred at the Jakarta Marriott Hotel and the Ritz Carlton Hotel. In recent years, the Indonesian government has taken resolute measures to fight terrorism. It has killed and arrested a group of terrorists and the security situation has improved. However, with the development of the “Islamic State” forces, some terrorist organizations in Indonesia declared allegiance, hundreds of militants went to the Middle East to participate in the “jihad”, and many people returned to Indonesia. In January 2016, a terrorist bombing and shooting incident occurred in Jakarta, Indonesia. In February 2017, an explosion occurred in Bandung, the third largest city in Indonesia. In May 2018, a terrorist bombing occurred in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia.

【宪法】现行宪法为《“四五”宪法》。该宪法于1945年8月18日颁布实施,曾于1949年12月和1950年8月被《印尼联邦共和国宪法》和《印尼共和国临时宪法》替代,1957年7月5日恢复实行。1999年10月至2002年8月间先后进行过四次修改。宪法规定,印尼为单一的共和制国家,“信仰神道、人道主义、民族主义、民主主义、社会公正”是建国五项基本原则(简称“潘查希拉”)。实行总统制,总统为国家元首、行政首脑和武装部队最高统帅。2004年起,总统和副总统不再由人民协商会议选举产生,改由全民直选;每任五年,只能连任一次。总统任命内阁,内阁对总统负责。

【人协】全称人民协商会议。国家立法机构,由人民代表会议(国会)和地方代表理事会共同组成,负责制定、修改和颁布宪法,并对总统进行监督。如总统违宪,有权弹劾罢免总统。每5年换届选举。本届人协于2014年10月成立,共有议员692名,包括560名国会议员和132名地方代表理事会成员。设主席1名,副主席4名。现任主席为祖尔基弗利·哈桑(Zulkifli Hasan)。

【国会】全称人民代表会议。国家立法机构,行使除修宪之外的一般立法权。国会无权解除总统职务,总统也不能宣布解散国会;但如总统违反宪法,国会有权建议人协追究总统责任。本届国会于2014年10月成立,共有议员560名,兼任人协议员。任期五年。设议长1名,副议长4名。现任议长为班邦·苏萨迪约(Bambang Soesatyo)。本届国会共有10个派系,即民主斗争党派系(19.46%),专业集团党派系(16.25%),大印尼运动党派系(13.04%),民主党派系(10.89%),民族觉醒党派系(8.39%),国家使命党派系(8.57%),繁荣公正党派系(7.14%),民族民主党派系(6.43%),建设团结党派系(6.96%),民心党派系(2.86%)。

【地方代表理事会】系2004年10月新成立的立法机构,负责有关地方自治、中央与地方政府关系、地方省市划分以及国家资源管理等方面立法工作。成员分别来自全国34个省级行政区,每区4名代表,共132名,兼任人协议员。设主席1名,副主席2名。现任主席为乌斯曼·沙普达(Oesman Sapta)。

[Constitution] The current constitution is the “Fourth Five-Year” Constitution. The Constitution was promulgated on August 18, 1945. It was replaced by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Indonesia and the Interim Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia in December 1949 and August 1950, and resumed on July 5, 1957. Four revisions were made between October 1999 and August 2002. The Constitution stipulates that Indonesia is a single republican country. “Faith, humanism, nationalism, democracy, and social justice” are the five basic principles of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (“Pancha Hira”). The presidential system is implemented. The president is the head of state, the chief executive, and the supreme commander of the armed forces. Since 2004, the President and Vice President are no longer elected by the People’s Consultative Conference and are directly elected by the people; they can only be re-elected once every five years. The president appoints the cabinet and the cabinet is responsible to the president.

[People’s Association] full name of the People’s Consultative Conference. The national legislature, composed of the People’s Congress (Congress) and the local representative council, is responsible for formulating, revising and enacting the Constitution and supervising the President. If the president is unconstitutional, he has the right to impeach the president. The election will be renewed every five years. The current association was established in October 2014. There are 692 members, including 560 members of parliament and 132 members of the local council. There is one chairman and four vice-chairmen. The current chairman is Zulkifli Hasan.

[Congress] Full name of the People’s Congress. The national legislature exercises general legislative powers other than constitutional amendments. Congress does not have the power to dismiss the presidency, nor can the president declare the dissolution of the parliament; but if the president violates the constitution, Congress has the right to advise the people to hold the president accountable. The current Congress was established in October 2014 with a total of 560 members and concurrent appointments. The term of office is five years. There is one speaker and four deputy speakers. The current speaker is Bambang Soesatyo. There are 10 factions in this session, namely the Democratic Struggle Party (19.46%), the Professional Group Party (16.25%), the Greater Indonesian Movement Party (13.04%), the Democratic Party (10.89%), and the National Awakening Party (8.39). %), National Mission Party (8.57%), Prosperous Justice Party (7.14%), National Democratic Party (6.43%), Solidarity Party (6.96%), and Popular Party (2.86%).

[Local Representative Council] is a newly established legislative body in October 2004. It is responsible for legislative work on local autonomy, central and local government relations, local provincial and municipal divisions, and national resource management. The members are from 34 provincial-level administrative regions, with 4 representatives from each district, a total of 132, and concurrently appointed as agreement. There are 1 chairman and 2 vice chairs. The current chairman is Oesman Sapta.

【政府】本届内阁于2014年10月组建,2015年8月改组,2016年7月再次改组。现任阁员34人,任期至2019年,包括:政治法律安全统筹部长维兰多(Wiranto)、经济统筹部长达尔敏·纳苏迪安(Darmin Nasution)、海洋统筹部长卢胡特·宾萨·潘查丹(Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan)、人类发展与文化统筹部长布安·马哈拉尼(Puan Maharani)、国务秘书部长普拉蒂克诺(Pratikno)、内政部长扎赫约·库莫罗(Tjahjo Kumolo)、外交部长蕾特诺·马尔苏迪 (Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi)、国防部长里亚米扎尔德·里亚库杜 (Jenderal TNI (Purn.)Ryamizard Ryacudu)、司法人权部长亚索纳·劳利(Yasonna Laoly)、财政部长斯莉·穆莉亚妮(Sri Mulyani)、能源与矿产资源部长伊格纳斯·乔南(Ignaus Jonan)、工业部长艾尔朗加·哈尔达多(Airlangga Hartato)、贸易部长恩加迪亚斯托·卢基塔(Enggartiasto Lukita)、农业部长阿姆兰·苏莱曼(Amran Sulaiman)、环境与林业部长西蒂·努尔巴亚(Siti Nurbaya Bakar)、土地与空间规划部长索菲安·贾利尔(Sofyan Jalil)、交通部长布迪·苏玛迪(Budi Sumadi)、海洋渔业部长苏西·普吉亚司杜蒂(Susi Pudjiastuti)、劳工部长哈尼夫·达基里(Hanif Dhakiri)、公共工程与住房部长巴苏基·哈迪穆尔约诺(Basuki Hadimuljono)、卫生部长妮拉·穆卢克(Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek)、文化与初中级教育部长穆哈吉尔·埃芬迪(Muhajir Effendi)、社会部长伊德鲁斯·马尔哈姆(Idrus Marham)、宗教部长鲁克曼·哈基姆·塞义夫丁(Lukman Hakim Saifuddin)、旅游部长阿里耶夫·叶海亚(Arief Yahya)、信息与通讯部长鲁迪安塔拉(Rudiantara)、科技与高等教育部长穆罕默德·纳西尔(Muhammad Nasir)、中小企业与合作社部长努拉·普斯帕约加(Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Puspayoga)、妇女与儿童部长约哈娜·延比塞(Yohana Yembise)、提高国家机构效率与行政改革部长阿斯曼·阿布努尔(Asman Abnur)、农村、落后地区发展与移民部长艾科·桑卓约(Eko Putro Sanjoyo)、国家发展规划部长班邦·布洛佐尼格罗(Bambang Brodjonegoro)、国营企业部长莉尼·苏玛尔诺 (Rini Soemarno)、青年与体育部长伊马姆·纳赫拉维(Imam Nahrawi)。

【行政区划】共有一级行政区(省级)34个,包括雅加达首都、日惹、亚齐3个地方特区和31个省。二级行政区(县/市级)共514个。

【司法机构】实行三权分立,最高法院独立于立法和行政机构。最高法院院长由最高法院法官选举,现任院长哈达·阿里(Hatta Ali)。

[Government] The current cabinet was formed in October 2014, reorganized in August 2015, and reorganized in July 2016. The current cabinet consists of 34 members, who will serve until 2019, including: Political and Legal Security Coordinator Wiranto, Economic Coordinating Minister Darmin Nasution, and Marine Coordinating Minister Luhut Binsa Pan Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, Minister of Human Development and Cultural Coordination Puan Maharani, Minister of State Secretary Pratikno, Interior Minister Tjahjo Kumolo ), Foreign Minister Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi, Defense Minister Jenderal TNI (Purn.) Ryamizard Ryacudu, and Minister of Justice and Human Rights Yasona Law Yasonna Laoly, Finance Minister Sri Mulyani, Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Ignaus Jonan, and Industry Minister Erlanga Hardardo (Airlangga) Hartato), Trade Minister Enggartiasto Lukita, Agriculture Minister Amran Sulaiman, Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbay a Bakar), Land and Space Planning Minister Sofyan Jalil, Transport Minister Budi Sumadi, and Marine Fisheries Minister Susi Pudjiastuti , Minister of Labour Hanif Dhakiri, Minister of Public Works and Housing Basuki Hadimuljono, Minister of Health Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek, Culture With the junior and intermediate education minister Muhajir Effendi, the social minister Idrus Marham, and the Minister of Religion Lukman Hakim Saifuddin ), Tourism Minister Arief Yahya, Information and Communications Minister Rudiantara, Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education Muhammad Nasir, SME and Cooperative Minister Nura · Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Puspayoga, Minister of Women and Children Yohana Yembise, Minister of Efficiency and Administrative Reform of the State Agency Asman Abnur, rural and backward development and immigration minister Eko Putro Sanjoyo, national development planning minister Bambang Brodjonegoro, state-owned enterprise Minister Rini Soemarno, Minister of Youth and Sports Imam Nahrawi.

[Administrative Division] There are 34 first-level administrative districts (provincial level), including three local special zones and 31 provinces of Jakarta capital, Yogyakarta and Aceh. There are 514 secondary administrative districts (county/city level).

[Judiciary] The separation of powers is exercised, and the Supreme Court is independent of the legislative and executive bodies. The President of the Supreme Court is elected by the Supreme Court judge and the current President Hatta Ali.

【政党】1975年颁布的政党法只允许三个政党存在,即专业集团党、印尼民主党、建设团结党。1998年5月解除党禁。2014年大选中,共有15个政党参选,10个政党获得国会议席,民主斗争党成为国会第一大党。主要大党包括:

(1)民主斗争党(Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan):由原印尼民主党分裂出来的人士组成,1998年10月正式成立。系民族主义政党,印尼世俗政治力量代表。以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领,弘扬民族精神,反对宗教和种族歧视。2014年国会选举中获109个议席,国会第一大党。现任总主席为梅加瓦蒂·苏加诺普特丽(Megawati Soekarnoputri)。

(2)专业集团党(Partai Golongan Karya):1959年组成松散的专业集团联合秘书处,1964年10月由61个群众组织联合成立专业集 团,1970年12月扩大为包括291个群众组织的专业组织,1967年至1999年6月为事实上的执政党,但一直自称为社会政治组织。1999年3月7 日正式宣布为政党。以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领,主张在民主和民权基础上进行政治体制改革,保障人权,改善民生。2014年国会选举中获91个议席,国会第二大党。总主席为艾尔朗加·哈尔达多(Airlangga Hartato)。

(3)大印尼运动党(Gerindra):成立于2008年2月6日,以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领,倡导民族主义、人道主义。2009年大选中力推普拉博沃参选,因实力不济竞选失败。在2014年国会选举中获73个议席。总主席普拉博沃·苏比延托(Prabowo Subianto)。

(4)民主党(Partai Demokrat):成立于2001年9月9日,以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领,以维护和巩固国家统一为目标,倡导民族主义、宗教信仰自由、 多元主义和人道主义。2009年4月国会选举中获148个议席,2014年国会选举中议席大幅下滑,仅获61议席。现任总主席为苏希洛·班邦·尤多约诺 (Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono)。

(5)国家使命党(Partai Amanat Nasional):成立于1998年8月23日,党员多为印尼第二大穆斯林团体穆哈玛迪亚(Muhammadiyah) 成员,具有伊斯兰现代派特征。主张三权分立制衡、人民主权、经济平等、种族宗教和睦等。2014年国会选举中获48个议席,国会第五大党。现任总主席为祖尔基弗里·哈桑(Zulkifli Hasan)。

【重要人物】佐科·维多多:总统。1961年6月21日生于中爪哇省梭罗市。信奉伊斯兰教。家境贫寒,本科就读于日惹卡查马达大学林业系。毕业后赴亚齐特区短暂工作。1988年返回梭罗经营家具业,成为当地知名商人。2005年当选梭罗市长,2010年连任。任内政绩卓著,2008年总统颁发的“功勋之星”奖章,2010年入选世界25位最佳市长。2012年9月当选雅加达省长,2014年10月卸任。2014年7月当选印尼总统,10月20日就职,任期至2019年10月。

卡拉:副总统。1942年5月15日生于南苏拉威西省坦波尼。1967年毕业于印尼哈桑努丁大学经济学院,1977年获法国欧洲商业行政学院工商管理硕士学位。长期经商,拥有BUKAKA集团。曾任印尼工商会南苏分会总主席、工商会东部地区协调员、南苏经济学士联谊会总主席、印尼穆斯林大学基金会主席。2004年当选专业集团党总主席。1999年至2000年任瓦希德内阁贸工部长。2001年至2004年任梅加瓦蒂内阁人民福利统筹部长。2004年辞职随苏希洛参选,10月当选副总统。2009年至2014年担任印尼红十字会会长,2014年搭档佐科竞选,再次当选副总统。

[Party] The party law enacted in 1975 allowed only three parties to exist, namely the professional group party, the Indonesian Democratic Party, and the construction unity party. The party ban was lifted in May 1998. In the 2014 general election, a total of 15 political parties were elected, 10 political parties were elected to the National Assembly, and the Democratic Struggle Party became the largest party in Congress. The main major parties include:

(1) Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan: composed of people split by the former Indonesian Democratic Party, officially established in October 1998. It is a nationalist political party and a representative of Indonesian secular political forces. Take Panchasila as a political program, carry forward the national spirit, and oppose religious and racial discrimination. In the 2014 congressional election, 109 seats were won, and the largest party in Congress. The current chairman is Megawati Soekarnoputri.

(2) Partai Golongan Karya: In 1959, it formed a loose professional group joint secretariat. In October 1964, 61 mass organizations jointly established a professional group. In December 1970, it expanded to include 291 mass organizations. The organization, from 1967 to June 1999, was the de facto ruling party, but has always called itself a social political organization. It was officially declared a political party on March 7, 1999. Taking “Panchahira” as the political program, it advocates political system reform on the basis of democracy and civil rights, safeguarding human rights and improving people’s livelihood. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 91 seats were won and the second largest party in Congress. The chairman is Airlangga Hartato.

(3) The Great Indonesian Sports Party (Gerindra): Established on February 6, 2008, with Pan Panxila as the political program, advocating nationalism and humanitarianism. The 2009 general election pushed Prabovo to run for election, and failed due to lack of strength. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 73 seats were obtained. President Prabowo Subianto.

(4) The Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat): Established on September 9, 2001, with Pan Panxila as the political program, with the goal of safeguarding and consolidating national unity, advocating nationalism, freedom of religious belief, pluralism and humanitarianism. . In April 2009, there were 148 seats in the parliamentary elections. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, the seats fell sharply, with only 61 seats. The current chairman is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

(5) Partai Amanat Nasional: Founded on August 23, 1998, the party members are mostly members of Muhammadiyah, the second largest Muslim group in Indonesia. They are characterized by Islamic modernism. It advocates the separation and separation of powers, people’s sovereignty, economic equality, ethnic religion and shackles. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 48 ​​seats were won and the fifth largest party in Congress. The current chairman is Zulkifli Hasan.

[Important] Zoko Widodo: President. Born on June 21, 1961 in Solo City, Central Java. Believe in Islam. The family is poor and the undergraduate is studying at the Forestry Department of Kachamad University, Yogyakarta. After graduation, I went to the Aceh Special Zone for a short time. In 1988, he returned to Thoreau to run the furniture industry and became a well-known local businessman. In May 2005, he was elected mayor of Solo and re-elected in 2010. During his tenure, he was awarded the “Merk of Merit” medal by the President in 2008 and was selected as the 25 best mayors in the world in 2010. In September 2012, he was elected Governor of Jakarta and retired in October 2014. In July 2014, he was elected President of Indonesia and took office on October 20th. His term of office will be until October 2019.

Carla: Vice President. Born on May 15, 1942 in Tamboni, South Sulawesi. He graduated from the Faculty of Economics of Hassanuddin University in Indonesia in 1967 and obtained a master’s degree in business administration from the European Business Administration Institute of France in 1977. Long-term business, own BUKAKA Group. He has served as the chairman of the South-South Branch of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Coordinator of the Eastern Region of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Chairman of the Association of Economics of the South Soviet Union, and the Chairman of the Foundation of the Muslim University of Indonesia. In 2004, he was elected as the chairman of the professional group party. From 1999 to 2000, he served as Minister of Trade and Industry of Wahid Cabinet. From 2001 to 2004, he served as the Minister of People’s Welfare Coordination of the Megawati Cabinet. In 2004, he resigned and was elected to Susilo. In October, he was elected vice president. From 2009 to 2014, he served as the president of the Indonesian Red Cross. In 2014, he partnered with Zoco and was re-elected as vice president.

【经济】印尼是东盟最大的经济体。农业、工业、服务业均在国民经济中发挥重要作用。1950~1965年GDP年均增长仅2%。60年代后期调整经济结构,经济开始提速,1970~1996年间GDP年均增长6%,跻身中等收入国家。1997年受亚洲金融危机重创,经济严重衰退,货币大幅贬值。1999年底开始缓慢复苏,GDP年均增长3%~4%。2003年底按计划结束国际货币基金组织(IMF)的经济监管。苏希洛总统2004年执政后,积极采取措施吸引外资、发展基础设施建设、整顿金融体系、扶持中小企业发展,取得积极成效,经济增长一直保持在5%以上。2008年以来,面对国际金融危机,印尼政府应对得当,经济仍保持较快增长。2014年以来,受全球经济不景气和美联储调整货币政策等影响,印尼盾快速贬值。2017年印尼国内生产总值约合10152亿美元,同比增长5.07%。贸易总额3256亿美元,同比增长15.9%。2018年全年通胀率3.31%。2018年第三季度国内生产总值约合2678.6亿美元,同比增长5.06%。2018年贸易总额3686亿美元,同比增长13.2%;其中出口1800亿美元,同比增长6.65%,进口1886亿美元,同比增长20.15%。

【资源】富含石油、天然气以及煤、锡、铝矾土、镍、铜、金、银等矿产资源。矿业在印尼经济中占有重要地位,产值占GDP的10%左右。据印尼官方统计,印尼石油储量约97亿桶(13.1亿吨),天然气储量4.8万亿~5.1万亿立方米,煤炭已探明储量193亿吨,潜在储量可达900亿吨以上。

【工业】工业发展方向是强化外向型制造业。主要部门有采矿、纺织、轻工等。锡、煤、镍、金、银等矿产产量居世界前列。

【农业】印尼全国耕地面积约8000万公顷,盛产经济作物,如棕榈油、橡胶、咖啡、可可等。

【渔业】渔业资源丰富,政府估计潜在捕捞量超过800万吨/年。

【林业】森林面积1.37亿公顷,森林覆盖率超过60%。为保护林业资源,印尼宣布自2002年起禁止出口原木。

【旅游业】是印尼非油气行业中仅次于电子产品出口的第二大创汇行业,政府长期重视开发旅游景点,兴建饭店,培训人员和简化入境手续。1997年以来受金融危机、政局动荡、恐怖爆炸、自然灾害、禽流感等不利影响,旅游业发展缓慢。2007年起增速加快,2017年外国赴印尼游客达1404万人次。中国、新加坡、马来西亚、澳大利亚和日本为印尼前五大游客来源地。2018年1~11月外国赴印尼游客1439万人次。

主要景点有巴厘岛、雅加达缩影公园、日惹婆罗浮屠佛塔、普兰班南神庙、苏丹王宫、北苏门答腊多巴湖等。

【交通运输】公路和水路系重要运输手段,其中公路担负着国内近90%的客运和50%的货运。铁路设施相对落后,仅爪哇和苏门答腊两岛建有铁路。空运近年发展迅速。

[Economy] Indonesia is the largest economy in ASEAN. Agriculture, industry and service industries all play an important role in the national economy. From 1950 to 1965, the average annual GDP growth was only 2%. In the late 1960s, the economic structure was adjusted and the economy began to accelerate. From 1970 to 1996, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 6%, ranking among middle-income countries. In 1997, it was hit hard by the Asian financial crisis, the economy was seriously declining, and the currency depreciated sharply. At the end of 1999, a slow recovery began, with an average annual GDP growth of 3% to 4%. At the end of 2003, the economic supervision of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was terminated as planned. After taking office in 2004, President Susilo actively took measures to attract foreign investment, develop infrastructure, rectify the financial system, support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, and achieved positive results. Economic growth has remained above 5%. Since 2008, in the face of the international financial crisis, the Indonesian government has responded properly and the economy has maintained rapid growth. Since 2014, the Indonesian rupiah has rapidly depreciated due to the global economic downturn and the Fed’s adjustment of monetary policy. In 2017, Indonesia’s GDP was approximately US$1,015.2 billion, a year-on-year increase of 5.07%. The total trade volume was 325.6 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 15.9%. The inflation rate for the whole year of 2018 was 3.31%. In the third quarter of 2018, the gross domestic product was about 267.86 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 5.06%. In 2018, the total trade volume was 368.6 billion US dollars, up 13.2% year-on-year; of which exports were 180 billion US dollars, up 6.65% year-on-year, and imports were 188.6 billion US dollars, up 20.15% year-on-year.

[Resources] Rich in oil, natural gas and mineral resources such as coal, tin, bauxite, nickel, copper, gold and silver. Mining plays an important role in the Indonesian economy, with output value accounting for about 10% of GDP. According to Indonesian official statistics, Indonesia’s oil reserves are about 9.7 billion barrels (1.31 billion tons), natural gas reserves are 4.8 trillion to 5.1 trillion cubic meters, coal has proven reserves of 19.3 billion tons, and potential reserves can reach more than 90 billion tons.

[Industrial] The direction of industrial development is to strengthen export-oriented manufacturing. The main departments are mining, textile, light industry and so on. The output of tin, coal, nickel, gold and silver is among the highest in the world.

[Agriculture] Indonesia has a cultivated land area of ​​about 80 million hectares, which is rich in cash crops such as palm oil, rubber, coffee and cocoa.

[Fisheries] The fishery resources are abundant, and the government estimates that the potential catch is more than 8 million tons per year.

[Forestry] The forest area is 137 million hectares and the forest coverage rate is over 60%. To protect forestry resources, Indonesia announced that it has banned the export of logs since 2002.

[Tourism] is the second largest foreign exchange earning industry in Indonesia’s non-oil and gas industry after electronics exports. The government has long attached importance to developing tourist attractions, building hotels, training personnel and simplifying immigration procedures. Since 1997, due to the adverse effects of the financial crisis, political turmoil, terrorist explosions, natural disasters, and bird flu, tourism has developed slowly. Since 2007, the growth rate has accelerated. In 2017, foreign tourists to Indonesia reached 14.04 million. China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and Japan are the top five sources of tourists in Indonesia. From January to November 2018, foreign tourists to Indonesia were 14.39 million.

The main attractions are Bali, Jakarta Miniature Park, Yogyakarta Borobudur Stupa, Prambanan Temple, Sultan Palace, North Sumatra Lake Doba.

[Transportation] Highways and waterways are important means of transportation, of which highways are responsible for nearly 90% of passenger traffic and 50% of freight in China. The railway facilities are relatively backward, and only the two islands of Java and Sumatra have railways. Air transport has developed rapidly in recent years.

【军事】《国防法》规定,总统对全国武装力量拥有最高领导权,在国防与安全委员会及国防部长协助下就国防与安全事务作出重大决策,通过国民军司令和警察总长对全国 武装力量实施领导和指挥。国防部负责制定和执行国防政策,国民军司令部负责全军的管理、教育、训练及战时指挥。国家武装力量由正规军和准军事部队组成。实行义务兵与志愿兵相结合的兵役制度,义务兵服役期2年。

正规军印尼国民军(TNI)1945年10月5日成立,由荷兰殖民时期的“荷印殖民军”和日本占领时期的“国民后备军”改编而成。设陆、海、空三个军种,现役总兵力38.8万人。其中陆军29.9万人,主要编成战略预备部队、特种部队和12个军区。海军6.1万人,主要编成东西两个舰队司令部和海军陆战队、军事海运司令部。空军2.8万人,主要编成第一(西部)、第二(东部)空军作战司令部和维修与物资司令部、特种部队。现任国民军司令哈迪上将(Hadi Tjahjanto)。陆、海、空三军分别设军种参谋长,负责部队日常管理和训练。军队曾长期拥有国防安全和社会政治双重职能,现主要担负国防安全任务。

准军事部队包括警察和民兵。警察部队曾于1964年纳入武装部队总部领导,与国民军合称“印尼武装部队”(ABRI),2000年7月正式独立并直接由总统领导,负责维护国内安全,目前警力近28万人。现任警察总长迪托·卡尔纳文(Tito Karnavin)。

实行积极防御的国防政策,将“全民国防安全体系”作为巩固国防的基础,在国防建设上倡导“军民一体化”的指导方针。近10年来,国防预算在GDP中低于1%。2018年军费预算为107万亿印尼盾。

【教育】实行九年制义务教育。著名大学有雅加达的印度尼西亚大学、日惹的加查马达大学、泗水的艾尔朗卡大学、万隆的万隆工学院、班查查兰大学、茂物的茂物农学院等。

[Military] The “Defense Law” stipulates that the President has the highest leadership over the national armed forces, and makes major decisions on national defense and security affairs with the assistance of the National Defense and Security Committee and the Minister of Defense. Through the National Army Commander and the Chief of Police, the National Armed Forces are implemented. Leadership and command. The Ministry of National Defense is responsible for formulating and implementing the national defense policy. The National Army Command is responsible for the management, education, training, and wartime command of the entire army. The national armed forces are composed of regular and paramilitary forces. The military service system combining the compulsory and the volunteers is implemented, and the conscripts are served for 2 years.

The regular army of the Indonesian National Army (TNI) was established on October 5, 1945, and was adapted from the Dutch colonial colonies of the Dutch colonial era and the National Reserve Army during the Japanese occupation. There are three branches of land, sea and air, with a total force of 388,000 in active service. Among them, the army has 299,000 people, mainly composed of strategic reserve troops, special forces and 12 military regions. The Navy has 61,000 people, mainly composed of the East and West Fleet Commands and the Marine Corps and the Military Maritime Command. The Air Force has 28,000 people and is mainly composed of the First (West), Second (East) Air Force Combat Command, Maintenance and Material Command, and Special Forces. The current commander of the National Army, Hadi Tjahjanto. The army, sea and air forces respectively set up the chief of staff of the military, responsible for the daily management and training of the troops. The military has long held dual functions of national defense security and social politics, and now mainly shoulders the task of national defense security.

Paramilitary forces include the police and militia. The police force was incorporated into the headquarters of the Armed Forces in 1964. It was jointly called the “Arab Armed Forces” (ABRI) with the National Army. It was formally independent in July 2000 and directly led by the President. It is responsible for maintaining domestic security. The current police force is nearly 280,000. The current police chief, Tito Karnavin.

The national defense policy of implementing active defense will regard the “national defense security system” as the basis for consolidating national defense and advocate the guiding principle of “military and civilian integration” in national defense construction. In the past 10 years, the defense budget has been below 1% of GDP. The military budget for 2018 is 107 trillion rupiah.

[Education] Implement a nine-year compulsory education. Famous universities include the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, the University of Jakarta in Jakarta, the University of Surrang in Surabaya, the Bandung Institute of Technology in Bandung, the University of Banchoran, and the Bogor Agricultural College in Bogor.

【财政金融】1997年金融危机前一直实行财政预算平衡政策,决算略有盈余。近年来实施赤字预算。1997年亚洲金融危机爆发前,全国共有144家国内商业银行。金融危机中,银行业遭受重创,一大批银行纷纷倒闭。印尼政府成立银行重组机构,对银行业进行重组与整合。之后,印尼商业银行的盈利 能力普遍增强,资产质量明显改善。截至2012年底,印尼共有109家商业银行,其中5家国有银行,26家地区发展银行,55家私营全国银行,23家外资、合资银行。

印尼央行与中国、日本和韩国在清迈协议框架下签有双边货币互换协议,分别为40亿、60亿和10亿美元。2009年印尼同中国签署为期三年、总额为1000亿人民币的双边本币互换协议。2013年10月,两国续签该协议。2003年9月,印尼央行正式加入国际清算银行。2015年11月,两国同意将现有本币互换规模扩大至1300亿人民币。2018年11月,两国央行续签本币互换协议,并将互换规模扩大至2000亿人民币。

【对外贸易】外贸在印尼国民经济中占重要地位,政府采取一系列措施鼓励和推动非油气产品出口,简化出口手续,降低关税。1997年外贸总额为951亿美元,1998年和1999年连续下滑,2000年受出口和内需推动锐增32%,2001年和2002年受全球经济放缓影响有所下降,2003年和2004年恢复增长,2005年至2007年年均增长率在10%以上。2008年国际金融危机后,外贸总额有所下降,2009年以来外贸增长较快。

主要出口产品有石油、天然气、纺织品和成衣、木 材、藤制品、手工艺品、鞋、铜、煤、纸浆和纸制品、电器、棕榈油、橡胶等。主要进口产品有机械运输设备、化工产品、汽车及零配件、发电设备、钢铁、塑料及 塑料制品、棉花等。主要贸易伙伴为中国、日本、新加坡、美国等。

【外国资本】外国资本对印尼经济发展有重要促进作用。印尼政府重视改善投资环境,吸引外资。1997年金融危机前每年吸引外资约300亿美元,金融危机后大幅下降。苏希洛政府重视改善投资环境,大力吸引外资。2011年、2012年、2013、2014年实际利用外资额分别为173亿美元、229亿美元、223亿美元和230亿美元。受印尼盾大幅贬值影响,2015年吸引外资投资额136亿美元。2017年吸引外国投资322.4亿美元,同比增长8.5%。主要投资来源国为新加坡、日本、中国、美国、英国、韩国。

【外国援助】外援主要由“援助印尼协商集团”(CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INDONESIA,简称CGI)、国际货币基金组织(IMF)、世界银行以及日本、美国等提供。1997年金融危机后,IMF牵头,世行、亚行及日、美、中等国承诺向印尼提供400亿美元贷款援助,其中一线(IMF出资)100亿美元,二线(双边政府贷款)300亿美元。2000年IMF追加50亿美元一线贷款。2002年至2004年,CGI向印尼提供的年度贷款援助分别为37、34、28亿美元。2004年底印度洋地震海啸灾难发生后,CGI承诺提供28亿美元贷款援助印尼灾后重建。2006年10月,印尼政府提前偿还IMF所有债务。2007年1月,CGI宣布解散。

【人民生活】1997年金融危机以后,人民生活水平下降。政府加大救助力度,研究建立全国社会保障体系,同时采取扩大就业和加强能力建设等中长期措施,努力解决结构性贫困问题。截至2018年9月,印尼贫困人口约2567万人,贫困率为9.66%。基尼系数降至0.384。失业率5.5%。

[Financial Finance] Before the financial crisis in 1997, the fiscal budget balance policy was implemented, and the final settlement was slightly surplus. The deficit budget has been implemented in recent years. Before the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, there were 144 domestic commercial banks nationwide. In the financial crisis, the banking industry was hit hard and a large number of banks closed down. The Indonesian government established a bank restructuring agency to restructure and integrate the banking industry. After that, the profitability of Indonesian commercial banks has generally increased and the quality of assets has improved significantly. As of the end of 2012, there were 109 commercial banks in Indonesia, including 5 state-owned banks, 26 regional development banks, 55 private national banks, and 23 foreign-funded and joint-venture banks.

The Indonesian central bank has bilateral currency swap agreements with China, Japan and South Korea under the Chiang Mai agreement, with $4 billion, $6 billion and $1 billion respectively. In 2009, Indonesia signed a three-year bilateral currency swap agreement with China for a total of 100 billion yuan. In October 2013, the two countries renewed the agreement. In September 2003, the Indonesian Central Bank officially joined the Bank for International Settlements. In November 2015, the two countries agreed to expand the existing local currency swap to 130 billion yuan. In November 2018, the central banks of the two countries renewed their local currency swap agreements and expanded the swap size to 200 billion yuan.

[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in Indonesia’s national economy. The government has adopted a series of measures to encourage and promote the export of non-oil and gas products, simplify export procedures and reduce tariffs. In 1997, the total volume of foreign trade was US$95.1 billion. It declined continuously in 1998 and 1999. In 2000, it was boosted by exports and domestic demand by 32%. In 2001 and 2002, it was affected by the global economic slowdown. It was restored in 2003 and 2004. Growth, from 2005 to 2007, the average annual growth rate is above 10%. After the international financial crisis in 2008, the total volume of foreign trade declined. Since 2009, foreign trade has grown rapidly.

The main export products are oil, natural gas, textiles and garments, wood, rattan products, handicrafts, shoes, copper, coal, pulp and paper products, electrical appliances, palm oil, rubber and so on. The main imported products are machinery transportation equipment, chemical products, automobiles and spare parts, power generation equipment, steel, plastics and plastic products, cotton and so on. The main trading partners are China, Japan, Singapore, and the United States.

[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital plays an important role in promoting Indonesia’s economic development. The Indonesian government attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. Before the financial crisis in 1997, it attracted about 30 billion U.S. dollars of foreign investment each year, and it fell sharply after the financial crisis. The Susilo government attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. The actual use of foreign capital in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 was US$17.3 billion, US$22.9 billion, US$22.3 billion and US$23 billion, respectively. Affected by the sharp depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah, the amount of foreign investment attracted in 2015 was US$13.6 billion. In 2017, it attracted foreign investment of 32.24 billion US dollars, an increase of 8.5%. The main sources of investment are Singapore, Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea.

[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is mainly provided by the “CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INDONESIA” (CGI), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, Japan, the United States, etc. After the 1997 financial crisis, the IMF took the lead, and the World Bank, ADB and Japan, the United States, and the Middle East promised to provide 40 billion US dollars in loan assistance to Indonesia, including the first line (IMF funding) of 10 billion US dollars and the second line (bilateral government loans) 30 billion US dollars. . In 2000, the IMF added an additional $5 billion in first-line loans. From 2002 to 2004, CGI provided Indonesia with annual loan assistance of $37, $34, and $2.8 billion, respectively. After the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami disaster at the end of 2004, CGI pledged to provide $2.8 billion in loans to aid Indonesia’s post-disaster reconstruction. In October 2006, the Indonesian government repaid all debts of the IMF in advance. In January 2007, CGI announced its dissolution.

[People’s Life] After the 1997 financial crisis, people’s living standards fell. The government has increased its assistance and researched and established a national social security system. At the same time, it has adopted medium- and long-term measures such as expanding employment and strengthening capacity building to address structural poverty. As of September 2018, the number of poor people in Indonesia was about 25.67 million, and the poverty rate was 9.66%. The Gini coefficient dropped to 0.384. The unemployment rate is 5.5%.

【新闻出版】共有各类报刊3000多种。主要印尼文报纸有《罗盘报》、《专业之声报》、《印尼媒体报》、《共和国日报等》、《革新之声报》和《印尼商报》,英文报纸有《雅加达邮报》、《雅加达环球报》、《印尼观察家报》等,中文报纸有《国际日报》、《商报》、《千岛日报》、《星洲日报》(原《印度尼西亚日报》)等。

通讯社目前只有安塔拉通讯社,系官方通讯社,1937年12月13日创立,在印尼27个省设有分社,约有300名记者。该社2007年3月恢复了北京分社,并派驻常驻记者。

广播电视主要有公立的印尼国家电台和印尼国家电视台。印尼国家电台于1945年9月11日成立,设有53个分台和对外广播的“印尼之声”台(用10种语言广播),现有员工8500人。印尼电视台于 1962年8月17日正式运营,共有13个分台,395个转播器,覆盖印尼全境。原为政府经营,2000年后成为公共电视台。现有员工约7200人。

私营电视台有鹰记电视台、教育电视台、美都电视台等11家全国性电视台以及众多的地方电视台。各地的电台多达1800多个。

【对外关系】奉行积极独立的外交政策。1967年8月参与发起成立东南亚国家联盟,视之为外交基石,积极参与东亚合作。主张大国平衡,重视同美、中、日、俄、澳、印以及欧盟的关系。重视不结盟运动和南南合作。1992年至1995年任不结盟运动主席,1998年担任“77国集团”主席国。2005年4月举行亚非领导人和万隆会议50周年纪念活动。2006年4月举办亚洲及太平洋经济社会委员会第62届会议。5月举行伊斯兰发展中八国集团(D8)首脑峰会。2007-2008年度担任联合国安理会非常任理事国。2007年12月在巴厘岛举办联合国气候变化大会,通过“巴厘路线图”。2009年5月在万鸦老召开世界海洋大会。自2008年起,每年举办“巴厘民主论坛”,迄今已举办11次。2011年担任东盟轮值主席国,11月在巴厘岛举行东亚领导人系列峰会。2013年10月在巴厘岛举行亚太经合组织第二十一次领导人非正式会议。2015年4月在雅加达举行亚非领导人会议和万隆会议60周年纪念活动。任2015至2017年环印联盟主席国,2016年10月在巴厘岛召开环印联盟第十六届部长理事会。2017年3月在雅加达举行环印联盟首次领导人峰会。2018年4月举办首届印尼—非洲论坛。6月,印尼当选2019-2020年度联合国安理会非常任理事国。8月,举办第18届亚运会。10月,举办第3届亚残运会;在巴厘岛召开“我们的海洋”大会。11月,在巴厘岛举行首届世界创意经济大会。12月,在巴厘岛举行2018年世界银行和国际货币基金组织双年会。

[News and Publishing] There are more than 3,000 newspapers and magazines. The main Indonesian newspapers include “Compass”, “Professional Voice”, “Indonesian Media”, “Republic Daily”, “Innovation Voice” and “Indonesia Business”, and English newspapers “Jakarta Post” “Jakarta Global”, “Indonesia Observer”, Chinese newspapers include “International Daily”, “Business Daily”, “Thousand Island Daily”, “Sin Chew Daily” (formerly “Indonesia Daily”).

The news agency currently only has Antalya News Agency, the official news agency, which was founded on December 13, 1937. It has branches in 27 provinces of Indonesia and about 300 journalists. The agency resumed the Beijing branch in March 2007 and sent a resident correspondent.

Radio and television mainly include public Indonesian National Radio and Indonesian National Television. The Indonesian National Radio was established on September 11, 1945. It has 53 sub-platform and external broadcasts of the “Indonesian Voice” station (broadcast in 10 languages) and employs 8,500 people. Indonesian TV Station officially opened on August 17, 1962. There are 13 sub-platforms and 395 broadcasters covering the whole of Indonesia. Originally operated by the government, it became a public television station after 2000. There are about 7,200 employees.

Private TV stations include 11 national TV stations such as Eagle TV, Education TV, and US TV, as well as numerous local TV stations. There are more than 1,800 radio stations in various places.

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of active independence. In August 1967, he participated in the establishment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, which was regarded as the cornerstone of diplomacy and actively participated in East Asian cooperation. Advocate the balance of big countries and attach importance to relations with the United States, China, Japan, Russia, Australia, India and the European Union. Attach importance to the Non-Aligned Movement and South-South cooperation. Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1992 to 1995 and Chairman of the “G77” in 1998. In April 2005, the 50th anniversary of the Asian-African leaders and the Bandung Conference was held. The 62nd Session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific was held in April 2006. The summit of the G8 (D8) Summit on Islamic Development was held in May. In 2007-2008, he served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. The United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Bali in December 2007 to adopt the Bali Road Map. In May 2009, the World Ocean Conference was held in Manado. Since 2008, the Bali Democracy Forum has been held every year and has been held 11 times so far. In 2011, he assumed the presidency of ASEAN and held the East Asian Leaders Summit in Bali in November. The 21st APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting was held in Bali in October 2013. In April 2015, the Asian-African Leaders’ Meeting and the 60th anniversary of the Bandung Conference were held in Jakarta. He served as the chairman of the Union of the Rings from 2015 to 2017 and held the 16th Council of Ministers of the Union of the Rings in Bali in October 2016. In March 2017, the first summit meeting of the Union of India was held in Jakarta. The first Indonesia-Africa Forum was held in April 2018. In June, Indonesia was elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2019-2020. In August, the 18th Asian Games was held. In October, the 3rd Asian Paralympic Games will be held; the “Our Ocean” conference will be held in Bali. In November, the first World Creative Economy Conference was held in Bali. In December, the 2018 World Bank and International Monetary Fund Biennial Conference was held in Bali.