Republic of Indonesia 印度尼西亚共和国
【国名】印度尼西亚共和国（Republic of Indonesia）。
[Country name] Republic of Indonesia.
[Area] 19,135.86.68 square kilometers.
[Population] 262 million, the world’s fourth most populous country. There are hundreds of ethnic groups, of which the Javanese population accounts for 45%, the Kazuo 14%, the Madura 7.5%, the Malay 7.5%, and the other 26%. There are more than 200 national languages, and the official language is Indonesian. About 87% of the population believes in Islam and is the country with the largest Muslim population in the world. 6.1% of the population believes in Christianity, 3.6% believe in Catholicism, and the rest believe in Hinduism, Buddhism and primitive fetishism.
[Capital] Jakarta (JAKARTA) with a population of 10.277 million.
[Head of State] President Joko Widodo, took office in October 2014 and will serve until 2019.
[Important Festival] Islam Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Adha; National Awakening Day (commemorating the establishment of the Indonesian National Movement Organization “Zhongshan Society” in 1908) May 20; Independence Day: August 17.
1997年亚洲金融危机对印尼造成全面冲击，引起局势动荡。1998年5月，执政长达32年的苏哈托总统辞职，副总统哈比比接任总统。1999年10月，印尼人民协商会议（简称“人协”）选举瓦希德为总统，梅加瓦蒂为副总统。2001年7月23日，人协特别会议以渎职罪罢免瓦希德总统职务，梅加瓦蒂接任总统，哈姆扎·哈兹任副总统。2004年7月，印尼举行历史上首次总统直选，原政治安全统筹部长苏希洛和人民福利统筹部长尤素夫·卡拉（Muhammad Jusuf Kalla）通过两轮直选胜出。2009年7月，印尼举行第二次总统直选，苏希洛和原央行行长布迪约诺（Boediono）竞选搭档首轮胜出。2014年7月，印尼举行第三次总统直选，雅加达省长佐科·维多多（Joko Widodo)和前副总统尤素夫·卡拉搭档参选，战胜前陆军战略后备部队司令普拉博沃和前经济统筹部长哈达组合，于10月20日宣誓就任新一届正副总统，任期至2019年。
2005年8月，印尼政府与“亚齐独立运动”分离组织达成和平协议。2006年7月，印尼国会通过亚齐管理法。2006年12月以来，亚齐举行3次地方选举。在2017年2月省长选举中，伊万迪·尤素夫（Irwandi Yusuf）和诺法·伊利安夏（Nova Iriansyah）当选省长和副省长，任期至2022年。
[Politics] After independence on August 17, 1945, he was armed to resist the invasion of Britain and the Netherlands. During this period, he was forced to change to the Federal Republic of Indonesia and join the Dutch-Indian Federation. In August 1950, it reverted to the Republic of Indonesia, and in August 1954 it left the Commonwealth of India.
The 1997 Asian financial crisis caused a full-scale impact on Indonesia, causing instability. In May 1998, President Suharto, who had been in power for 32 years, resigned, and Vice President Habibi took over as president. In October 1999, the Indonesian People’s Consultative Conference (“People’s Association”) elected Wahid as president and Megawati as vice president. On July 23, 2001, the special meeting of the People’s Association for the People’s Republic of China dismissed President Wahid from the crime of malfeasance. Megawati took over as president and Hamza Haz as vice president. In July 2004, Indonesia held the first direct presidential election in history. The former Minister of Political Security Coordination Su Xiluo and the Minister of Welfare Coordination of the People, Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, won through two rounds of direct elections. In July 2009, Indonesia held its second direct presidential election. Susilo and former central bank governor Boediono won the first round of the competition. In July 2014, Indonesia held its third direct presidential election. Jakarta Widodo, governor of Jakarta, and former Vice President Yusuf Kalla participated in the election, defeating former Army strategic reserve commander Prabowo and former The Economic Coordinating Minister Hada Group was sworn in as the new President and Vice President on October 20, and will serve until 2019.
The Zoco Government proposes to build a strategy of strengthening the country by maritime power, to safeguard national security, develop the economy, and fight corruption and promote clean government. It is committed to solving the problem of poor infrastructure that has long plagued Indonesia’s development, attracting foreign investment to develop the economy, and strengthening supervision of government officials. Work hard to create a clean government.
In August 2005, the Indonesian government reached a peace agreement with the Seychelles Independence Movement. In July 2006, the Indonesian Parliament passed the Aceh Management Act. Since December 2006, Aceh has held three local elections. In the February 2017 governor election, Irwandi Yusuf and Nova Iriansyah were elected governors and deputy governors for a term of 2022.
In July 2006, the Indonesian National Assembly passed a new Nationality Law to remove some of the content with racial discrimination and gender discrimination. In October 2008, the Indonesian Parliament passed the Law on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
From 2002 to 2005, Indonesia experienced the first Bali bombing, the explosion of the Jakarta Marriott Hotel, the explosion of the Australian Embassy in Indonesia, and the second Bali bombing. In July 2009, a terrorist explosion occurred at the Jakarta Marriott Hotel and the Ritz Carlton Hotel. In recent years, the Indonesian government has taken resolute measures to fight terrorism. It has killed and arrested a group of terrorists and the security situation has improved. However, with the development of the “Islamic State” forces, some terrorist organizations in Indonesia declared allegiance, hundreds of militants went to the Middle East to participate in the “jihad”, and many people returned to Indonesia. In January 2016, a terrorist bombing and shooting incident occurred in Jakarta, Indonesia. In February 2017, an explosion occurred in Bandung, the third largest city in Indonesia. In May 2018, a terrorist bombing occurred in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia.
[Constitution] The current constitution is the “Fourth Five-Year” Constitution. The Constitution was promulgated on August 18, 1945. It was replaced by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Indonesia and the Interim Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia in December 1949 and August 1950, and resumed on July 5, 1957. Four revisions were made between October 1999 and August 2002. The Constitution stipulates that Indonesia is a single republican country. “Faith, humanism, nationalism, democracy, and social justice” are the five basic principles of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (“Pancha Hira”). The presidential system is implemented. The president is the head of state, the chief executive, and the supreme commander of the armed forces. Since 2004, the President and Vice President are no longer elected by the People’s Consultative Conference and are directly elected by the people; they can only be re-elected once every five years. The president appoints the cabinet and the cabinet is responsible to the president.
[People’s Association] full name of the People’s Consultative Conference. The national legislature, composed of the People’s Congress (Congress) and the local representative council, is responsible for formulating, revising and enacting the Constitution and supervising the President. If the president is unconstitutional, he has the right to impeach the president. The election will be renewed every five years. The current association was established in October 2014. There are 692 members, including 560 members of parliament and 132 members of the local council. There is one chairman and four vice-chairmen. The current chairman is Zulkifli Hasan.
[Congress] Full name of the People’s Congress. The national legislature exercises general legislative powers other than constitutional amendments. Congress does not have the power to dismiss the presidency, nor can the president declare the dissolution of the parliament; but if the president violates the constitution, Congress has the right to advise the people to hold the president accountable. The current Congress was established in October 2014 with a total of 560 members and concurrent appointments. The term of office is five years. There is one speaker and four deputy speakers. The current speaker is Bambang Soesatyo. There are 10 factions in this session, namely the Democratic Struggle Party (19.46%), the Professional Group Party (16.25%), the Greater Indonesian Movement Party (13.04%), the Democratic Party (10.89%), and the National Awakening Party (8.39). %), National Mission Party (8.57%), Prosperous Justice Party (7.14%), National Democratic Party (6.43%), Solidarity Party (6.96%), and Popular Party (2.86%).
[Local Representative Council] is a newly established legislative body in October 2004. It is responsible for legislative work on local autonomy, central and local government relations, local provincial and municipal divisions, and national resource management. The members are from 34 provincial-level administrative regions, with 4 representatives from each district, a total of 132, and concurrently appointed as agreement. There are 1 chairman and 2 vice chairs. The current chairman is Oesman Sapta.
【政府】本届内阁于2014年10月组建，2015年8月改组，2016年7月再次改组。现任阁员34人，任期至2019年，包括：政治法律安全统筹部长维兰多(Wiranto)、经济统筹部长达尔敏·纳苏迪安（Darmin Nasution）、海洋统筹部长卢胡特·宾萨·潘查丹(Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan)、人类发展与文化统筹部长布安·马哈拉尼(Puan Maharani)、国务秘书部长普拉蒂克诺（Pratikno）、内政部长扎赫约·库莫罗（Tjahjo Kumolo）、外交部长蕾特诺·马尔苏迪 （Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi）、国防部长里亚米扎尔德·里亚库杜 （Jenderal TNI (Purn.)Ryamizard Ryacudu）、司法人权部长亚索纳·劳利（Yasonna Laoly）、财政部长斯莉·穆莉亚妮（Sri Mulyani）、能源与矿产资源部长伊格纳斯·乔南（Ignaus Jonan）、工业部长艾尔朗加·哈尔达多（Airlangga Hartato）、贸易部长恩加迪亚斯托·卢基塔（Enggartiasto Lukita）、农业部长阿姆兰·苏莱曼（Amran Sulaiman）、环境与林业部长西蒂·努尔巴亚（Siti Nurbaya Bakar）、土地与空间规划部长索菲安·贾利尔(Sofyan Jalil)、交通部长布迪·苏玛迪（Budi Sumadi）、海洋渔业部长苏西·普吉亚司杜蒂（Susi Pudjiastuti）、劳工部长哈尼夫·达基里（Hanif Dhakiri）、公共工程与住房部长巴苏基·哈迪穆尔约诺（Basuki Hadimuljono）、卫生部长妮拉·穆卢克（Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek）、文化与初中级教育部长穆哈吉尔·埃芬迪（Muhajir Effendi）、社会部长伊德鲁斯·马尔哈姆（Idrus Marham）、宗教部长鲁克曼·哈基姆·塞义夫丁（Lukman Hakim Saifuddin）、旅游部长阿里耶夫·叶海亚（Arief Yahya）、信息与通讯部长鲁迪安塔拉（Rudiantara）、科技与高等教育部长穆罕默德·纳西尔（Muhammad Nasir）、中小企业与合作社部长努拉·普斯帕约加（Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Puspayoga）、妇女与儿童部长约哈娜·延比塞（Yohana Yembise)、提高国家机构效率与行政改革部长阿斯曼·阿布努尔（Asman Abnur）、农村、落后地区发展与移民部长艾科·桑卓约（Eko Putro Sanjoyo）、国家发展规划部长班邦·布洛佐尼格罗（Bambang Brodjonegoro）、国营企业部长莉尼·苏玛尔诺 （Rini Soemarno）、青年与体育部长伊马姆·纳赫拉维(Imam Nahrawi)。
[Government] The current cabinet was formed in October 2014, reorganized in August 2015, and reorganized in July 2016. The current cabinet consists of 34 members, who will serve until 2019, including: Political and Legal Security Coordinator Wiranto, Economic Coordinating Minister Darmin Nasution, and Marine Coordinating Minister Luhut Binsa Pan Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, Minister of Human Development and Cultural Coordination Puan Maharani, Minister of State Secretary Pratikno, Interior Minister Tjahjo Kumolo ), Foreign Minister Retno Lestari Priansari Marsudi, Defense Minister Jenderal TNI (Purn.) Ryamizard Ryacudu, and Minister of Justice and Human Rights Yasona Law Yasonna Laoly, Finance Minister Sri Mulyani, Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Ignaus Jonan, and Industry Minister Erlanga Hardardo (Airlangga) Hartato), Trade Minister Enggartiasto Lukita, Agriculture Minister Amran Sulaiman, Minister of Environment and Forestry Siti Nurbay a Bakar), Land and Space Planning Minister Sofyan Jalil, Transport Minister Budi Sumadi, and Marine Fisheries Minister Susi Pudjiastuti , Minister of Labour Hanif Dhakiri, Minister of Public Works and Housing Basuki Hadimuljono, Minister of Health Nila Djuwita Anfasa Moeloek, Culture With the junior and intermediate education minister Muhajir Effendi, the social minister Idrus Marham, and the Minister of Religion Lukman Hakim Saifuddin ), Tourism Minister Arief Yahya, Information and Communications Minister Rudiantara, Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education Muhammad Nasir, SME and Cooperative Minister Nura · Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Puspayoga, Minister of Women and Children Yohana Yembise, Minister of Efficiency and Administrative Reform of the State Agency Asman Abnur, rural and backward development and immigration minister Eko Putro Sanjoyo, national development planning minister Bambang Brodjonegoro, state-owned enterprise Minister Rini Soemarno, Minister of Youth and Sports Imam Nahrawi.
[Administrative Division] There are 34 first-level administrative districts (provincial level), including three local special zones and 31 provinces of Jakarta capital, Yogyakarta and Aceh. There are 514 secondary administrative districts (county/city level).
[Judiciary] The separation of powers is exercised, and the Supreme Court is independent of the legislative and executive bodies. The President of the Supreme Court is elected by the Supreme Court judge and the current President Hatta Ali.
（1）民主斗争党（Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan）：由原印尼民主党分裂出来的人士组成，1998年10月正式成立。系民族主义政党，印尼世俗政治力量代表。以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领，弘扬民族精神，反对宗教和种族歧视。2014年国会选举中获109个议席，国会第一大党。现任总主席为梅加瓦蒂·苏加诺普特丽（Megawati Soekarnoputri）。
（2）专业集团党（Partai Golongan Karya）：1959年组成松散的专业集团联合秘书处，1964年10月由61个群众组织联合成立专业集 团，1970年12月扩大为包括291个群众组织的专业组织，1967年至1999年6月为事实上的执政党，但一直自称为社会政治组织。1999年3月7 日正式宣布为政党。以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领，主张在民主和民权基础上进行政治体制改革，保障人权，改善民生。2014年国会选举中获91个议席，国会第二大党。总主席为艾尔朗加·哈尔达多（Airlangga Hartato）。
（4）民主党（Partai Demokrat）：成立于2001年9月9日，以“潘查希拉”为政治纲领，以维护和巩固国家统一为目标，倡导民族主义、宗教信仰自由、 多元主义和人道主义。2009年4月国会选举中获148个议席，2014年国会选举中议席大幅下滑,仅获61议席。现任总主席为苏希洛·班邦·尤多约诺 （Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono）。
（5）国家使命党（Partai Amanat Nasional）：成立于1998年8月23日，党员多为印尼第二大穆斯林团体穆哈玛迪亚（Muhammadiyah） 成员，具有伊斯兰现代派特征。主张三权分立制衡、人民主权、经济平等、种族宗教和睦等。2014年国会选举中获48个议席，国会第五大党。现任总主席为祖尔基弗里·哈桑（Zulkifli Hasan）。
[Party] The party law enacted in 1975 allowed only three parties to exist, namely the professional group party, the Indonesian Democratic Party, and the construction unity party. The party ban was lifted in May 1998. In the 2014 general election, a total of 15 political parties were elected, 10 political parties were elected to the National Assembly, and the Democratic Struggle Party became the largest party in Congress. The main major parties include:
(1) Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan: composed of people split by the former Indonesian Democratic Party, officially established in October 1998. It is a nationalist political party and a representative of Indonesian secular political forces. Take Panchasila as a political program, carry forward the national spirit, and oppose religious and racial discrimination. In the 2014 congressional election, 109 seats were won, and the largest party in Congress. The current chairman is Megawati Soekarnoputri.
(2) Partai Golongan Karya: In 1959, it formed a loose professional group joint secretariat. In October 1964, 61 mass organizations jointly established a professional group. In December 1970, it expanded to include 291 mass organizations. The organization, from 1967 to June 1999, was the de facto ruling party, but has always called itself a social political organization. It was officially declared a political party on March 7, 1999. Taking “Panchahira” as the political program, it advocates political system reform on the basis of democracy and civil rights, safeguarding human rights and improving people’s livelihood. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 91 seats were won and the second largest party in Congress. The chairman is Airlangga Hartato.
(3) The Great Indonesian Sports Party (Gerindra): Established on February 6, 2008, with Pan Panxila as the political program, advocating nationalism and humanitarianism. The 2009 general election pushed Prabovo to run for election, and failed due to lack of strength. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 73 seats were obtained. President Prabowo Subianto.
(4) The Democratic Party (Partai Demokrat): Established on September 9, 2001, with Pan Panxila as the political program, with the goal of safeguarding and consolidating national unity, advocating nationalism, freedom of religious belief, pluralism and humanitarianism. . In April 2009, there were 148 seats in the parliamentary elections. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, the seats fell sharply, with only 61 seats. The current chairman is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
(5) Partai Amanat Nasional: Founded on August 23, 1998, the party members are mostly members of Muhammadiyah, the second largest Muslim group in Indonesia. They are characterized by Islamic modernism. It advocates the separation and separation of powers, people’s sovereignty, economic equality, ethnic religion and shackles. In the 2014 parliamentary elections, 48 seats were won and the fifth largest party in Congress. The current chairman is Zulkifli Hasan.
[Important] Zoko Widodo: President. Born on June 21, 1961 in Solo City, Central Java. Believe in Islam. The family is poor and the undergraduate is studying at the Forestry Department of Kachamad University, Yogyakarta. After graduation, I went to the Aceh Special Zone for a short time. In 1988, he returned to Thoreau to run the furniture industry and became a well-known local businessman. In May 2005, he was elected mayor of Solo and re-elected in 2010. During his tenure, he was awarded the “Merk of Merit” medal by the President in 2008 and was selected as the 25 best mayors in the world in 2010. In September 2012, he was elected Governor of Jakarta and retired in October 2014. In July 2014, he was elected President of Indonesia and took office on October 20th. His term of office will be until October 2019.
Carla: Vice President. Born on May 15, 1942 in Tamboni, South Sulawesi. He graduated from the Faculty of Economics of Hassanuddin University in Indonesia in 1967 and obtained a master’s degree in business administration from the European Business Administration Institute of France in 1977. Long-term business, own BUKAKA Group. He has served as the chairman of the South-South Branch of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Coordinator of the Eastern Region of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Chairman of the Association of Economics of the South Soviet Union, and the Chairman of the Foundation of the Muslim University of Indonesia. In 2004, he was elected as the chairman of the professional group party. From 1999 to 2000, he served as Minister of Trade and Industry of Wahid Cabinet. From 2001 to 2004, he served as the Minister of People’s Welfare Coordination of the Megawati Cabinet. In 2004, he resigned and was elected to Susilo. In October, he was elected vice president. From 2009 to 2014, he served as the president of the Indonesian Red Cross. In 2014, he partnered with Zoco and was re-elected as vice president.
[Economy] Indonesia is the largest economy in ASEAN. Agriculture, industry and service industries all play an important role in the national economy. From 1950 to 1965, the average annual GDP growth was only 2%. In the late 1960s, the economic structure was adjusted and the economy began to accelerate. From 1970 to 1996, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 6%, ranking among middle-income countries. In 1997, it was hit hard by the Asian financial crisis, the economy was seriously declining, and the currency depreciated sharply. At the end of 1999, a slow recovery began, with an average annual GDP growth of 3% to 4%. At the end of 2003, the economic supervision of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was terminated as planned. After taking office in 2004, President Susilo actively took measures to attract foreign investment, develop infrastructure, rectify the financial system, support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, and achieved positive results. Economic growth has remained above 5%. Since 2008, in the face of the international financial crisis, the Indonesian government has responded properly and the economy has maintained rapid growth. Since 2014, the Indonesian rupiah has rapidly depreciated due to the global economic downturn and the Fed’s adjustment of monetary policy. In 2017, Indonesia’s GDP was approximately US$1,015.2 billion, a year-on-year increase of 5.07%. The total trade volume was 325.6 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 15.9%. The inflation rate for the whole year of 2018 was 3.31%. In the third quarter of 2018, the gross domestic product was about 267.86 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 5.06%. In 2018, the total trade volume was 368.6 billion US dollars, up 13.2% year-on-year; of which exports were 180 billion US dollars, up 6.65% year-on-year, and imports were 188.6 billion US dollars, up 20.15% year-on-year.
[Resources] Rich in oil, natural gas and mineral resources such as coal, tin, bauxite, nickel, copper, gold and silver. Mining plays an important role in the Indonesian economy, with output value accounting for about 10% of GDP. According to Indonesian official statistics, Indonesia’s oil reserves are about 9.7 billion barrels (1.31 billion tons), natural gas reserves are 4.8 trillion to 5.1 trillion cubic meters, coal has proven reserves of 19.3 billion tons, and potential reserves can reach more than 90 billion tons.
[Industrial] The direction of industrial development is to strengthen export-oriented manufacturing. The main departments are mining, textile, light industry and so on. The output of tin, coal, nickel, gold and silver is among the highest in the world.
[Agriculture] Indonesia has a cultivated land area of about 80 million hectares, which is rich in cash crops such as palm oil, rubber, coffee and cocoa.
[Fisheries] The fishery resources are abundant, and the government estimates that the potential catch is more than 8 million tons per year.
[Forestry] The forest area is 137 million hectares and the forest coverage rate is over 60%. To protect forestry resources, Indonesia announced that it has banned the export of logs since 2002.
[Tourism] is the second largest foreign exchange earning industry in Indonesia’s non-oil and gas industry after electronics exports. The government has long attached importance to developing tourist attractions, building hotels, training personnel and simplifying immigration procedures. Since 1997, due to the adverse effects of the financial crisis, political turmoil, terrorist explosions, natural disasters, and bird flu, tourism has developed slowly. Since 2007, the growth rate has accelerated. In 2017, foreign tourists to Indonesia reached 14.04 million. China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and Japan are the top five sources of tourists in Indonesia. From January to November 2018, foreign tourists to Indonesia were 14.39 million.
The main attractions are Bali, Jakarta Miniature Park, Yogyakarta Borobudur Stupa, Prambanan Temple, Sultan Palace, North Sumatra Lake Doba.
[Transportation] Highways and waterways are important means of transportation, of which highways are responsible for nearly 90% of passenger traffic and 50% of freight in China. The railway facilities are relatively backward, and only the two islands of Java and Sumatra have railways. Air transport has developed rapidly in recent years.
[Military] The “Defense Law” stipulates that the President has the highest leadership over the national armed forces, and makes major decisions on national defense and security affairs with the assistance of the National Defense and Security Committee and the Minister of Defense. Through the National Army Commander and the Chief of Police, the National Armed Forces are implemented. Leadership and command. The Ministry of National Defense is responsible for formulating and implementing the national defense policy. The National Army Command is responsible for the management, education, training, and wartime command of the entire army. The national armed forces are composed of regular and paramilitary forces. The military service system combining the compulsory and the volunteers is implemented, and the conscripts are served for 2 years.
The regular army of the Indonesian National Army (TNI) was established on October 5, 1945, and was adapted from the Dutch colonial colonies of the Dutch colonial era and the National Reserve Army during the Japanese occupation. There are three branches of land, sea and air, with a total force of 388,000 in active service. Among them, the army has 299,000 people, mainly composed of strategic reserve troops, special forces and 12 military regions. The Navy has 61,000 people, mainly composed of the East and West Fleet Commands and the Marine Corps and the Military Maritime Command. The Air Force has 28,000 people and is mainly composed of the First (West), Second (East) Air Force Combat Command, Maintenance and Material Command, and Special Forces. The current commander of the National Army, Hadi Tjahjanto. The army, sea and air forces respectively set up the chief of staff of the military, responsible for the daily management and training of the troops. The military has long held dual functions of national defense security and social politics, and now mainly shoulders the task of national defense security.
Paramilitary forces include the police and militia. The police force was incorporated into the headquarters of the Armed Forces in 1964. It was jointly called the “Arab Armed Forces” (ABRI) with the National Army. It was formally independent in July 2000 and directly led by the President. It is responsible for maintaining domestic security. The current police force is nearly 280,000. The current police chief, Tito Karnavin.
The national defense policy of implementing active defense will regard the “national defense security system” as the basis for consolidating national defense and advocate the guiding principle of “military and civilian integration” in national defense construction. In the past 10 years, the defense budget has been below 1% of GDP. The military budget for 2018 is 107 trillion rupiah.
[Education] Implement a nine-year compulsory education. Famous universities include the University of Indonesia in Jakarta, the University of Jakarta in Jakarta, the University of Surrang in Surabaya, the Bandung Institute of Technology in Bandung, the University of Banchoran, and the Bogor Agricultural College in Bogor.
主要出口产品有石油、天然气、纺织品和成衣、木 材、藤制品、手工艺品、鞋、铜、煤、纸浆和纸制品、电器、棕榈油、橡胶等。主要进口产品有机械运输设备、化工产品、汽车及零配件、发电设备、钢铁、塑料及 塑料制品、棉花等。主要贸易伙伴为中国、日本、新加坡、美国等。
【外国援助】外援主要由“援助印尼协商集团”（CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INDONESIA，简称CGI）、国际货币基金组织（IMF）、世界银行以及日本、美国等提供。1997年金融危机后，IMF牵头，世行、亚行及日、美、中等国承诺向印尼提供400亿美元贷款援助，其中一线（IMF出资）100亿美元，二线（双边政府贷款）300亿美元。2000年IMF追加50亿美元一线贷款。2002年至2004年，CGI向印尼提供的年度贷款援助分别为37、34、28亿美元。2004年底印度洋地震海啸灾难发生后，CGI承诺提供28亿美元贷款援助印尼灾后重建。2006年10月，印尼政府提前偿还IMF所有债务。2007年1月，CGI宣布解散。
[Financial Finance] Before the financial crisis in 1997, the fiscal budget balance policy was implemented, and the final settlement was slightly surplus. The deficit budget has been implemented in recent years. Before the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, there were 144 domestic commercial banks nationwide. In the financial crisis, the banking industry was hit hard and a large number of banks closed down. The Indonesian government established a bank restructuring agency to restructure and integrate the banking industry. After that, the profitability of Indonesian commercial banks has generally increased and the quality of assets has improved significantly. As of the end of 2012, there were 109 commercial banks in Indonesia, including 5 state-owned banks, 26 regional development banks, 55 private national banks, and 23 foreign-funded and joint-venture banks.
The Indonesian central bank has bilateral currency swap agreements with China, Japan and South Korea under the Chiang Mai agreement, with $4 billion, $6 billion and $1 billion respectively. In 2009, Indonesia signed a three-year bilateral currency swap agreement with China for a total of 100 billion yuan. In October 2013, the two countries renewed the agreement. In September 2003, the Indonesian Central Bank officially joined the Bank for International Settlements. In November 2015, the two countries agreed to expand the existing local currency swap to 130 billion yuan. In November 2018, the central banks of the two countries renewed their local currency swap agreements and expanded the swap size to 200 billion yuan.
[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in Indonesia’s national economy. The government has adopted a series of measures to encourage and promote the export of non-oil and gas products, simplify export procedures and reduce tariffs. In 1997, the total volume of foreign trade was US$95.1 billion. It declined continuously in 1998 and 1999. In 2000, it was boosted by exports and domestic demand by 32%. In 2001 and 2002, it was affected by the global economic slowdown. It was restored in 2003 and 2004. Growth, from 2005 to 2007, the average annual growth rate is above 10%. After the international financial crisis in 2008, the total volume of foreign trade declined. Since 2009, foreign trade has grown rapidly.
The main export products are oil, natural gas, textiles and garments, wood, rattan products, handicrafts, shoes, copper, coal, pulp and paper products, electrical appliances, palm oil, rubber and so on. The main imported products are machinery transportation equipment, chemical products, automobiles and spare parts, power generation equipment, steel, plastics and plastic products, cotton and so on. The main trading partners are China, Japan, Singapore, and the United States.
[Foreign Capital] Foreign capital plays an important role in promoting Indonesia’s economic development. The Indonesian government attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. Before the financial crisis in 1997, it attracted about 30 billion U.S. dollars of foreign investment each year, and it fell sharply after the financial crisis. The Susilo government attaches great importance to improving the investment environment and attracting foreign investment. The actual use of foreign capital in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 was US$17.3 billion, US$22.9 billion, US$22.3 billion and US$23 billion, respectively. Affected by the sharp depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah, the amount of foreign investment attracted in 2015 was US$13.6 billion. In 2017, it attracted foreign investment of 32.24 billion US dollars, an increase of 8.5%. The main sources of investment are Singapore, Japan, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea.
[Foreign Aid] Foreign aid is mainly provided by the “CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INDONESIA” (CGI), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, Japan, the United States, etc. After the 1997 financial crisis, the IMF took the lead, and the World Bank, ADB and Japan, the United States, and the Middle East promised to provide 40 billion US dollars in loan assistance to Indonesia, including the first line (IMF funding) of 10 billion US dollars and the second line (bilateral government loans) 30 billion US dollars. . In 2000, the IMF added an additional $5 billion in first-line loans. From 2002 to 2004, CGI provided Indonesia with annual loan assistance of $37, $34, and $2.8 billion, respectively. After the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami disaster at the end of 2004, CGI pledged to provide $2.8 billion in loans to aid Indonesia’s post-disaster reconstruction. In October 2006, the Indonesian government repaid all debts of the IMF in advance. In January 2007, CGI announced its dissolution.
[People’s Life] After the 1997 financial crisis, people’s living standards fell. The government has increased its assistance and researched and established a national social security system. At the same time, it has adopted medium- and long-term measures such as expanding employment and strengthening capacity building to address structural poverty. As of September 2018, the number of poor people in Indonesia was about 25.67 million, and the poverty rate was 9.66%. The Gini coefficient dropped to 0.384. The unemployment rate is 5.5%.
[News and Publishing] There are more than 3,000 newspapers and magazines. The main Indonesian newspapers include “Compass”, “Professional Voice”, “Indonesian Media”, “Republic Daily”, “Innovation Voice” and “Indonesia Business”, and English newspapers “Jakarta Post” “Jakarta Global”, “Indonesia Observer”, Chinese newspapers include “International Daily”, “Business Daily”, “Thousand Island Daily”, “Sin Chew Daily” (formerly “Indonesia Daily”).
The news agency currently only has Antalya News Agency, the official news agency, which was founded on December 13, 1937. It has branches in 27 provinces of Indonesia and about 300 journalists. The agency resumed the Beijing branch in March 2007 and sent a resident correspondent.
Radio and television mainly include public Indonesian National Radio and Indonesian National Television. The Indonesian National Radio was established on September 11, 1945. It has 53 sub-platform and external broadcasts of the “Indonesian Voice” station (broadcast in 10 languages) and employs 8,500 people. Indonesian TV Station officially opened on August 17, 1962. There are 13 sub-platforms and 395 broadcasters covering the whole of Indonesia. Originally operated by the government, it became a public television station after 2000. There are about 7,200 employees.
Private TV stations include 11 national TV stations such as Eagle TV, Education TV, and US TV, as well as numerous local TV stations. There are more than 1,800 radio stations in various places.
[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of active independence. In August 1967, he participated in the establishment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, which was regarded as the cornerstone of diplomacy and actively participated in East Asian cooperation. Advocate the balance of big countries and attach importance to relations with the United States, China, Japan, Russia, Australia, India and the European Union. Attach importance to the Non-Aligned Movement and South-South cooperation. Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1992 to 1995 and Chairman of the “G77” in 1998. In April 2005, the 50th anniversary of the Asian-African leaders and the Bandung Conference was held. The 62nd Session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific was held in April 2006. The summit of the G8 (D8) Summit on Islamic Development was held in May. In 2007-2008, he served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. The United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Bali in December 2007 to adopt the Bali Road Map. In May 2009, the World Ocean Conference was held in Manado. Since 2008, the Bali Democracy Forum has been held every year and has been held 11 times so far. In 2011, he assumed the presidency of ASEAN and held the East Asian Leaders Summit in Bali in November. The 21st APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting was held in Bali in October 2013. In April 2015, the Asian-African Leaders’ Meeting and the 60th anniversary of the Bandung Conference were held in Jakarta. He served as the chairman of the Union of the Rings from 2015 to 2017 and held the 16th Council of Ministers of the Union of the Rings in Bali in October 2016. In March 2017, the first summit meeting of the Union of India was held in Jakarta. The first Indonesia-Africa Forum was held in April 2018. In June, Indonesia was elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2019-2020. In August, the 18th Asian Games was held. In October, the 3rd Asian Paralympic Games will be held; the “Our Ocean” conference will be held in Bali. In November, the first World Creative Economy Conference was held in Bali. In December, the 2018 World Bank and International Monetary Fund Biennial Conference was held in Bali.