Republic of Ecuador 厄瓜多尔共和国

【国 名】 厄瓜多尔共和国(Republic of Ecuador, República del Ecuador)。

【面 积】 256370平方公里,居拉美第十位。

【人 口】 1669万(2017年)。其中,印欧混血种人占77.42%,印第安人占6.83%,白种人占10.46%,黑白混血种人占2.74%,黑人和其他人种占2.55%。官方语言为西班牙语,印第安人通用克丘亚语。87.5%的居民信奉天主教。

【首 都】 基多(Quito),人口224万。海拔2818米。年平均气温13.5℃。

【国家元首】 总统莱宁·莫雷诺·加尔塞斯(Lenín MORENO Garcés),2017年5月24日就任,任期至2021年5月。

【重要节日】 独立日:8月10日。

[Country name] Republic of Ecuador, República del Ecuador.

[Dimensions] 256,370 square kilometers, ranking 10th in Latin America.

[People] 16.69 million (2017). Among them, Indo-European mixed-race people accounted for 77.42%, Indians accounted for 6.83%, Caucasians accounted for 10.46%, black-and-white mixed-race species accounted for 2.74%, and blacks and other ethnic groups accounted for 2.55%. The official language is Spanish, and the Indians are universal Quechua. 87.5% of the residents believe in Catholicism.

[The capital] Quito, with a population of 2.24 million. The altitude is 2,818 meters. The annual average temperature is 13.5 °C.

[Head of State] President Lenín MORENO Garcés, who took office on May 24, 2017, will serve until May 2021.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: August 10th.

【简 况】 位于南美洲西北部。东北与哥伦比亚毗连,东南与秘鲁接壤,西临太平洋。海岸线长930公里。赤道横贯国境北部(国名即西班牙语“赤道”之意)。东西部属热带雨林气候。山区盆地为热带草原气候,山区属亚热带气候。

曾为印第安部落居住地。15世纪并入印加帝国。1532年沦为西班牙殖民地。1809年8月10日宣布独立。1822年加入由哥伦比亚、委内瑞拉、巴拿马组成的“大哥伦比亚共和国”。1830年该共和国解体后,宣布成立厄瓜多尔共和国。第二次世界大战后,厄政局长期动荡,政权更迭频繁,军人多次执政。1979年,军政府还政于民,政局趋于稳定。1996-2006年间,由于政治腐败、经济发展迟缓等问题,先后有3位民选总统在任内被罢免或推翻。2006年11月26日,主权祖国联盟运动候选人科雷亚在第二轮总统选举中当选总统,并于2007年1月15日就职。科执政后,以“美好生活社会主义”为指导思想,全面推行“公民革命”。科于2009年、2013年两次当选总统。

【政 治】 2017年4月,执政党主权祖国联盟运动候选人莫雷诺在大选第二轮投票中,以51.16%的得票率当选,并于5月就职。莫执政以来,将反腐败、同反对派及各行业组织对话作为施政重点,增加民生投入,推出”陪伴一生“等社会计划,但与前总统科雷亚矛盾激化,执政党分裂。2018年2月,莫推动的修宪公投以高票通过。

【宪 法】 现行宪法于2008年9月28日通过。新宪法建立了五权分立的政治体制,在加强行政权、改革立法权和司法权的基础上,增设公民参与社会管理权和选举权。加强政府对国民经济的宏观规划和计划性指导,严格控制涉及国计民生的战略性部门,加强金融监管,取消中央银行自主权。成立债务委员会,严格审查和批准举借外债手续。

【国 会】 厄瓜多尔国民代表大会,实行一院制。议员共137名,其中全国议员15人,省议员116人,海外议员6人。本届国会于2017年5月14日正式成立,任期4年。国会主席、副主席由国民代表大会全体会议选举产生,任期两年,可连选连任。现任主席伊丽莎白·卡韦萨斯(Elizabeth Cabezas,女),第一副主席比维亚娜·博尼利亚(Viviana Bonilla,女),第二副主席卡洛斯·贝尔格曼(Carlos Bergmann)。

[profile] Located in the northwest of South America. The northeast is adjacent to Colombia, the southeast is bordered by Peru, and the west is the Pacific Ocean. The coastline is 930 kilometers long. The equator traverses the northern part of the country (the name of the country is the Spanish “equator”). The east and west are tropical rainforest climates. The mountain basin is a tropical steppe climate, and the mountainous area has a subtropical climate.

Once a place of residence for Indian tribes. Infused into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532, it became a Spanish colony. On August 10, 1809, independence was declared. In 1822, he joined the “Greater Republic of Colombia” composed of Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. After the dissolution of the Republic in 1830, the Republic of Ecuador was declared established. After the Second World War, the political situation in Ecuador was turbulent for a long time, the regime changed frequently, and the military repeatedly ruled. In 1979, the military government returned to the government and the political situation stabilized. Between 1996 and 2006, due to political corruption and slow economic development, three elected presidents were dismissed or overthrown during their term of office. On November 26, 2006, the candidate for the Sovereign Motherland Movement, Correa, was elected president in the second round of presidential elections and took office on January 15, 2007. After the administration took office, with the guiding ideology of “good living socialism”, the “civil revolution” was fully implemented. The division was elected president twice in 2009 and 2013.

[Politics] In April 2017, the candidate for the ruling sovereignty of the motherland alliance, Moreno, was elected in the second round of the general election with a vote of 51.16% and took office in May. Since the Mozambican rule, anti-corruption, dialogue with the opposition and various industry organizations has been the focus of governance, increasing the input of people’s livelihood, and launching social programs such as “accompanied by a lifetime”, but the conflict with the former president Correa has intensified and the ruling party split. In February 2018, Mo’s constitutional referendum was passed with a high vote.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted on September 28, 2008. The new constitution established a political system with five powers. On the basis of strengthening administrative power, reforming legislative power and judicial power, it added citizens to participate in social management and voting rights. Strengthen the government’s macro-planning and programmatic guidance to the national economy, strictly control the strategic departments involving the national economy and the people’s livelihood, strengthen financial supervision, and cancel the central bank’s autonomy. Establish a debt committee to strictly review and approve the procedures for borrowing foreign debts.

[National Assembly] The Ecuadorian National Congress has a one-chamber system. There are 137 members, including 15 members of the National Assembly, 116 members of the Provincial Assembly, and 6 members of the Overseas Parliament. The current Congress was formally established on May 14, 2017 for a four-year term. The President and Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly are elected by the National Assembly Plenary Session for a term of two years and are eligible for re-election. The current president, Elizabeth Cabezas (female), the first vice-president, Viviana Bonilla (female), and the second vice-president, Carlos Bergmann.

【政 府】 总统为国家最高行政首脑。现政府于2017年5月组成,多次调整。现内阁成员有:副总统奥托·索南霍尔兹纳(Otto Sonnenholzner),总统府秘书长何塞·阿古斯托(José Augusto),规划和发展国务秘书帕德里西奥·普罗亚尼奥(Patricio Proaño,代理),政治管理国务秘书玛利亚·保拉·罗莫(María Paula Romo,代理,女),新闻国务秘书安德列斯·米切莱纳(Andrés Michelena),总统府法律事务秘书约翰娜·佩桑特斯(Johana Pesántez,女),总统秘书胡安·塞巴斯蒂安·罗尔丹(Juan Sebastián Roldán),水资源国务秘书温贝托·乔兰戈(Humberto Cholango),高等教育、科技和创新国务秘书阿德里安·博尼利亚(Adrián Bonilla,代理),体育国务秘书安德烈娅·索托马约尔(Andrea Sotomayor,女 ),重建与重振生产委员会技术秘书何塞·里卡多·埃雷拉(José Ricardo Herrera),“关爱一生”计划技术秘书伊萨贝尔·马尔多纳多(Isabel Maldonado,女),青年事务技术秘书埃里亚斯·特诺里奥(Elías Tenorio);内政部长玛利亚·保拉·罗莫(María Paula Romo,女),外交和移民事务部长何塞·瓦伦西亚(José Valencia),国防部长奥斯瓦尔多·哈林(Oswaldo Jarrín),经济财政部长理查德·马丁内斯(Richard Martínez),教育部长米尔顿·卢纳(Milton Luna),交通与公共工程部长奥雷利奥·伊达尔戈(Aurelio Hidalgo),劳工部长劳尔·雷德斯马(Raúl Ledesma),农牧业部长哈维尔·拉索(Javier Lasso),外贸部长、工业和生产力部长(代)、水产养殖和渔业部长(代)巴勃罗·坎帕纳(Pablo Campana),能源与不可再生自然资源部长卡洛斯·佩雷斯(Carlos Pérez),公共卫生部长贝罗尼卡·埃斯皮诺萨(Verónica Espinosa,女),经济与社会包容部长贝伦尼塞·科尔德罗(Berenice Cordero,女),城市发展与住房部长哈维尔·托雷斯(Xavier Torres),旅游部长罗萨·普拉多(Rosa Prado),环境部长马塞洛·马塔(Marcelo Mata),文化与遗产部长劳尔·佩雷斯(Raúl Pérez),司法与人权部长埃内斯托·帕斯米尼奥(Ernesto Pazmiño,代理),通讯部长吉列尔莫·莱昂(Guillermo León)。

[Government] The President is the highest executive of the country. The current government is formed in May 2017 and has been adjusted several times. The current cabinet members are: Vice President Otto Sonnenholzner, President of the Presidential Palace José Augusto, Secretary of State for Planning and Development, Padricio Projanio (Patricio Proaño, agent), María Paula Romo, Acting Secretary of State for Political Management, Acting Secretary of State, Andrés Michelena, Presidential Law Secretary of the Affairs Johana Pesántez (woman), Presidential Secretary Juan Sebastián Roldán, Secretary of State for Water Resources Humberto Cholango ), Secretary of State for Higher Education, Technology and Innovation, Adrián Bonilla (agent), Secretary of State for Sports, Andrea Sotomayor (female), Reconstruction and Revitalization Production Committee Technical Secretary José Ricardo Herrera, Isabel Maldonado, female technical secretary of the Care for Life program, Elías Tenorio, Technical Secretary of the Year; María Paula Romo, Minister of the Interior, Jose Valencia, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Immigration (José Valencia), Defense Minister Oswaldo Jarrín, Minister of Economy and Finance Richard Martínez, Minister of Education Milton Luna, Minister of Transportation and Public Works Aurelio Hidalgo, Labour Minister Raúl Ledesma, Minister of Agriculture and Livestock Javier Lasso, Minister of Foreign Trade, Minister of Industry and Productivity (Generation), Aquaculture Minister of Culture and Fisheries (generation) Pablo Campana, Minister of Energy and Non-renewable Natural Resources Carlos Pérez, Minister of Public Health Beronika Espinosa (Verónica Espinosa, female), Minister of Economic and Social Inclusion, Berenice Cordero (female), Urban Development and Housing Minister Javier Torres (Xavier) Torres), Tourism Minister Rosa Prado, Environment Minister Marcelo Mata, Minister of Culture and Heritage Raúl Pérez, Minister of Justice and Human Rights Ernesto · Ernesto Pazmiño (agent), Minister of Communications Guillermo León.

【行政区划】 全国划分为24个省,下设215个市、1081个区。

【司法机构】 国家司法法院(Corte Nacional de Justicia)为国家最高司法机关,共有25名法官(包括院长在内)。现任院长为玛利亚·帕乌丽娜·阿吉雷·苏亚雷斯(María Paulina Aguirre Suárez)。总检察长鲁特·帕拉西奥斯·布里托(Ruth Palacios Brito),总监察长伊尼戈·萨尔瓦多(Íñigo Salvador)。

【政 党】 全国主要政党如下:

(1)主权祖国联盟运动(Movimiento Alianza PAIS):执政党,厄瓜多尔第一大党,2005年11月由前总统科雷亚建立。莫雷诺总统与前总统科雷亚决裂后,该党分裂。现有党员141万人。主张通过参与式民主和代议制民主,巩固国家法治和人民自由,反对腐败;致力于满足人民的物质和文化需要,增加人民福祉,实现经济、社会、环境协调发展;维护国家独立和主权,尊重国际法。党主席为莫雷诺总统,在议会拥有43个议席。

(2)公民革命党(Partido de Revolución Ciudadana,原主权祖国联盟运动科雷亚派):2018年1月,由前总统科雷亚及其支持者脱离主权祖国联盟运动后创立,呼吁捍卫科雷亚执政时期“公民革命”成果,反对莫雷诺总统的“背叛行为”和保守主义。党的领导人为前总统科雷亚,在议会拥有27个议席,但该党尚未获得合法政党身份。

(3)创造机会运动(Movimiento Creo, Creando Oportunidades):反对党,2012年1月建立。倡导代议制民主,反对国家干预,要求摒弃以原材料出口和举债为动力的发展模式,主张优先同美国发展关系。党主席吉列尔莫·拉索(Guillermo Lasso),拥有31个议席。

(4)基督教社会党(Partido Social Cristiano):反对党,1945年成立时称基督教民主党,1951年改为现名。1956-1960年和1984-1988年两次执政。代表企业家利益,主张基督教民主。党主席帕斯夸尔·德尔西奥波·阿拉贡第(Pascual del Cioppo Aragundi),拥有16个议席。

(5)帕恰库蒂克多民族团结运动(Movimiento de Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik):反对党,1995年6月建立。主张建立团结、公正、平等的新式民主和多元文化国家,在相互尊重和平等基础上发展对外关系,反对全球化。党总书记马隆·桑蒂(Marlon Santi),拥有5个议席。

(6)爱国社团党(Partido Sociedad Patriótica):反对党,2002年4月建立,曾经于2003-2005年执政。主张建立一个“摆脱殖民主义、落后贫困与愚昧状态”的民主国家,根除腐败,实施立法、司法和监察机构的改革,反对霸权主义。党主席卢西奥·古铁雷斯(Lucio Gutiérrez),拥有2个议席。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 24 provinces, with 215 cities and 1081 districts.

[Judiciary] The National Court of Justice (Corte Nacional de Justicia) is the highest judicial organ of the country with a total of 25 judges (including the dean). The current dean is María Paulina Aguirre Suárez. Attorney General Ruth Palacios Brito, Director of the Inspector, ññigo Salvador.

[Political Party] The main political parties in the country are as follows:

(1) Movimiento Alianza PAIS: The ruling party, the largest party in Ecuador, was established in November 2005 by former President Correa. After President Moreno’s break with former President Correa, the party split. The existing party members are 1.41 million. Advocating the use of participatory democracy and representative democracy to consolidate the rule of law and people’s freedom, to oppose corruption; to meet the material and cultural needs of the people, to increase the well-being of the people, to achieve coordinated economic, social and environmental development; to safeguard national independence and sovereignty, and to respect international law . The party chairman is President Moreno and has 43 seats in the parliament.

(2) The Civic Revolutionary Party (Partido de Revolución Ciudadana, formerly the Sovereignty of the Alliance of Motherland Movements): In January 2018, the former President Correa and his supporters were founded after the Movement of Sovereignty and Motherland Alliance, calling for the defense of Corey. The results of the “civil revolution” during the Asian ruling period opposed President Moreno’s “betrayal” and conservatism. The leader of the party is former President Correa, who has 27 seats in the parliament, but the party has not yet obtained the status of a legitimate political party.

(3) Opportunity Movement (Movimiento Creo, Creando Oportunidades): Opposition, established in January 2012. Advocating representative democracy, opposing state intervention, demanding abandoning the development model driven by raw material exports and borrowing, and advocating the development of relations with the United States. Party chairman Guillermo Lasso has 31 seats.

(4) Partido Social Cristiano: The opposition party, known as the Christian Democratic Party when it was founded in 1945, changed its current name in 1951. Two years in 1956-1960 and 1984-1988. Representing the interests of entrepreneurs and advocating Christian democracy. Party chairman Pascual del Cioppo Aragundi has 16 seats.

(5) Movimiento de Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik: Opposition, established in June 1995. It advocates the establishment of a new type of democratic and multicultural country that is united, just and equal, develops foreign relations on the basis of mutual respect and equality, and opposes globalization. Party general secretary Marlon Santi has five seats.

(6) Partido Sociedad Patriótica: The opposition party, established in April 2002, was in power in 2003-2005. It advocates the establishment of a democratic country that “frees from colonialism, backward poverty and ignorance”, eradicates corruption, implements reforms in legislation, judicial and supervisory bodies, and opposes hegemonism. Party chairman Lucio Gutiérrez has two seats.

【重要人物】 莫雷诺总统。1953年3月19日生于厄瓜多尔奥雷亚纳省。厄瓜多尔中央大学公共管理本科学历。身有残疾(因枪伤腰部以下瘫痪),使用轮椅。历任厄瓜多尔内政部行政局长、国家旅游总会执行主席、全国残疾人协会主席等职务。2013年至2016年担任联合国秘书长残疾人和无障碍特使。2017年5月就任总统,任期4年。已婚,有3女。

【经 济】 厄瓜多尔为南美地区经济相对落后的国家,工业基础薄弱,农业发展缓慢,石油业是厄瓜多尔第一大经济支柱。经济发展分为可可、香蕉和石油三个不同发展时期。厄以“香蕉之国”闻名于世,1992年起连续多年香蕉产量和出口量均居世界第一位。

2000年,厄瓜多尔正式实施经济美元化政策。2004年,厄政府同国际货币基金组织等国际金融机构达成外债重组和贷款协议,宏观经济继续保持增长势头。但美元化也带来竞争力下降、出口乏力等弊端。2007年1月科雷亚总统执政后,宣布摒弃新自由主义经济模式,加强国家对经济运行的控制力度,重审与外国签署的投资保护协定。在资源问题上强调国家利益与主权。2013年科雷亚总统连任以来,大力推进经济结构转型,提出发展五大基础工业,积极应对国际油价下跌,大力扶持科技创新,实施选择性进口替代措施,通过大规模公共投资和出口拉动经济增长,推动油气产业上中下游一体化,全力推进水电、风能等新能源开发利用。厄经济实现持续较快增长。2015年以来,随着国际油价持续下跌、美元走强,厄财政缺口增大,债务风险上升,经济遭遇较大困难。2016年4月,厄瓜多尔发生里氏7.8级强烈地震,直接损失33.44亿美元,约占国内生产总值3%,重建资金规模大体相当,灾后重建任务艰巨。2016年厄经济增长-1.5%,系厄实行经济美元化以来首次出现负增长。

莫雷诺总统执政后,强调减少国家对经济的干预,鼓励私人部门和外国投资,推出“2017-2021年国家发展计划”,严格控制财政开支。2018年,厄经济增长1.4%。2018年国内生产总值1083.98亿美元,人均国内生产总值:6368美元,外汇储备:22.09亿美元,外债余额356.96亿美元,外国直接投资14.01亿美元,通货膨胀率:0.27%,失业率:3.7%。

[important person] President Moreno. Born on March 19, 1953 in the province of Oriana, Ecuador. Bachelor degree in Public Administration, Central University of Ecuador. I have a disability (because of a gunshot wound below the waist) and use a wheelchair. He has served as the administrative director of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ecuador, the executive chairman of the National Tourism Association, and the chairman of the National Association of Disabled Persons. From 2013 to 2016, he served as UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Persons with Disabilities and Accessibility. He became president in May 2017 for a four-year term. Married, there are 3 women.

[Economy] Ecuador is a country with a relatively backward economy in South America. Its industrial base is weak and agricultural development is slow. The oil industry is Ecuador’s largest economic pillar. Economic development is divided into three different development periods: cocoa, banana and oil. It is famous for its “Banana Country”. Since 1992, it has been ranked first in the world for banana production and export for many years.

In 2000, Ecuador officially implemented the economic dollarization policy. In 2004, the Ecuadorian government reached an international debt restructuring and loan agreement with international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, and the macro economy continued to maintain its growth momentum. However, the dollarization has also brought about disadvantages such as decreased competitiveness and weak exports. After President Korea took office in January 2007, he announced that he would abandon the neoliberal economic model, strengthen the state’s control over economic operations, and review investment protection agreements signed with foreign countries. Emphasize national interests and sovereignty on resource issues. Since the re-election of President Korea in 2013, he has vigorously promoted the economic restructuring, proposed the development of five basic industries, actively responded to the fall in international oil prices, vigorously supported technological innovation, implemented selective import substitution measures, and stimulated economic growth through large-scale public investment and exports. Promote the integration of the middle and lower reaches of the oil and gas industry, and fully promote the development and utilization of new energy such as hydropower and wind energy. The economy has achieved sustained and rapid growth. Since 2015, as international oil prices have continued to fall and the US dollar has strengthened, the fiscal gap in Ecuador has increased, debt risks have risen, and the economy has encountered greater difficulties. In April 2016, a strong earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale occurred in Ecuador, with a direct loss of US$ 3.344 billion, accounting for 3% of GDP. The scale of reconstruction funds was roughly the same, and the task of post-disaster reconstruction was arduous. In 2016, the economic growth of Ecuador was -1.5%, and the first negative growth since the implementation of the economic dollarization.

After President Moreno, he stressed that reducing state intervention in the economy, encouraging the private sector and foreign investment, and launching the “2017-2021 National Development Plan” to strictly control fiscal expenditure. In 2018, the economy grew by 1.4%. In 2018, the GDP was 108.398 billion US dollars, the per capita GDP was 6,368 US dollars, the foreign exchange reserves were 2.209 billion US dollars, the foreign debt balance was 35.696 billion US dollars, the foreign direct investment was 1.401 billion US dollars, the inflation rate was 0.27%, and the unemployment rate was 3.7. %.

【对外贸易】 厄主要出口石油、香蕉、大虾和鲜花,主要进口机械设备、工业原料、燃料和消费品等。主要贸易伙伴是美国、欧盟、中国、巴拿马、哥伦比亚、秘鲁。2018年厄对外贸易总额为437.25亿美元,其中出口216.06亿美元,进口221.19亿美元,同比分别增长14.6%、12.99%和16.23%。

【军 事】 总统为武装力量最高统帅,通过国防部长和三军联合指挥部统率全军。国防部长由总统任免,可为现役或退役军人。三军联合指挥部由三军司令组成,负责制定训练和作战计划。实行义务兵役制,服役期一年。现任三军联指司令为罗克·莫雷拉(Roque Moreira),陆军司令为哈维尔·佩雷斯(Javier Pérez),海军司令为达尔文·哈林·西斯内罗斯(Darwin Jarrín Cisneros),空军司令为毛里西奥·坎普萨诺(Mauricio Campuzano),警察总长尼尔森·比列加斯(Nelson Villegas)。三军总兵力4.2万人。2015年国防预算25亿美元,占国家预算总额的7.16%。

【教 育】 厄瓜多尔宪法规定,国民生产总值至少6%用于基础和中等教育。2015年,厄全国文盲率为5.5%。目前国立大、中、小学实行免费教育,大学实行自治,保护私人办学自由。2013年基础教育入学率96%,高等教育入学率35%。著名高等院校有厄中央大学、天主教大学、瓜亚基尔大学和昆卡大学。

【新闻出版】 全国共有50多种报纸和21种杂志。主要报纸有:《商报》,发行量9万份;《宇宙报》,发行量7.5万份;《快报》,发行量6万份。主要杂志有:《浏览》。

【广播电台】 全国共有460多家电台,首都有54家。主要有厄瓜多尔电台、天主教电台、基多电台、成就电台和安第斯之声电台。电台绝大多数为私人所有。

全国共有19家电视台。主要电视台:2台、4台、8台、10台和13台。

[Foreign Trade] Ecuador mainly exports oil, bananas, prawns and flowers, mainly importing machinery and equipment, industrial raw materials, fuels and consumer goods. The main trading partners are the United States, the European Union, China, Panama, Colombia, and Peru. In 2018, the total foreign trade volume of Ecuador was 43.725 billion US dollars, of which exports were 21.606 billion US dollars and imports were 22.119 billion US dollars, up 14.6%, 12.99% and 16.23% respectively.

[Military] The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces and leads the entire army through the Minister of Defense and the Joint Command of the Three Armies. The Minister of Defense is appointed and removed by the President and can be an active or retired soldier. The Joint Command of the Three Armies is composed of Commanders of the Three Armies and is responsible for formulating training and operational plans. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is one year. The current commander of the three armed forces is Roque Moreira, the commander of the army is Javier Pérez, and the commander of the navy is Darwin Jarrín Cisneros, the air force. The commander is Mauricio Campuzano, police chief Nelson Villegas. The total strength of the three armed forces is 42,000. In 2015, the national defense budget was 2.5 billion US dollars, accounting for 7.16% of the total national budget.

[Education] The Ecuadorian Constitution stipulates that at least 6% of the gross national product is used for basic and secondary education. In 2015, the national illiteracy rate was 5.5%. At present, the state’s large, middle and primary schools implement free education, and the university implements autonomy to protect the freedom of private education. In 2013, the enrollment rate of basic education was 96%, and the enrollment rate of higher education was 35%. Famous universities include the Central University of the United States, the Catholic University, the University of Guayaquil and the University of Cuenca.

[Press and Publication] There are more than 50 newspapers and 21 magazines nationwide. The main newspapers are: “Business Daily”, with a circulation of 90,000 copies; “Cosmos”, with a circulation of 75,000 copies; “Express”, with a circulation of 60,000 copies. The main magazines are: “Browse”.

[Radio Station] There are more than 460 radio stations in the country, and there are 54 in the capital. There are mainly radio stations in Ecuador, Catholic Radio, Quito Radio, Achievement Radio and Radio of the Andes. Most of the stations are privately owned.

There are 19 TV stations across the country. Main TV stations: 2, 4, 8, 10 and 13.

【对外关系】 厄瓜多尔奉行独立、自主、和平的外交政策。主张各国相互尊重主权和领土完整,互不干涉,和平解决国际争端。强调外交为经济建设服务。主张全面裁军,减少核武器,拉美应成为真正的无核区。要求建立国际经济、金融和货币新秩序。赞成债务国采取一致立场和联合行动,以争取合理的偿债条件,强调债权国必须与债务国共同承担责任,政治解决外债问题。主张加强联合国的作用,安理会应具有更广泛的代表性,并增加其工作透明度和决策民主性。主张尊重和捍卫人权,认为在新形势下,拉美国家只有加强团结合作,实行一体化,才能获得发展。主张积极发展同亚太地区国家的政治与经贸关系。同147个国家保持外交关系。是联合国、世贸组织、77国集团、石油输出国组织、美洲国家组织、拉美和加勒比共同体、安第斯共同体等国际和地区组织成员国。

[External Relations] Ecuador pursues an independent, independent and peaceful foreign policy. It is advocated that all countries respect each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, do not interfere with each other, and peacefully resolve international disputes. Emphasize that diplomacy serves the economic construction. Proclaiming comprehensive disarmament and reducing nuclear weapons, Latin America should become a truly nuclear-free zone. It is required to establish a new international economic, financial and monetary order. We agree that debtor countries should adopt unanimous positions and joint actions in order to obtain reasonable conditions for repayment of debts, emphasizing that creditor countries must share responsibility with debtor countries and solve the problem of external debt politically. Advocating for strengthening the role of the United Nations, the Council should have a broader representation and increase its transparency in work and decision-making democracy. He advocates respecting and defending human rights. He believes that under the new situation, Latin American countries can only develop if they strengthen unity and cooperation and implement integration. It advocates the active development of political and economic relations with countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintain diplomatic relations with 147 countries. It is a member of international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Group of 77, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Organization of American States, the Latin American and Caribbean Community, and the Andean Community.