Republic of Colombia 哥伦比亚共和国

【国名】 哥伦比亚共和国(Republic of Colombia,República de Colombia)。

【面积】 1141748平方公里,居拉美第五位。

【人口】 4550万,居拉美第三位。其中印欧混血种人占60%,白人占20%,黑白混血种人占18%,其余为印第安人和黑人。官方语言为西班牙语。多数居民信奉天主教。

【首都】 波哥大(Bogotá),人口825万。年平均气温14℃。

【国家元首】 总统伊万·杜克·马克斯(Iván DUQUE Márquez),2018年8月就任,任期至2022年8月。

【重要节日】 独立日:7月20日。

【简 况】位于南美洲西北部,东邻委内瑞拉、巴西,南接厄瓜多尔、秘鲁,西北与巴拿马相连,北临加勒比海,西濒太平洋。海岸线长2900公里。境内分为东部平原区和西部山地区。哥地处热带,气候因地势而异。东部平原南部和太平洋沿岸属热带雨林气候,海拔1000—2000米的山地属亚热带气候,西北部属热带草原气候。

原为奇布查族等印第安人的居住地。1536年沦为西班牙殖民地。1810年7月20日宣布独立,后遭镇压。1819年,南美解放者西蒙·玻利瓦尔领导的起义军大败西班牙殖民军后,哥重获解放。1821年与现厄瓜多尔、委内瑞拉、巴拿马组成大哥伦比亚共和国。1829—1830年,委、厄先后退出,大哥伦比亚共和国解体。1831年改名为新格拉纳达共和国,1861年称哥伦比亚合众国,1886年改称现名(1903年巴拿马独立)。历史上,自由党和保守党曾长期轮流执政。2002年5月,独立人士乌里韦当选总统并于2006年连任。2010年8月,民族团结社会党候选人桑托斯当选总统,并于2014年连任,任期至2018年8月。

【政 治】2018年6月17日,哥伦比亚举行总统选举第二轮投票,最大反对党民主中心党候选人杜克当选,并于8月7日就职。

杜克总统在就职演说中表示,新政府将以法治、创新、公平为核心,推动各方弥合分歧,实现团结与共同发展;恢复政府公信力,加强政府在偏远地区存在;将针对性地修改和平协议,维护冲突受害者权益,反对将贩毒、绑架等纳入政治罪范畴;将评估政府与民族解放军和谈,以停止一切犯罪、接受国际监督作为和谈前提;推动司法改革,坚决惩治腐败,加大对非法武装和犯罪集团打击力度,维护社会公正与安全;加大科技创新领域投入,通过减税和简税,鼓励中小企业发展,提高经济活力,争取年均增长4%以上;加大教育、医疗、文化体育等领域投入,促进社会事业发展;注重保护环境。

2016年底,哥政府同国内最大反政府武装“哥伦比亚革命武装力量”(简称“哥武”)签署和平协议并正式生效。当年,时任总统桑托斯被授予“诺贝尔和平奖”。2017年,“哥武”解除武装工作顺利完成并改制成立政党“大众革命替代力量”。2017年2月,哥政府启动与另一主要反政府武装“民族解放军”和谈,迄已完成六轮和谈。2019年1月17日,“民族解放军”在哥首都波哥大的桑坦德将军警察学校制造汽车炸弹袭击,造成数十人死伤。

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[Country name] Republic of Colombia, República de Colombia.

[Area] 1141748 square kilometers, ranking fifth in Latin America.

[Population] 45.5 million, ranking third in Latin America. Among them, Indian-European mixed-race people accounted for 60%, whites accounted for 20%, black-and-white mixed-races accounted for 18%, and the rest were Indians and blacks. The official language is Spanish. Most residents believe in Catholicism.

[Capital] Bogotá, with a population of 8.25 million. The annual average temperature is 14 °C.

[Head of State] President Iván DUQUE Márquez, who took office in August 2018, will serve until August 2022.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 20.

[Profile] It is located in the northwestern part of South America, with Venezuela and Brazil in the east, Ecuador and Peru in the south, Panama in the northwest, the Caribbean Sea in the north and the Pacific Ocean in the west. The coastline is 2,900 kilometers long. The territory is divided into the eastern plain area and the western mountain area. The climate is tropical and the climate varies depending on the terrain. The southern part of the eastern plain and the Pacific coast are tropical rainforest climates. The mountains at 1000-2000 meters above sea level have a subtropical climate and the northwest has a savanna climate.

Originally the residence of Indians such as the Chibcha. In 1536, it became a Spanish colony. On July 20, 1810, he declared independence and was suppressed. In 1819, after the rebel army led by the South American liberator Simon Bolivar defeated the Spanish colonial army, the brother was re-liberated. In 1821, it formed the Greater Republic of Colombia with Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama. From 1829 to 1830, the Commission and Eritrea withdrew and the Great Colombian Republic disintegrated. In 1831, it was renamed the Republic of New Granada, in 1861 it was called the United States of America, and in 1886 it was renamed the current name (Independence of Panama in 1903). Historically, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party have taken turns to govern for a long time. In May 2002, independent Urive was elected president and re-elected in 2006. In August 2010, Santos, the candidate of the National Solidarity Socialist Party, was elected president and re-elected in 2014, with a term of office until August 2018.

[Politics] On June 17, 2018, Colombia held the second round of presidential elections. Duke, the party’s candidate for the largest opposition Democratic Center, was elected and took office on August 7.

In his inauguration speech, President Duke said that the new government will focus on the rule of law, innovation and fairness, and promote the parties to bridge differences and achieve unity and common development; restore government credibility and strengthen the government’s presence in remote areas; Agreements, safeguarding the rights and interests of victims of conflicts, and opposing the inclusion of drug trafficking and kidnapping in political crimes; assessing the peace talks between the government and the National Liberation Army to stop all crimes and accept international supervision as a prerequisite for peace talks; promote judicial reform, resolutely punish corruption, and increase Illegal armed and criminal groups to crack down on social justice and security; increase investment in science and technology innovation, encourage small and medium-sized enterprises to develop, improve economic vitality, and strive for an average annual growth rate of more than 4% through tax reduction and tax reduction; increase education and medical care Investing in fields such as culture and sports to promote the development of social undertakings; focusing on protecting the environment.

At the end of 2016, the Colombian government signed a peace agreement with the largest anti-government armed forces in the country, the “Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia” (referred to as “Gaowu”) and entered into force. At that time, then President Santos was awarded the “Nobel Peace Prize.” In 2017, the “Gaowu” disarmament work was successfully completed and the political party “the replacement force of the mass revolution” was established. In February 2017, the Colombian government launched a peace talk with another major anti-government armed force, the National Liberation Army. So far, six rounds of peace talks have been completed. On January 17, 2019, the “National Liberation Army” made a car bomb attack at the Santander General Police School in Bogota, which caused dozens of deaths and injuries.

【宪法】现行宪法是在1886年宪法基础上修改而成的,于1991年颁布。新宪法扩大民主参与范围,并加强司法权力。主要内容有:实行三权分立的代议制民主;总统为国家元首兼政府首脑、武装部队最高统帅,直选产生,任期4年,省长、市长为直选产生;保障公民人身安全、信仰、结社、劳动、思想和教育自由等人权。2004年,哥议会通过允许总统连选连任法案;2005年,宪法法院批准了该法案。2015年通过修宪将总统任期改为不可连选连任。

【议会】 国会由参、众两院组成,国会主席兼任参议长。本届国会于2018年7月20日成立,任期4年,其中参议员108名,众议员172名。现任国会主席兼参议长埃内斯托·马西亚斯·托瓦尔(Ernesto MACÍAS Tovar)、众议长亚历杭德罗·卡洛斯·查孔·卡马戈(Alejandro Carlos CHACÓN Camargo)均于2018年7月就职,任期1年。

【政府】 本届政府于2018年8月组成。现内阁成员为:副总统马尔塔·露西娅·拉米雷斯(Marta Lucía RAMÍREZ,女),内政部长南希·帕特里夏·古铁雷斯·卡斯塔聂达(Nancy Patricia GUTIÉRREZ Castañeda,女),外交部长卡洛斯·奥尔梅斯·特鲁希略·加西亚(Carlos Holmes TRUJILLO García),财政与公共信贷部长阿尔韦托·卡拉斯基利亚·巴雷拉(Alberto CARRASQUILLA Barrera),司法和法律部长格洛丽亚·玛丽亚·博雷罗·雷斯特雷波(Gloria María BORRERO Restrepo,女),国防部长吉列尔莫·博特罗·涅托(Guillermo BOTERO Nieto),农业和农村发展部长安德烈斯·瓦伦西亚·平松(Andrés VALENCIA Pinzón),卫生和社会保障部长胡安·巴勃罗·乌里韦(Juan Pablo URIBE),劳动部长阿莉西亚·维多利亚·阿朗戈·奥尔莫斯(Alicia Victoria ARANGO Olmos,女),矿业和能源部长玛丽亚·费尔南达·苏亚雷斯(María Fernanda SUÁREZ,女),贸易、工业和旅游部长何塞·曼努埃尔·雷斯特雷波·阿翁达诺(José Manuel RESTREPO Abondano),教育部长玛丽亚·维多利亚·安古洛(María Victoria ANGULO,女),环境和可持续发展部长里卡多·何塞·洛萨诺(Ricardo José LOZANO),住房、城市和国土部长乔纳森·马拉贡·冈萨雷斯(Jonathan MALAGÓN González),信息技术和通信部长西尔维娅·孔斯塔因·伦希福(Silvia CONSTAÍN Regnifo,女),交通部长安赫拉·玛丽亚·奥罗斯科·戈麦斯(Ángela María OROZCO Gómez,女),文化部长卡门·伊内斯·巴斯克斯·卡马乔(Carmen Inés VÁSQUEZ Camacho,女)。

【行政区划】全国分32个省和波哥大首都区。

【司法机构】最高法院、行政法院、宪法法院、高级司法委员会和总检察院组成哥司法体系。最高法院是最高司法机关,由23名大法官组成。国家行政法院和宪法法院分别由26名和9名大法官组成。高级司法委员会由13名大法官组成。各法院院长均由大法官选举产生,任期1年。总检察院属哥司法系统的组成部分,但享有行政和预算自治权。最高法院院长何塞·路易斯·巴尔塞洛·卡马乔(José Luis BARCELÓ Camacho),行政法院院长赫尔曼·布拉·埃斯科瓦尔(Germán BULA Escobar),宪法法院院长亚历杭德罗·温贝托·坎蒂略·利纳雷斯(Alejandro Humberto CANTILLO Linares),高级司法委员会主席埃德加·卡洛斯·萨那夫里亚·梅洛(Edgar Carlos SANABRIA Melo),总检察长内斯托尔·温贝托·马丁内斯·内拉(Néstor Humberto MARTÍNEZ Neira)。

[Constitution] The current constitution was revised on the basis of the 1886 Constitution and was promulgated in 1991. The new constitution expands the scope of democratic participation and strengthens judicial power. The main contents are: representative democracy with separation of powers; the president is the head of state and government, the supreme commander of the armed forces, and the direct election is elected for a term of four years. The governor and the mayor are directly elected; the citizens’ personal safety, belief, association, and Human rights such as freedom of labor, thought and education. In 2004, the Colombian parliament passed the bill allowing the president to be re-elected; in 2005, the Constitutional Court approved the bill. In 2015, the presidential term was changed to a non-election for re-election by constitutional amendment.

[Parliament] The National Assembly consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The President of the National Assembly is also the Speaker of the Senate. The current parliament was established on July 20, 2018 for a four-year term, including 108 senators and 172 members of the House of Representatives. The current President and Senate President Ernesto MACÍAS Tovar and the Speaker of the House of Alejandro Carlos CHACÓN Camargo were both in 2018. He took office in July for a one-year term.

[Government] The current government was formed in August 2018. The current cabinet members are: Vice President Marta Lucía RAMÍREZ (female), Interior Minister Nancy Patricia GUTIÉRREZ Castañeda, female), Foreign Minister Carlos Holmes TRUJILLO García, Minister of Finance and Public Credit Alberto CARRASQUILLA Barrera), Minister of Justice and Law Gloria María BORRERO Restrepo (female), Minister of Defence Guillermo BOTERO Nieto , Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Andrés VALENCIA Pinzón, Minister of Health and Social Security Juan Pablo URIBE, Minister of Labor Alicia Victoria Alicia Victoria ARANGO Olmos (female), Minister of Mines and Energy, María Fernanda SUÁREZ, female, trade, industry And Tourism Minister José Manuel RESTREPO Abondano, Minister of Education María Victoria ANGULO, Women, Environment and Sustainable Development Minister Ricardo José LOZANO, Minister of Housing, City and Land, Jonathan MALAGÓN González, Minister of Information Technology and Communications, Silvia Kong Silvia CONSTAÍN Regnifo (female), Minister of Transport Ángela María OROZCO Gómez (female), Minister of Culture Carmen Ines Vazquez · Carmen Inés VÁSQUEZ Camacho (female).

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 32 provinces and the Bogota Capital Region.

[Judiciary] The Supreme Court, the Administrative Court, the Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council and the General Prosecutor’s Office form the judicial system of the Brothers. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body and consists of 23 justices. The State Administrative Court and the Constitutional Court are composed of 26 and 9 judges respectively. The High Judicial Council is composed of 13 justices. The presidents of the courts are elected by the judges for a term of one year. The Attorney General’s Office is part of the brother’s judicial system but enjoys administrative and budgetary autonomy. José Luis BARCELÓ Camacho, President of the Supreme Court, Germán BULA Escobar, President of the Administrative Court, and the President of the Constitutional Court, Alex Alejandro Humberto CANTILLO Linares, Chairman of the High Judicial Council Edgar Carlos SANABRIA Melo, total Attorney General Néstor Humberto MARTÍNEZ Neira.

【政党】全国主要政党如下:

(1)民主中心党(Centro Democrático):执政党,2014年7月成立,右翼政党,现为国会第一大党。领导人为前总统阿尔瓦罗·乌里韦(Álvaro URIBE),全国领导委员会主席努比亚·斯特拉·马丁内斯·鲁埃达(Nubia Stella MARTÍNEZ Rueda)。

(2)民族团结社会党(Partido Social de Unidad Nacional):中右政党,2005年成立,创始人为前总统桑托斯。该党纲领强调代表广大民众利益,尊重政治发展多元化,重视社会民主建设,监督政府机构,巩固民主宪政,推动建设公正、自由、繁荣的国家和社会。党主席奥雷略·伊拉戈里(Aurelio IRAGORRI)。

(3)激进变革党(Partido Cambio Radical):1998年成立,中右政党。对内主张实行民主变革,增加公共管理透明度,消除贫困,重建道德,完成国内和平进程,对外主张实行全方位外交,尊重国际法,和平解决争端。胡安·卡洛斯·雷斯特雷波(Juan Carlos RESTREPO)、安东尼奥·格拉(Antonio GUERRA)等担任联合党主席。

(4)自由党(Partido Liberal):哥历史最悠久的政党,1848年成立,中右政党。现有党员400万左右。主张维护国家主权,发展民族经济,实行政治经济改革。1989年6月,该党加入社会党国际。奥拉西奥·塞尔帕(Horacio SERPA)、比维亚内·莫拉莱斯(Viviane MORALES)等担任联合主席。

(5)保守党(Partido Conservador):哥主要传统政党,1849年成立,中右政党,现有党员160万。1987年曾易名为社会保守党,1992年改回原名。主张维护民族独立和国家主权,发展民族经济和意识形态多样化。党主席戴维·巴基尔(David BARGUIL)。

(6)民主选择中心党( Polo Democrático Alternativo):2006年成立。左翼政党,主要支持力量为工会、企业行会和中下阶层人士等。党主席阿尔瓦罗·何塞·阿戈特(Álvaro José ARGOTE)。

(7)绿党(Partido Verde):2009年9月成立,中右政党。主张“为国家政治生活输氧”,要求尊重宪法体制,追求社会公正,尊重生命,反对暴力,提倡保护环境和生物多样性,实现经济、社会和环境的可持续发展。路易斯·卡洛斯·阿韦利亚内达(Luis Carlos AVELLANEDA)、安东尼奥·桑吉诺(Antonio SANGUINO)等担任联合党主席。

(8)大众革命替代力量(Fuerza Alternative Revolucionaria Del Común):2017年8月成立,左翼政党。由反政府武装“哥伦比亚革命武装力量”同政府签署和平协议后转型成立,承诺放下武器、上缴财产,通过和平、合法方式参政,继续为实现哥伦比亚公平、民主、独立、和平而奋斗。现任党主席罗德里格·隆多尼奥(Rodrigo LONDOÑO)。

【重要人物】 杜克总统。1976年8月1日出生于哥伦比亚首都波哥大。毕业于哥伦比亚塞尔西奥·阿沃莱达大学法律专业,后获美利坚大学国际经济法硕士学位和乔治城大学公共管理硕士学位。曾赴哈佛大学商学院进修战略谈判和风险管理专业。曾长期在地区金融组织工作,先后担任拉美开发银行顾问、美洲开发银行文化创新部主任等职务。2014至2017年任全国参议员。2018年6月在总统选举第二轮投票中,作为民主中心党候选人当选总统,8月7日就职,任期4年。与夫人玛丽亚·胡利亚娜·鲁伊斯(María Juliana RUIZ)有一子两女。

【经济】 哥伦比亚在拉美属中等发展水平,近10余年经济保持连年增长。哥市场化程度较高,国际社会普遍看好哥经济长期发展前景。2018年哥国内生产总值3301.33亿美元,人均国内生产总值7255.67美元,经济增长率2.7%,通胀率3.2%,失业率9.7%。

[Party] The main political parties in the country are as follows:

(1) Centro Democrático: The ruling party, established in July 2014, is a right-wing party and is now the largest party in Congress. The leader is former president Álvaro URIBE, the president of the National Leadership Council, Nubia Stella MARTÍNEZ Rueda.

(2) Partido Social de Unidad Nacional: The right-wing party was established in 2005 with the founder of former President Santos. The party program emphasizes representing the interests of the general public, respecting the diversification of political development, attaching importance to social democratic construction, supervising government agencies, consolidating democratic constitutionalism, and promoting the building of a just, free and prosperous country and society. Party Chairman Aurelio IRAGORRI.

(3) Partido Cambio Radical: Established in 1998, the right-wing party. Internally advocate democratic reforms, increase transparency in public administration, eliminate poverty, rebuild morality, complete the domestic peace process, advocate external diplomacy, respect international law, and resolve disputes peacefully. Juan Carlos RESTREPO, Antonio GUERRA, etc. served as chairman of the coalition party.

(4) Partido Liberal: The oldest political party in Colombia, founded in 1848, right-wing party. There are about 4 million party members. It advocates safeguarding national sovereignty, developing the national economy, and implementing political and economic reforms. In June 1989, the party joined the Socialist International. Coordinating chairs such as Horacio SERPA and Viviane MORALES.

(5) Partido Conservador: The main traditional political party of Colombia, founded in 1849, the right-wing party, with 1.6 million existing members. In 1987, he was renamed the Social Conservative Party. In 1992, he changed his name back to his original name. It advocates safeguarding national independence and national sovereignty, and developing national economy and ideological diversity. Party Chairman David Barguil.

(6) Polo Democrático Alternativo: Established in 2006. Left-wing parties mainly support the trade unions, corporate guilds, and middle and lower classes. Party Chairman Álvaro José ARGOTE.

(7) Partido Verde: Founded in September 2009, the right-wing party. Advocating “oxygenation for the political life of the country” requires respecting the constitutional system, pursuing social justice, respecting life, opposing violence, promoting the protection of the environment and biodiversity, and achieving sustainable economic, social and environmental development. Luis Carlos AVELLANEDA and Antonio SANGUINO served as chairman of the coalition party.

(8) Fuerza Alternative Revolucionaria Del Común: Established in August 2017, left-wing party. After the anti-government armed forces “Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces” signed a peace agreement with the government, they were transformed and committed to lay down their weapons, surrender their property, and participate in politics through peaceful and lawful means, and continue to struggle for the realization of Colombia’s fairness, democracy, independence and peace. The current party chairman Rodrigo LONDOÑO.

[Important figures] President Duke. Born on August 1, 1976 in Bogota, Colombia. He graduated from the University of Celcio Avoleda in Colombia with a master’s degree in international economic law and a master’s degree in public administration from Georgetown University. He went to Harvard Business School to pursue strategic negotiation and risk management. He has worked in regional financial organizations for a long time, and has served as a consultant to the Latin American Development Bank and a director of the Cultural Innovation Department of the Inter-American Development Bank. National senator from 2014 to 2017. In the second round of the presidential election in June 2018, he was elected president of the Democratic Party, and he took office on August 7 for a four-year term. There is a son and two daughters with Mrs. María Juliana RUIZ.

[Economy] Colombia has a medium level of development in Latin America. The economy has maintained a year-on-year growth in the past 10 years. The degree of marketization of Colombia is relatively high, and the international community is generally optimistic about the long-term development prospects of the Colombian economy. In 2018, the gross domestic product of Colombia was 330.33 billion US dollars, the per capita GDP was 7,255.67 US dollars, the economic growth rate was 2.7%, the inflation rate was 3.2%, and the unemployment rate was 9.7%.

【对外贸易】 哥主要出口产品有石油和石油产品、化工产品、煤炭、咖啡、农副产品和纺织品等,主要进口机械设备、化工产品、农副产品、纺织品和金属材料等。主要贸易对象为美国、中国、墨西哥和日本等。2018年哥贸易总额907.76亿美元,同比增长8.2%。其中出口额418.31亿美元,进口额489.45亿美元,同比分别增长10.7%和6.2%,贸易逆差71.13亿美元,同比减少14.1%。

【军事】 哥伦比亚总统为武装力量最高统帅。军事力量总司令部是最高军事指挥机构。最高国防委员会为最高军事咨询机构。实行义务兵役制,服役期2年。现任武装力量总司令路易斯·费尔南多·纳瓦罗(Luis Fernando NAVARRO),陆军司令尼卡西奥·德赫苏斯·马丁内斯·埃斯皮内尔(Nicacio de Jesús MARTÍNEZ Espinel),海军司令埃韦利奥·拉米雷斯·加法罗(Evelio RAMÍREZ Gafaro),空军司令拉姆塞斯·鲁埃达·鲁埃达(Ramsés RUEDA Rueda),国家警察局长奥斯卡·阿特奥尔图阿·杜克(Óscar ATEHORTÚA Duque)。三军总兵力28.52万人,其中陆军23.75万,海军3.46万人,空军1.31万人。国民警察14.41万人。2017年,哥国防预算为97.50亿美元,同比增长2%。

【教育】哥伦比亚2011年起实行11年免费义务教育。2015年,文盲率为5.4%。2016年,中小学教育覆盖范围达到97.28%。著名高等学府有:哥伦比亚国立大学、哈维里亚那大学、安第斯大学、国立师范大学等。

【新闻出版】 全国约有400种报刊杂志。主要报纸有《时代报》、《观察家报》、《共和国报》等,主要杂志(均为周刊)有《星期》、《变革》等。

全国共有582座广播电台。“国家电台”是唯一国营电台,创建于1940年。“哥伦比亚广播公司”、“全国广播公司”和“W”电台为较大的三家私人广播公司,在各地设有广播发射台和转播台。

电视业始于1954年。全国共有15家电视台,其中三家为国家电视台和播放台,但一、二台通过合同向私人电视节目制作台和播放台出租,第三台为国家直接管理,播放文化教育等节目。蜗牛电视台、RCN电视台等为主要私人电视机构。

【对外关系】 奉行独立自主、不结盟和多元化的外交政策。实施外交为国内和平进程和经济发展服务的战略,努力提高哥的国际地位,创造有利的国际环境。哥是美国在拉美“地区战略盟友”,主张同美构建全方位合作关系。推行睦邻政策,积极参与地区事务,推动拉美一体化进程。重视巩固同欧盟国家传统联系,增进与亚太国家交流合作。2018年5月加入经合组织,并成为北约在拉美首个全球伙伴国。哥现与171个国家保持外交关系。

[Foreign Trade] Colombia’s main export products include petroleum and petroleum products, chemical products, coal, coffee, agricultural and sideline products and textiles. It mainly imports mechanical equipment, chemical products, agricultural and sideline products, textiles and metal materials. The main trade targets are the United States, China, Mexico and Japan. In 2018, the total trade volume of Colombia was 90.776 billion US dollars, an increase of 8.2%. The export value was 41.831 billion US dollars, and the import value was 48.945 billion US dollars, up 10.7% and 6.2% respectively year-on-year. The trade deficit was 7.113 billion US dollars, down 14.1% year-on-year.

[Military] The President of Colombia is the supreme commander of the armed forces. The Military Forces General Command is the highest military command body. The Supreme National Defense Council is the highest military advisory body. The compulsory military service system is implemented and the service period is 2 years. The current commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Luis Fernando NAVARRO, the commander of the army, Nicacio de Jesús MARTÍNEZ Espinel, the commander of the navy Evelio RAMÍREZ Gafaro, Air Force Commander Ramsés RUEDA Rueda, National Police Chief Oscar Atterua Du克 (Óscar ATEHORTÚA Duque). The total strength of the three armed forces was 285,200, of which the army was 237,500, the navy was 34,600, and the air force was 13,100. The National Police has a population of 140,100. In 2017, Colombia’s defense budget was $9.750 billion, a year-on-year increase of 2%.

[Education] Colombia has implemented 11 years of free compulsory education since 2011. In 2015, the illiteracy rate was 5.4%. In 2016, the coverage of primary and secondary education reached 97.28%. Famous universities are: National University of Colombia, University of Javierana, Andean University, National Normal University, etc.

[Press and Publication] There are about 400 newspapers and magazines in the country. The main newspapers include “Times”, “Observer”, “Republic”, etc. The main magazines (both weekly magazines) include “Week” and “Change”.

There are 582 radio stations across the country. “National Radio” is the only state-run radio station created in 1940. The “CBS”, “National Broadcasting Corporation” and “W” stations are the three larger private broadcasters with broadcast launchers and relay stations throughout the country.

The television industry began in 1954. There are 15 TV stations in the country, three of which are national TV stations and broadcasting stations. However, one or two units are leased to private TV program production stations and broadcast stations. The third one is directly managed by the state and broadcasts programs such as cultural education. Snail TV stations, RCN TV stations, etc. are the main private television organizations.

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of independence, non-alignment and pluralism. Implementing a strategy of diplomacy serving the domestic peace process and economic development, striving to improve Colombia’s international status and create a favorable international environment. Brother is the “regional strategic ally” of the United States in Latin America and advocates building an all-round cooperative relationship with the United States. Promote the policy of good neighborliness, actively participate in regional affairs, and promote the integration process in Latin America. Attach importance to consolidating traditional ties with EU countries and enhancing exchanges and cooperation with Asia-Pacific countries. Joined the OECD in May 2018 and became the first global partner of NATO in Latin America. Colombia now maintains diplomatic relations with 171 countries.