Republic of Chile 智利共和国
【国 名】 智利共和国（Republic of Chile, República de Chile）。
【面 积】 756715平方公里。
【人 口】 1805万，其中城市人口占86.9％。白人和印欧混血种人约占89%，印第安人约占11%。官方语言为西班牙语。在印第安人聚居区使用马普切语。15岁以上人口中信仰天主教的占67%，信仰福音教的占15%。
【首 都】 圣地亚哥(Santiago)，人口612万。1月最热，平均气温为12-19℃。6月最冷，平均气温为3-14℃。年均最高气温22.6℃，最低气温9.3℃。
【国家元首】 塞瓦斯蒂安·皮涅拉·埃切尼克（Sebastián Piñera Echenique），2018年3月11日就职，任期4年。
【简 况】 位于南美洲西南部，安第斯山脉西麓。东邻玻利维亚和阿根廷，北界秘鲁，西濒太平洋，南与南极洲隔海相望。海岸线总长约１万公里。是世界上最狭长的国家，南北长4352公里，东西宽96.8-362.3公里。境内多火山，地震频繁。气候地区差异大：北部是常年无雨的热带沙漠气候；中部是冬季多雨、夏季干燥的亚热带地中海式气候；南部为多雨的温带阔叶林和寒带草原气候。年均最低和最高气温分别为8.6℃和21.8℃。原为阿劳干人、马普切人、火地人等印第安人居住地，16世纪初以前属于印加帝国。1535年，西班牙殖民者从秘鲁侵入智利北部。1541年建立圣地亚哥城，智利沦为西班牙殖民地。1810年9月18日成立执政委员会，实行自治。此后，智利人民在民族英雄贝尔纳多·奥希金斯率领下开展反殖民统治斗争。1817年２月同阿根廷联军击败西班牙殖民军。1818年宣告独立。1970年社会党人阿连德当选总统，组成“人民团结”政府。1973年以皮诺切特为首的军人推翻阿连德政府上台，开始了长达17年的军政府统治。1989年，社会党、基督教民主党等组成“争取民主联盟”参加议会选举和总统大选，基民党人艾尔文当选总统，于次年3月11日开始执政，从而恢复了代议制民主。1994年3月基民党人弗雷继任。1998年皮诺切特交出军权，智“民主过渡”进程基本完成。在此后的20年里，由中左政党组成的执政联盟历经4届政府，政局长期保持稳定。2010年1月，中右翼联盟总统候选人皮涅拉赢得大选，于2010年3月就职。2013年12月，中左翼“新多数派联盟”候选人、巴切莱特赢得大选，于2014年3月就职。2017年11月，中右翼联盟“智利前进”候选人皮涅拉再次当选总统，于2018年3月就职。
【政 治】 2017年12月，中右翼联盟“智利前进”候选人、前总统皮涅拉赢得大选，于2018年3月就职。皮上任后，积极推进政治民主改革，出台提振经济举措，实行多元、务实的对外政策。目前，智经济社会形势总体保持稳定。
【宪 法】 现行宪法于1981年3月11日生效，后经过1989年、1991年、1993年、2005年四次修改。宪法规定，总统是国家元首和政府首脑。2005年修宪将总统任期改为4年，并取消了终身参议员和指定参议员。
【议 会】 国民议会（Congreso Nacional）实行参、众两院制。议会由直接选举的43名参议员、155名众议员组成。参议员任期8年，每四年改选其中1/2；众议员任期4年。1973年军事政变后议会被解散，1990年3月11日恢复。本届议会成立于2019年3月。现任参议长为海梅·金塔纳（Jaime Quintana），众议长为伊万·弗洛雷斯（Iván Flores García），均于2019年3月当选，任期1年。
[Country name] Republic of Chile, República de Chile.
[area] 756,715 square kilometers.
[People] 18.05 million, of which the urban population accounts for 86.9%. Whites and Indo-European hybrids account for about 89%, and Indians account for about 11%. The official language is Spanish. Use Mapuche in Indian settlements. Among the population over 15 years old, 67% believe in Catholicism and 15% believe in evangelism.
[Capital] Santiago, with a population of 6.12 million. The hottest month in January, the average temperature is 12-19 °C. The coldest in June, the average temperature is 3-14 °C. The annual average maximum temperature is 22.6 ° C, and the lowest temperature is 9.3 ° C.
[Head of State] Sebastián Piñera Echenique, who took office on March 11, 2018, for a four-year term.
[National Day] September 18th.
[Profile] Located in the southwestern part of South America, west of the Andes. It is bordered by Bolivia and Argentina in the east, Peru in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west, and Antarctica across the sea in the south. The total length of the coastline is about 10,000 kilometers. It is the narrowest country in the world, with a length of 4,352 kilometers from north to south and 96.8 to 362.3 kilometers from east to west. There are many volcanoes in the territory and frequent earthquakes. The climate is very different: the north is a tropical desert climate with no rain; the middle is a subtropical Mediterranean climate with heavy rain in summer and dry in summer; the rainy temperate broad-leaved forest and tundra climate in the south. The annual average minimum and maximum temperatures are 8.6 ° C and 21.8 ° C, respectively. Originally known as the Araugan, Mapuche, Fireland and other Indians, it belonged to the Inca Empire before the early 16th century. In 1535, Spanish colonists invaded northern Chile from Peru. Santiago City was established in 1541 and Chile became a Spanish colony. On September 18, 1810, the ruling committee was established to exercise autonomy. Since then, the Chilean people have waged a struggle against colonial rule under the leadership of national hero Bernardo O’Higgins. In February 1817, he defeated the Spanish colonial army with the Argentine coalition. In 1818, it declared independence. In 1970, Socialist Allende was elected president and formed the “people’s unity” government. In 1973, the soldiers headed by Pinochet overthrew the Allende government to take office and began the military rule of 17 years. In 1989, the Socialist Party, the Christian Democratic Party and other members of the “Forward for Democracy” participated in the parliamentary elections and the presidential election. The Christian Democratic Party Alvin was elected president and began to govern on March 11, the following year, thus restoring representative democracy. In March 1994, the Christian Democratic Party was succeeded. In 1998, Pinochet surrendered military power, and the process of “democratic transition” was basically completed. In the next 20 years, the ruling coalition formed by the middle-left political parties has gone through four sessions of government, and the political situation has remained stable for a long time. In January 2010, the right-wing alliance presidential candidate Piniella won the general election and took office in March 2010. In December 2013, the winner of the center-left “New Majority Alliance” and Bachelet won the general election and took office in March 2014. In November 2017, Piñera, the candidate for the Chilean Advancement of the Central Right League, was re-elected as President and took office in March 2018.
[Politics] In December 2017, the candidate for the Chilean Advancement of the Central Right League and former President Piniella won the general election and took office in March 2018. After taking office, he actively promoted political and democratic reforms, introduced measures to boost the economy, and implemented a pluralistic and pragmatic foreign policy. At present, the economic and social situation in the whole has remained stable.
[Constitution] The current Constitution came into effect on March 11, 1981, and was revised four times in 1989, 1991, 1993, and 2005. The Constitution stipulates that the President is the head of state and the head of government. In 2005, the constitution was changed to a four-year term, and the life senator and the designated senator were cancelled.
[Conference] The National Assembly (Congreso Nacional) implements the two-institution system. The parliament consists of 43 senators and 155 members of the House of Representatives who are directly elected. The Senate has a term of eight years and is reelected for one-half every four years; the House of Representatives has a term of four years. The parliament was dissolved after the military coup in 1973 and resumed on March 11, 1990. The current parliament was established in March 2019. The current Senate is Jaime Quintana and the Speaker of the House is Iván Flores García, who was elected in March 2019 for a one-year term.
【政 府】 本届政府于2018年3月11日组成，共设24个部委。主要成员有：内政部长安德烈斯·查得维克（Andres Chadwick），外交部长罗伯托·安普埃罗（Roberto Ampuero），国防部长阿尔韦托·埃斯皮纳（Alberto Espina），财政部长费利佩·拉腊因（Felipe Larrain），总统府秘书部部长冈萨罗·布卢梅尔（Gonzalo Blumel），政府秘书部部长塞西莉亚·佩雷斯（Cecilia Perez），经济部长何塞·拉蒙·巴伦特（Jose Ramon Valente）。
【司法机构】 司法独立。全国设最高法院、17个上诉法院和1个军事法庭。最高法院院长乌戈·多尔梅奇（Hugo Dolmestch），于2016年1月就任。1999年成立检察院，国家检察长为豪尔赫·阿博特·恰尔梅（Jorge Abbott Charme），2015年12月就任。
【政 党】 实行多党制，主要政党分为中右翼“智利前进”和中左翼“新多数派联盟”两大阵营。
（1）民族革新党（Renovación Nacional，RN）：1987年2月由右翼的民族联盟、独立民主联盟和全国劳动阵线合并而成。后独立民主联盟脱离该党。党员7.7万人。主张维护和发展西方文明和历史传统，建立“以人为中心，充分尊重个人自由”的社会。2010年，该党领袖皮涅拉当选总统。该党现为议会第一大党。现任党主席马里奥·德斯博尔德斯（Mario Desbordes）。
（2）独立民主联盟（Unión Demócrata Independiente UDI）：成立于1983年。党员8万。由独立人士和1979年成立的“新民主”组织组成。主张多元民主和权力下放，实施私有制基础上的市场经济。现任党主席杰奎琳·范·里塞尔伯格（Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe）。
（1）基督教民主党(Partido Demócrata Cristiano，PDC)：成立于1957年。党员10.8万。基督教民主党国际成员。主张实现真正的基督教主义，建立民主制度，尊重人权，与不同思想派别共处。该党在智民主化进程中发挥了重要作用，其领导人艾尔文、弗雷先后担任后军政府时代第一、二任民选总统。现任党主席福阿·查因（Fuad Chahin）。
（2）社会党(Partido Socialista，PS)：成立于1933年。党员约10.9万。智利议会第一大中左翼政党。社会党国际成员。曾长期自称为马克思主义党，苏联解体后把党的发展目标改为民主社会主义，主张建立一个自由、民主、人道的社会。1970年至1973年与共产党等组成“人民团结”政府，该党领导人阿连德任总统。1979年发生分裂。1989年12月阿拉特和阿尔梅达两大派宣布联合。1989年、1993年和1999年与争取民主党、基民党等结盟参加大选获胜。现任党主席阿尔瓦罗·埃利萨尔德（Álvaro Elizarde）。
（3）争取民主党（Partido por la Democracia，PPD）：成立于1987年。党员8.4万。社会党国际成员。其主张与社会党基本相同，但更为自由化。对内主张积极推动宪法改革，根除军政府建立的法制体系。对外主张以国际主义、人道主义、和平主义和拉美主义原则同世界各国建立外交、贸易和文化关系。2000年至2006年，党领袖拉戈斯担任总统。现任党主席埃拉尔多·穆尼奥斯（Heraldo Muñoz）。
（4）社会民主激进党（Partido Radical Social Demócrata，PRSD）：成立于1863年。党员约9万。社会党国际成员。其前身为激进党。1987年激进党内发生分裂，原副主席安塞尔莫·苏莱等另组社会民主激进党。1992年两党合并定为现名。其意识形态来源于欧洲社会民主主义和拉美改良主义，主张在人道主义原则基础上建立自由和民主的社会。现任党主席卡洛斯·马尔多纳多（Carlos Maldonado）
（5）共产党(Partido Comunista，PC)：成立于1912年。党员4.7万。原名社会主义工人党，1922年改为现名。1970年至1973年与社会党等联合执政。1979年提出“人民造反”路线，要求立即结束军政权。1983年同社会党阿尔梅达派等组成“人民民主运动”。1985年被宪法法庭宣布为非法。1990年10月恢复合法地位。2010年首次进入国会。现任党主席吉列尔莫·泰列尔（Guillermo Tellier）,总书记劳塔罗·卡蒙娜（Lautaro Carmona）。
[Government] The current government was formed on March 11, 2018, with a total of 24 ministries. The main members are: Interior Minister Andres Chadwick, Foreign Minister Roberto Ampuero, and Secretary of Defense Alberto Espina. Finance Minister Felipe Larrain, Secretary of the Secretariat of the Presidential Office Gonzalo Blumel, Minister of Government Secretaries Cecilia Perez, Economy Minister Jose Ramon Valente.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 16 regions (Región), with 56 provinces (Provincia) and 346 cities (Comuna). The regional president and governor are appointed by the president, and the mayor is directly elected for a term of four years and is renewable.
[Judiciary] Judicial independence. The country has a Supreme Court, 17 Courts of Appeal and 1 Military Court. The President of the Supreme Court, Hugo Dolmestch, took office in January 2016. The Procuratorate was established in 1999 and the State Attorney General is Jorge Abbott Charme, who took office in December 2015.
[Political Party] The implementation of the multi-party system, the main political parties are divided into two camps: the middle right wing “Chile advance” and the center left wing “new majority alliance”.
1. The center-right “Chile forward”: The ruling coalition, composed of the National Innovation Party and the Independent Democratic Alliance.
(1) Renovación Nacional (RN): In February 1987, it was formed by the merger of the right-wing national alliance, the Independent Democratic Alliance and the National Labor Front. The post-independence democratic alliance left the party. Party members are 77,000. It advocates the maintenance and development of Western civilization and historical traditions, and the establishment of a society that “people-centered and fully respects individual freedom.” In 2010, the leader of the party, Piniella, was elected president. The party is now the largest party in the parliament. The current party chairman Mario Desbordes.
(2) Unión Demócrata Independiente UDI: Established in 1983. Party members 80,000. It is composed of independent people and the “New Democracy” organization established in 1979. Advocate pluralistic democracy and decentralization, and implement a market economy based on private ownership. The current party chairman Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe.
2, the left-wing “new majority alliance”: the opposition party alliance, its predecessor is the “Democratic Alliance” composed of the Christian Democratic Party, the Socialist Party, the Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Radical Party and other left-wing parties. In April 2013, the Communist Party was recruited. .
(1) Partido Demócrata Cristiano (PDC): Founded in 1957. Party members are 108,000. International member of the Christian Democratic Party. Advocate the realization of true Christianism, establish a democratic system, respect human rights, and live with different ideological groups. The party played an important role in the process of intellectual democratization. Its leaders, Alvin and Frey, served as the first and second elected presidents of the post-military government. The current party chairman, Fuad Chahin.
(2) Partido Socialista (PS): Established in 1933. Party members are about 109,000. The largest center left-wing party in the Chilean parliament. International member of the Socialist Party. He once professed himself as a Marxist party. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, he changed the party’s development goal to democratic socialism and advocated the establishment of a free, democratic and humane society. From 1970 to 1973, with the Communist Party and other members of the “people’s unity” government, the leader of the party, Allende, served as president. Split in 1979. In December 1989, the two major factions of Alat and Almeida announced their union. In 1989, 1993 and 1999, the alliance with the Democratic Party and the Christian Democratic Party won the election and won the election. The current party chairman, Álvaro Elizarde.
(3) Partido por la Democracia (PPD): Established in 1987. Party members 84,000. International member of the Socialist Party. Its claim is basically the same as that of the Socialist Party, but it is more liberal. Internally, it advocates actively promoting constitutional reform and eradicating the legal system established by the military government. It advocates the establishment of diplomatic, trade and cultural relations with countries around the world on the principles of internationalism, humanitarianism, pacifism and Latin Americanism. From 2000 to 2006, party leader Lagos served as president. The current party chairman, Heraldo Muñoz.
(4) Partido Radical Social Demócrata (PRSD): Established in 1863. Party members are about 90,000. International member of the Socialist Party. Its predecessor was the Radical Party. In 1987, the radical party split, and the former vice chairman Anselmo Sulei and other groups of social democratic radical parties. In 1992, the merger of the two parties was changed to the current name. Its ideology stems from European social democracy and Latin American reformism, and advocates the establishment of a free and democratic society based on humanitarian principles. Current party chairman Carlos Maldonado
(5) Communist Party (Partido Comunista, PC): Established in 1912. Party members 47,000. Formerly known as the Socialist Workers’ Party, it was changed to its current name in 1922. From 1970 to 1973, he was in power with the Socialist Party. In 1979, the “people’s rebellion” line was proposed, requiring the immediate end of the military regime. In 1983, the Almaty faction with the Socialist Party formed the “People’s Democratic Movement.” It was declared illegal by the Constitutional Court in 1985. In October 1990, it resumed its legal status. First entered the Congress in 2010. The current party chairman Guillermo Tellier, general secretary Lautaro Carmona.
【经 济】 拉美经济较发达的国家之一。矿业、林业、渔业和农业是国民经济四大支柱。1974年皮诺切特军政府执政后实行经济改革，调整产业结构，全面开放市场，拓展全方位自由贸易。此后，文人政府基本延续这一政策。智利经济多年保持较快增长，其综合竞争力、经济自由化程度、市场开放度、国际信用等级均为拉美之首，被视为拉美经济发展样板。但智经济结构单一、对外依存度高、能源短缺等问题较突出。
【资 源】 矿藏、森林和水产资源丰富。以盛产铜闻名于世，素称“铜之王国”。铜储量、产量和出口量均为世界第一，已探明蕴藏量达2亿吨以上，约占世界储藏量的1/3。铁蕴藏量约12亿吨，煤约50亿吨。此外，还有锂、硝石、钼、金、银、铝、锌、碘、石油、天然气等。盛产温带林木，木质优良，是拉美第一大林产品出口国。渔业资源丰富，是世界上人工养殖三文鱼和鳟鱼的主要生产国。
【工 业】 工矿业是国民经济的命脉。
[important person] Sebastian Pinera Echnik: President. Born on December 1, 1949 in San Diego, Chile, he is a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University and a famous entrepreneur. Member of the Senate from 1990 to 1998. Chairman of the National Innovation Party of the People’s Republic of China from 2001 to 2004. From March 2010 to March 2014, he served as president. He was re-elected as president in December 2017 and took office on March 11, 2018.
[Economy] One of the countries with a relatively developed economy in Latin America. Mining, forestry, fisheries and agriculture are the four pillars of the national economy. After the Pinochet military government took power in 1974, it implemented economic reforms, adjusted the industrial structure, fully opened up the market, and expanded all-round free trade. Since then, the literati government has basically continued this policy. The Chilean economy has maintained rapid growth for many years. Its comprehensive competitiveness, degree of economic liberalization, market openness and international credit rating are the highest in Latin America and are regarded as a model for economic development in Latin America. However, the problems of a single economic structure, high dependence on foreign countries, and shortage of energy are more prominent.
The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:
Gross domestic product: US$298.79 billion
Per capita GDP: $16,280
Total foreign trade: 149.6 billion US dollars
Inflation rate: 2.6%
Unemployment rate: 6.8%
Foreign exchange reserves: 39.85 billion US dollars
Foreign debt balance: $184.44 billion
Currency name: peso
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 680 pesos (May 2019)
[Resources] Rich in mineral resources, forests and aquatic resources. Known for its rich copper, it is known as the “kingdom of copper.” Copper reserves, production and exports are the highest in the world, with proven reserves of more than 200 million tons, accounting for about one-third of the world’s reserves. The iron reserves are about 1.2 billion tons and the coal is about 5 billion tons. In addition, there are lithium, nitrate, molybdenum, gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, iodine, petroleum, natural gas and the like. It is rich in temperate forests and has excellent wood. It is the largest exporter of forest products in Latin America. Rich in fishery resources, it is a major producer of artificially farmed salmon and trout in the world.
[Industrial] Industrial and mining is the lifeblood of the national economy.
[Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture: The sown area of the main crops in 2016/2017 is 684,600 hectares.
The main fruits are apples, grapes, avocados, plums, peaches, pears, etc. In 2013, the fruit planting area was 301,000 hectares and the annual output was 4,152,000 tons.
Forestry: In 2012, the forest coverage area was 162,000 square kilometers, accounting for 22% of the country’s land area. Among them, natural forests are 139,800 square kilometers, and artificial forests are 29,000 square kilometers. The main tree species are radiata pine (64.9%) and eucalyptus (29.3%). The main forest products are wood, pulp, paper and so on.
Animal husbandry: In 2012, the area of pasture was 214,700 square kilometers, accounting for 28.4% of the country’s land area. In 2013, it produced 206,300 tons of beef, 550,000 tons of pork, 680,600 tons of poultry and 3.98 billion liters of milk.
Fisheries: In 2011, the catch of seafood was 4.435 million tons, including 3.428 million tons of fish, 589,000 tons of shellfish and 418,000 tons of algae.
[Tourism] In 2010, there were 1,246 travel agencies nationwide, of which 33.3% were in the Capital Region, 19.3% were in Valparaiso, and 4,126 were star-rated hotels, hotels and villas. In 2017, it received a total of 6.4399 million foreign tourists, mainly from neighboring countries such as Brazil and Argentina, North America and Europe.
[Transportation] Railway: The total length is 6000 kilometers. In 2013, passenger traffic was 28.62 million passengers and cargo volume was 264,000 tons. The capital of Santiago Metro is 103 kilometers long. In 2013, passenger traffic was 466 million passengers.
Highway: The total length is 77,800 kilometers. Among them, the Pan-American Highway is 3,363 kilometers long. In 2013, there were 4.17 million vehicles in various parts of the country.
Shipping: 95% of foreign trade depends on shipping. There are 39 coastal ports in the country, the main ports are: Valparaiso Port, Talcahuano Port, Antofagasta Port, San Antonio Port and Punta Arenas Port. In 2012, the total cargo throughput of domestic and foreign vessels reached 102 million tons.
Air transport: There are 5 airlines in the country and 474 various types of air stations, including 31 civil airports, 4 military airports, 312 small aircraft landing and landing stations, and 127 helicopter platforms. The main international airports include the capital of Arturo Merino Benitez Airport and the Chakaliuta Airport in the northern Arica city. In 2013, the annual passenger volume of domestic routes was 9.47 million passengers and the freight volume was 28,500 tons. The international passenger volume is 7 million passengers and the cargo volume is 270,800 tons.
The main banks are:
Bank of Chile: Established in 1893, with a total asset of 22.84 trillion pesos in 2013.
[Foreign Trade] The economy relies heavily on foreign trade. The total volume of imports and exports accounts for about 50% of GDP. A free trade policy with a uniform low tariff rate (average tariff rate of 6% since 2003). Currently, it has trade relations with more than 170 countries and regions in the world. Chilean customs data shows that in 2018 Chile’s total import and export volume was 145.584 billion US dollars, of which exports were 75.481 billion US dollars and imports were 70.103 billion US dollars.
[Foreign Investment] Foreign investment activities began in the 1970s. Since the 1990s, the intellectual economy has continued to develop rapidly. Due to the narrow domestic market, a number of large enterprises and multinational corporations began to invest in neighboring countries such as Ecuador, Argentina, Mexico, Peru and Brazil in order to open up foreign markets and strive for a favorable development environment. As of the end of 2015, Zhi accumulated overseas direct investment amounted to 106.06 billion US dollars. The investment targets are mainly concentrated in Latin America, and the investment fields include retail and air transportation.
[Foreign Aid] According to statistics from the International Cooperation Agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile, in 2009, Chile provided assistance totaling 2.914 billion pesos through the “Technical Cooperation Project for Developing Countries (CTPD)”, of which 1.418 billion pesos was used for the Chilean government scholarship program, 1.496 billion. The peso is used for bilateral, trilateral and regional cooperation projects. The main recipients are Latin American and Caribbean countries.
[Foreign Capital] In 2000, the Lagos government announced the abolition of the foreign deposit system and the foreign investment approval system. In 2016, Chile attracted a total of 11.649 billion US dollars of direct foreign investment. The main sources of foreign investment are the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Japan. The main areas of foreign investment include service industry, mining, industry and infrastructure construction.
[Foreign Aid] According to the statistics of the International Cooperation Agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile, from 2006 to 2009, Chile received foreign cooperation projects assistance of 42.59 million US dollars and 91.04 million euros.
The main countries that provide assistance to cooperation projects for Zhizhi are Germany, Japan, and Spain. International organizations mainly include the European Union, the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
【著名公司】 智利国家铜公司（Corporacion Nacional del Cobre de Chile，简称CODELCO）：成立于1976年4月1日，是全球最大的铜生产企业之一，经营铜矿的开发、开采、提炼、加工及销售等。2017年前三季度产量120万吨，盈余16.14亿美元。
智利化工、矿业公司（Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile S.A.，简称SQM）：成立于1968年，经营化肥、化工产品、碘、锂的生产及销售。2013年资产总额47.68亿美元，盈余4.75亿美元。董事长欧亨尼奥·庞塞（Eugenio Ponce），首席执行官帕特里西奥·德·索尔米尼亚克（Patricio de Solminihac）。
智利钼金属公司（Molibdenos y Metales S.A.，简称Molymet）：成立于1975年，是世界上钼的主要生产企业，占有全球约1/3的市场份额，从事钼及相关产品的生产及销售。2017年资产总额14.4亿美元。
南美船运公司（Compania Sudamericana de Vapores S.A.，简称CSAV）：成立于1872年，拉美最大的船运公司，经营船运及相关配套服务。2013年资产总额23.77亿美元，销售额32.06亿美元。
【军 事】 武装部队分为陆、海、空三个军种。总统为武装力量最高统帅，通过国防部对全军和武警实施行政领导和作战指挥。国家安全委员会是国家安全问题的最高决策机构。国防部长由文人担任。下辖的国防参谋部是国防咨询机构，负责协调和制定三军的作战、训练、情报、军事预算和军购等事宜。国防部长和国防参谋长均无权调动和指挥军队，由各军种司令直接领导和指挥部队。实行志愿兵与义务兵相结合的兵役制，陆、空军士兵服役期为12个月，海军士兵服役期为18个月。
[Famous company] Corporacion Nacional del Cobre de Chile (CODELCO): Established on April 1, 1976, it is one of the largest copper producers in the world, operating copper mining development, mining, refining and processing. And sales, etc. In the first three quarters of 2017, the output was 1.2 million tons and the surplus was $1.614 billion.
Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile S.A. (SQM): Established in 1968, it operates the production and sales of chemical fertilizers, chemical products, iodine and lithium. In 2013, the total assets were 4.768 billion US dollars and the surplus was 475 million US dollars. Chairman Eugenio Ponce, CEO Patricio de Solminihac.
Molibdenos y Metales S.A. (Molymet): Founded in 1975, it is the world’s leading manufacturer of molybdenum, accounting for about one-third of the global market share, engaged in the production and sales of molybdenum and related products. The total assets in 2017 were $1.44 billion.
Compania Sudamericana de Vapores S.A. (CSAV): Founded in 1872, it is the largest shipping company in Latin America, operating shipping and related ancillary services. In 2013, the total assets were 2.377 billion US dollars and the sales were 3.206 billion US dollars.
People’s Livelihood According to the 2013 report of the United Nations Development Programme, the Chilean Human Development Index is 0.819, the highest in Latin America. The average life expectancy is 79 years, including 76 for men and 82 for women (2010-2015). The birth rate was 14.4‰, the mortality rate was 5.5‰, and the neonatal mortality rate was 5.4‰ (2011). From 2001 to 2010, the average annual growth rate of the population was 11.2‰.
The gap between the rich and the poor is relatively small, and the middle class has a large proportion. In 2012, the middle class population was about 11 million, accounting for 69.8% of the national population; the poor population accounted for 14.4% of the national population. In 2012, there were a total of 8,195,600 laborers in the country, and the employment rate was 93.9%. The minimum monthly wage is 210,000 pesos.
In recent years, the medical and health care industry has developed rapidly. A public-private complementary and relatively complete medical insurance system has been established, of which public health insurance accounts for 66% and the private sector accounts for 34%. There are 2,594 medical institutions in various countries (2011), including 213 public hospitals with 29,057 beds, 105 private hospitals with 7,053 beds, and 26,393 doctors, with an average of 659 doctors (2012); The number of visits was 60.89 million (2011). In 2013, the government invested in health care accounted for 5.6% of the annual budget.
[Military] The armed forces are divided into three branches: land, sea and air. The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces and carries out administrative leadership and operational command to the entire army and the armed police through the Ministry of National Defense. The National Security Council is the highest decision-making body for national security issues. The Minister of Defense is served by a literati. The National Defense Staff Department under its jurisdiction is a national defense advisory body responsible for coordinating and formulating the operations, training, intelligence, military budget, and military procurement of the three armed forces. Both the Minister of Defence and the Chief of Defence Chief of Staff have no right to mobilize and command the army, and the commanders of the various services directly direct and command the troops. The military service system combining volunteers and compulsory soldiers is implemented. The service period of the land and air force soldiers is 12 months, and the service period of the navy soldiers is 18 months.
The army has 35,000 people, the navy has 16,300 people, and the air force is 0.78 million. There is no unified military division in Chile, and each service is divided into different military regions according to the defense needs. The Army is composed of six divisions, five naval areas of the Navy, and five air brigades of the Air Force. The military budget for 2013 was 2.772 billion US dollars.
【科 研】 主要科研机构有科学院、全国科学技术研究委员会和核能委员会。科学工作者人数占全国总人数的3.68%，居拉美第四位。
[Cultural Education] Implement 12-year compulsory basic education. There are two types of secondary schools: one is the science-humanities school, which is the ordinary middle school. Most of the students apply for the university after graduation; the other is the technical-vocational school, which is divided into industrial, commercial, technical and agricultural categories. Students who graduate from such schools can either work or rise to college. There are 10,768 educational institutions of all kinds in the country, including 298 higher education institutions, 82 vocational schools, and 156 technical training centers. Famous universities include: University of Chile, Catholic University of Chile, University of San Diego. The per capita education time is 9.25 years. In 2012, the number of students enrolled in the school was 4,654,200, including 1,044,200 middle school students and 1,121,100 college students. The adult literacy rate is 97.77% and the illiteracy rate is 2.23%. In 2012, public education expenditure was about 48.767 billion pesos.
[Research] The main research institutions are the Academy of Sciences, the National Science and Technology Research Council and the Nuclear Energy Commission. The number of scientists accounts for 3.68% of the total number of people in the country, ranking fourth in Latin America.
Press and Publication There are 87 newspapers in the country. A total of 824 newspapers and magazines were issued, including 124 daily newspapers, 463 magazines, and 69 briefings. The main newspapers are: “The Messenger”, which was founded in 1827, with a circulation of 130,000 copies on weekdays, 180,000 copies on Saturdays and 310,000 copies on Sundays; “National Newspaper”, published in 1980, with a circulation of 30,000 copies; “Three o’clock” “, published in 1950, circulation of 180,000 copies on weekdays, 230,000 copies on weekends; “Two o’clock” (evening news), published in 1931, circulation of 40,000 copies; “News”, published in 1902, circulation 150,000 copies; the main magazines are: “Events”, started in 1971, with a circulation of 30,000 copies; “New Situation”, started in 1976, with a circulation of 25,000 copies; “Today”, started in 1977, with a circulation of 30,000 copies . Except for the National Newspaper, which is an official newspaper, the others are issued independently.
The main news agency is a private global news agency.
In 2013, there were 2,068 radio stations nationwide, mainly including national radio stations, cooperative radio stations, portales radio stations, agricultural radio stations and mining radio stations.
There are 9 TV stations, among which the national TV station (7 channels), the Chilean University TV station (11 channels), the Catholic University TV station (13 channels), the large-vision TV station (9 channels) and the Valparaiso Catholic University TV station (5) Channel). In 2012, the TV program played a total of 54,800 hours.
[Culture and Art One of the countries with a high level of Latin American culture and art. In 2012, there were 448 public libraries nationwide, with a book borrowing of 913,700 books; 305 cinemas and 2012.26 million people watching movies. A total of 19,400 cultural performances were held throughout the year. The capital Santiago is a national cultural activity center with 25 art galleries. In 1945, the poet Gabriela Mistral won the Nobel Prize for Literature and became the first South American writer to receive this award. In 1971, the poet Pablo Neruda won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Foreign Relations Pursue an independent and diversified and pragmatic foreign policy. Advocating respect for international law, peaceful settlement of disputes, and defending democracy and human rights. Vigorously promote a comprehensive diplomatic strategy with strong economic diplomacy. We will give priority to consolidating and developing relations with Latin American neighbors and countries in the MERCOSUR, actively promoting Latin American integration, attaching importance to traditional relations with the United States and Europe, and actively expanding relations with Asia-Pacific countries. Established diplomatic relations with 172 countries in the world. Attaching importance to bilateral free trade negotiations, Zhi has signed 27 free trade agreements with most Latin American countries and 65 countries including the United States, Canada, the European Union, China, Japan and South Korea.
In October 2015, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) initiated by Chile, Singapore, Brunei and New Zealand was reached in the United States. In March 2018, 11 countries other than the United States, the TPP Agreement, signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (CPTPP) in Chile. Chile is actively involved in international and regional affairs. It is the South American Association, the Organization of American States, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, the Pacific Basin Economic Council, the Non-Aligned Movement, the G-15 and other international and regional Member States of the organization and associated countries of the Southern Common Market. He was continuously elected as a member of the UN Economic and Social Council, a non-permanent member of the Security Council for 2003-2004 and 2014-2015, a member of the Human Rights Commission for 2002-2004, and a rotating presidency for the South American Association for 2008-2009. Together with Singapore, it initiated and promoted the establishment of the “East Asia-Latin America Cooperation Forum” to host the 2nd and 3rd Senior Officials Meeting and the First Foreign Ministers’ Meeting. In recent years, hosted the 6th and 17th Ibero-American Summits, the 2nd Summit of the Americas, the 108th Inter-Parliamentary Union Conference, the 33rd Congress of the Organization of American States, the 2004 APEC Conference and 2008 Special summit of the heads of the South American Union. In December 2011, the Latin American and Caribbean Community was established and Chile served as the first rotating presidency for a one-year term. In June and September 2012, the 4th Summit of the “Pacific Alliance” in Latin America and the Common Body Meeting of Latin American and Caribbean Countries were held. In July 2016, Zhi held the 11th Latin American Pacific Alliance Summit and took over the presidency for a one-year term. In 2019, Chi-Chi will host the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting and the United Nations Climate Change Conference.
[Relationship with Latin American and Caribbean Countries] The Chilean government emphasizes the importance of strengthening and strengthening relations with Latin American countries, especially neighboring countries, based on Latin America. We will attach importance to political consultation and coordination among regional countries and economic and technological cooperation, actively promote regional integration, and safeguard regional democracy and peace. In April 2011, with Peru, Colombia, and Mexico announced the establishment of the Latin American “Pacific Alliance” to promote economic and trade cooperation and integration along the Pacific countries. In December 2011, the Latin American and Caribbean Community was established and Chile served as the first rotating presidency for a one-year term. In June and September 2012, Zhi successfully held the 4th Summit of the Latin American Pacific Alliance and the Common Meeting of Latin American and Caribbean Countries. In July 2016, Zhi held the 11th Latin American Pacific Alliance Summit and took over the presidency for a one-year term. In January 2018, the second ministerial meeting of the China-Latin America Forum was held in Santiago. In March 2019, the first “South American Progress Forum” summit was held in Santiago, Chile.
[Relationship with the United States] Zhimei established diplomatic relations in 1823. The United States has always been one of the most important trading partners and investors in Chile. After the election of the government and the government, the relationship between the United States and the United States has been normalized, and the relationship with the United States has been regarded as a diplomatic focus. As one of the countries in Latin America, the United States has revived the “GSP” treatment and allowed the wisdom to rejoin the US overseas investment. The insurance system has eliminated the “Kennedy Amendment” that prohibits the export of weapons and military assistance to Chile. Zhimei has established consultation mechanisms such as politics and national defense. On June 6, 2003, Zhimei signed a bilateral free trade agreement. In 2010, President Piniella met with US President Barack Obama twice on multilateral occasions. In March 2011, US President Barack Obama visited Chile and the two sides signed a number of cooperation agreements including nuclear energy cooperation. In June 2013, President Piniella visited the United States, and the two sides signed a visa-free agreement, making Chile the first Latin American country to travel to the United States for visa-free travel. In June 2014, President Bachelet visited the United States. After Trump took office, Chile expressed its willingness to continue to develop friendly and cooperative relations with the United States. In September 2018, President Piniella met with President Trump for the first time during his attendance at the UN General Assembly. In April 2019, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited Chile and other Latin American countries.
[Relationship with the EU] Consolidating and strengthening the traditional relationship with the EU is the established policy of wisdom. The exchange of high-level exchanges between Chile and Europe is frequent. In 2010, President Piniella visited Spain and attended the Euler Leaders Summit. The EU is an important trading partner and export market for Chile. In 1999, Chile began to negotiate a free trade agreement. In 2002, the two sides signed a political, economic partnership and cooperation agreement, and Zhi became the second Latin American country to sign a free trade agreement with the European Union. The agreement came into effect on January 1, 2003. In 2010, Zhi signed a development and innovation partnership agreement with the European Union. In March 2011, President Pinella visited Italy and Spain. In January 2013, Zhi successfully hosted the first summit meeting of the Latin American and Caribbean Community and EU countries. In June 2015, President Bachelet visited Italy, the Vatican and France, and attended the EU-LAC Leaders Summit in Brussels, Belgium. In November 2017, the EU negotiated with Chile to update the existing free trade agreement. In June 2018, Foreign Minister Ampuero visited Germany, France and other countries to attend the Pacific Alliance-EU Foreign Ministers Dialogue and the Second Kara-European Union Ministerial Conference to conduct dialogue on deepening cooperation in the political and economic fields. In October, President Pinella visited France, Spain, Germany, the Vatican and the European Union to promote cooperation between Chile and the European Union in the fields of economy, trade, science and technology, energy and education.
[Relationship with Asia-Pacific countries] The Zhi government has placed its strengthening of relations with the Asia-Pacific region at an important position in its diplomacy. It believes that strengthening economic and trade relations with Asia-Pacific countries is in line with its overall goal of diplomatic diversification and diversification. Development has important strategic significance. Countries in the Asia Pacific region are Chile’s largest trading partners. In November 1994, Zhi officially joined APEC. In 2004, Zhi successfully hosted the APEC meeting as a host country. In 2008, Bachelet visited China and attended the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Boao Forum for Asia. In 2009, Bachelet attended the 17th APEC summit in Singapore. In November 2010, President Pinella attended the eighteenth informal meeting of APEC leaders in Yokohama, Japan. Zhi actively participated in the economic arrangement in the Asia-Pacific region and signed the free trade agreements with Japan, Australia and Malaysia in March 2007, July 2008 and November 2010 respectively. In March 2012, President Piniella visited Vietnam and Japan and attended the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul, South Korea. In January 2017, US President Trump announced his withdrawal from the TPP. Zhi expressed regret for this and said that he will continue to promote the process of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region. In March 2017, Chile hosted the Asia-Pacific High-Level Dialogue on Economic Integration. During the 25th APEC Economic Leaders’ Informal Meeting in November 2017, the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) Agreement announced the agreement on the core content of the agreement and renamed it the “Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement”. (CPTPP). In March 2018, 11 countries officially signed CPTPP in Chile. Chile will host the twenty-seventh APEC Economic Leaders’ Informal Meeting in 2019.
[Relationship with Russia and Eastern European Countries] In recent years, bilateral political exchanges between Chile and Russia and Eastern European countries have increased, and mutual cooperation in the economic and trade field has developed. Chile regards Eastern Europe as one of the key areas for further expansion of the export product market. Signed an agreement on the encouragement and mutual protection of investment with Hungary and signed a space technology cooperation agreement with Ukraine and Russia. In 2005, the Bulgarian President visited Chile. In 2010, Zhi established a strategic partnership with Russia.