Republic of Azerbaijan 阿塞拜疆共和国
【国名】阿塞拜疆共和国（Republic of Azerbaijan, Азербайджанская Республика）
【国家元首】总统伊利哈姆·盖达尔·奥格雷·阿利耶夫（Ilham Heydar ogly Aliyev，Ильхам Гейдар оглы Алиев），2003年10月首次当选。2008年10月、2013年10月、2018年4月三次连任，任期至2025年。
[Country name] Republic of Azerbaijan (Republic of Azerbaijan, Азербайджанская Республика)
[Area] 86,600 square kilometers
[Population] 99.8 million (as of January 2019). There are 43 ethnic groups, of which Azerbaijan is 91.6% and Lezgen is 2.0%.
[Capital] Baku (Баку) with a population of 2.26 million (as of January 2019). The average temperature in January is 5.1 °C, and the average temperature in July is 24.8 °C.
[Head of State] President Ilham Heydar ogly Aliyev (Ильхам Гейдар оглы Алиев), first elected in October 2003. In October 2008, October 2013, April 2018, three consecutive terms will be held until 2025.
[Important Festival] Republic Day (commemorating the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in 1918): May 28. National Independence Day (commemorating the independence of 1991): October 18.
[Official language] Azerbaijani. The residents are more fluent in Russian.
【议会】国家最高立法机关，称国民议会。实行一院制，由125名议员组成，任期5年。主要职能是制定、批准、废除法律条约，决定行政区划，批准国家预算并监督执行，根据宪法法院提请依照弹劾程序罢免总统，确定全民公决等。本届国民议会于2015年11月选举产生，奥克泰·萨比尔·奥格雷·阿萨多夫（Ogtay Sabir ogly Asadov，Октай Сабир оглы Асадов）连任国民议会主席。
[profile] is located in the southeastern part of the outer Caucasus. It is bordered by Russia to the north, Armenia and Georgia to the west and northwest, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the east. The climate is diverse, with plains and lowlands in a subtropical climate. The average temperature in July is 27-29 °C, and the average temperature in January is 1-3 °C. The mountain is a plateau tundra climate with average temperatures of 5 ° C and -30 ° C. Most residents believe in Islam. On October 18, 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan declared independence.
[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on November 12, 1995. On September 28, 2016, the Arab-Israeli referendum reformed the constitution and extended the term of the president from 5 to 7 years. The first vice president and vice president positions were established, giving the president the power to dissolve the parliament, canceling the presidential candidate’s age limit, and reducing the number of members. The age of the candidate is the threshold.
[Politics] Political situation is stable. President Aliyev has a solid status and the new Azerbaijani party under his leadership has a broad public opinion base. In recent years, Azerbaijan and Armenia have not made any substantive progress in the mediation of the “Nagorno-Karabakh” territorial dispute. The two sides have had a fire incident near the cease-fire line of the “Naka”. The diplomatic squad of the OSCE Minsk Group on the peaceful settlement of the “Naka” dispute continued to advance, but no substantive progress.
[Parliament] The highest legislative body of the country, called the National Assembly. A one-chamber system consisting of 125 members for a five-year term. The main functions are to formulate, approve, and abolish legal treaties, determine administrative divisions, approve the state budget, and supervise implementation. According to the Constitutional Court, the president is removed according to the impeachment procedure, and a referendum is determined. The current National Assembly was elected in November 2015, and Ogtay Sabir ogly Asadov (Октай Сабир оглы Асадов) was re-elected as President of the National Assembly.
【政府】本届政府于2018年4月组成，纳吾鲁兹·马梅多夫（Novruz Mammedov，Новруз Мамедов）任总理。主要政府官员有：外交部长埃利马尔·马梅德亚罗夫（Elmar Mammedyarov，Эльмар Мамедъяров）、内务部长拉米尔·乌苏博夫（Ramil Usubov，Рамиль Усубов）、国防部长扎基尔·加桑诺夫（Zakir Hasanov，Закир Гасанов）、经济部长沙欣·穆斯塔法耶夫（Sahin Mustafayev，Шахин Мустафаев）等。
[Government] The current government was formed in April 2018, and Novruz Mammedov (Новруз Мамедов) was appointed as prime minister. The main government officials are: Foreign Minister Elmar Mammedyarov (Эльмар Мамедъяров), Interior Minister Ramil Usubov (Рамиль Усубов), and Minister of Defense Zakir Garciano Zakir Hasanov, Закир Гасанов, and Economy Minister Sahin Mustafayev (Шахин Мустафаев).
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 1 autonomous republic, 66 districts, 78 cities, 14 municipal districts, 261 towns, 1727 township districts, and 4249 villages.
[Economy] The oil and gas industry is the pillar industry of Azerbaijan. In 2017, the gross domestic product was 70.135 billion manats (about 41.256 billion US dollars), an increase of 0.1% year-on-year, and the inflation rate was 12.9%. From January to November 2018, GDP increased by 1% year-on-year.
[Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are abundant, mainly distributed in the Apsheron Peninsula and the Caspian Sea. The proven reserves of oil are about 2.2 billion tons, and the natural gas reserves are about 2.6 trillion cubic meters.
[Military] On October 9, 1991, the armed forces were announced to be divided into land, sea and air forces. The Afghan army has more than 90,000 troops (80,000 in the Army, 3,000 in the Navy, and 7,000 in the Air Force).