Republic of Azerbaijan 阿塞拜疆共和国

【国名】阿塞拜疆共和国(Republic of Azerbaijan, Азербайджанская Республика)

【面积】8.66万平方公里

【人口】989.80万(截至2019年1月)。共有43个民族,其中阿塞拜疆族占91.6%,列兹根族占2.0%。

【首都】巴库(Baku, Баку),人口226万(截至2019年1月)。1月平均气温5.1℃,7月平均气温24.8℃。

【国家元首】总统伊利哈姆·盖达尔·奥格雷·阿利耶夫(Ilham Heydar ogly Aliyev,Ильхам Гейдар оглы Алиев),2003年10月首次当选。2008年10月、2013年10月、2018年4月三次连任,任期至2025年。

【重要节日】共和国日(纪念1918年阿塞拜疆民主共和国成立):5月28日。国家独立日(纪念1991年阿独立):10月18日。

【官方语言】阿塞拜疆语。居民多通晓俄语。

【货币】马纳特。

[Country name] Republic of Azerbaijan (Republic of Azerbaijan, Азербайджанская Республика)

[Area] 86,600 square kilometers

[Population] 99.8 million (as of January 2019). There are 43 ethnic groups, of which Azerbaijan is 91.6% and Lezgen is 2.0%.

[Capital] Baku (Баку) with a population of 2.26 million (as of January 2019). The average temperature in January is 5.1 °C, and the average temperature in July is 24.8 °C.

[Head of State] President Ilham Heydar ogly Aliyev (Ильхам Гейдар оглы Алиев), first elected in October 2003. In October 2008, October 2013, April 2018, three consecutive terms will be held until 2025.

[Important Festival] Republic Day (commemorating the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in 1918): May 28. National Independence Day (commemorating the independence of 1991): October 18.

[Official language] Azerbaijani. The residents are more fluent in Russian.

[currency] Manat.

【简况】位于外高加索东南部。北靠俄罗斯,西部和西北部与亚美尼亚、格鲁吉亚相邻,南接伊朗,东濒里海。气候呈多样化特征,平原、低地为亚热带气候,7月平均气温为27-29℃,1月平均气温为1-3℃。山地为高原冻土带气候,平均气温分别为5℃和-30℃。多数居民信奉伊斯兰教。1991年10月18日阿塞拜疆共和国宣布独立。

【宪法】现行宪法于1995年11月12日经全民公决通过。2016年9月28日,阿以全民公投形式修改宪法,延长总统任期由5年至7年,设立第一副总统、副总统职位,赋予总统解散议会权力,取消总统候选人年龄限制,降低议员参选人年龄门槛。

【政治】政局稳定。总统阿利耶夫地位稳固,其领导的新阿塞拜疆党拥有广泛民意基础。近年来,阿塞拜疆与亚美尼亚就“纳戈尔诺—卡拉巴赫”领土争端调解未有实质性进展,双方在“纳卡”停火线附近的交火事件时有发生。欧安组织明斯克小组就和平解决“纳卡”争端所进行的外交斡旋续有推进,但无实质性进展。

【议会】国家最高立法机关,称国民议会。实行一院制,由125名议员组成,任期5年。主要职能是制定、批准、废除法律条约,决定行政区划,批准国家预算并监督执行,根据宪法法院提请依照弹劾程序罢免总统,确定全民公决等。本届国民议会于2015年11月选举产生,奥克泰·萨比尔·奥格雷·阿萨多夫(Ogtay Sabir ogly Asadov,Октай Сабир оглы Асадов)连任国民议会主席。

[profile] is located in the southeastern part of the outer Caucasus. It is bordered by Russia to the north, Armenia and Georgia to the west and northwest, Iran to the south, and the Caspian Sea to the east. The climate is diverse, with plains and lowlands in a subtropical climate. The average temperature in July is 27-29 °C, and the average temperature in January is 1-3 °C. The mountain is a plateau tundra climate with average temperatures of 5 ° C and -30 ° C. Most residents believe in Islam. On October 18, 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan declared independence.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted by a referendum on November 12, 1995. On September 28, 2016, the Arab-Israeli referendum reformed the constitution and extended the term of the president from 5 to 7 years. The first vice president and vice president positions were established, giving the president the power to dissolve the parliament, canceling the presidential candidate’s age limit, and reducing the number of members. The age of the candidate is the threshold.

[Politics] Political situation is stable. President Aliyev has a solid status and the new Azerbaijani party under his leadership has a broad public opinion base. In recent years, Azerbaijan and Armenia have not made any substantive progress in the mediation of the “Nagorno-Karabakh” territorial dispute. The two sides have had a fire incident near the cease-fire line of the “Naka”. The diplomatic squad of the OSCE Minsk Group on the peaceful settlement of the “Naka” dispute continued to advance, but no substantive progress.

[Parliament] The highest legislative body of the country, called the National Assembly. A one-chamber system consisting of 125 members for a five-year term. The main functions are to formulate, approve, and abolish legal treaties, determine administrative divisions, approve the state budget, and supervise implementation. According to the Constitutional Court, the president is removed according to the impeachment procedure, and a referendum is determined. The current National Assembly was elected in November 2015, and Ogtay Sabir ogly Asadov (Октай Сабир оглы Асадов) was re-elected as President of the National Assembly.

【政府】本届政府于2018年4月组成,纳吾鲁兹·马梅多夫(Novruz Mammedov,Новруз Мамедов)任总理。主要政府官员有:外交部长埃利马尔·马梅德亚罗夫(Elmar Mammedyarov,Эльмар Мамедъяров)、内务部长拉米尔·乌苏博夫(Ramil Usubov,Рамиль Усубов)、国防部长扎基尔·加桑诺夫(Zakir Hasanov,Закир Гасанов)、经济部长沙欣·穆斯塔法耶夫(Sahin Mustafayev,Шахин Мустафаев)等。

【行政区划】全国划分为1个自治共和国,66个区,78个城市,14个市级区,261个城镇,1727个乡级区,4249个村。

【经济】油气工业是阿塞拜疆支柱产业。2017年国内生产总值为701.35亿马纳特(约合412.56亿美元),同比增长0.1%,通货膨胀率为12.9%。2018年1-11月GDP同比增长1%。

【资源】石油和天然气资源丰富,主要分布在阿普歇伦半岛和里海。石油探明储量约22亿吨,天然气储量约2.6万亿立方米。

【军事】1991年10月9日宣布成立武装力量,分陆、海、空三军。阿军现有兵力9万余人(陆军8万人、海军3000人、空军7000人)。

[Government] The current government was formed in April 2018, and Novruz Mammedov (Новруз Мамедов) was appointed as prime minister. The main government officials are: Foreign Minister Elmar Mammedyarov (Эльмар Мамедъяров), Interior Minister Ramil Usubov (Рамиль Усубов), and Minister of Defense Zakir Garciano Zakir Hasanov, Закир Гасанов, and Economy Minister Sahin Mustafayev (Шахин Мустафаев).

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 1 autonomous republic, 66 districts, 78 cities, 14 municipal districts, 261 towns, 1727 township districts, and 4249 villages.

[Economy] The oil and gas industry is the pillar industry of Azerbaijan. In 2017, the gross domestic product was 70.135 billion manats (about 41.256 billion US dollars), an increase of 0.1% year-on-year, and the inflation rate was 12.9%. From January to November 2018, GDP increased by 1% year-on-year.

[Resources] Oil and natural gas resources are abundant, mainly distributed in the Apsheron Peninsula and the Caspian Sea. The proven reserves of oil are about 2.2 billion tons, and the natural gas reserves are about 2.6 trillion cubic meters.

[Military] On October 9, 1991, the armed forces were announced to be divided into land, sea and air forces. The Afghan army has more than 90,000 troops (80,000 in the Army, 3,000 in the Navy, and 7,000 in the Air Force).