Republic of Armenia 亚美尼亚共和国

【国名】亚美尼亚共和国(Republic of Armenia, Республика Армения)

【自然地理】位于亚洲与欧洲交界处的外高加索南部的内陆国。西接土耳其,南接伊朗,北临格鲁吉亚,东临阿塞拜疆。

【面积】2.97万平方公里

【人口】296.92万(截至2019年1月)

【首都】埃里温(Yerevan, Ереван),人口107.38万(截至2019年1月)

【民族】亚美尼亚族约占96%,其他民族有俄罗斯族、乌克兰族、亚速族、希腊族、格鲁吉亚族、白俄罗斯族、犹太人、库尔德族等。

【语言】官方语言为亚美尼亚语,居民多通晓俄语。

【宗教】主要信仰基督教。

【国庆日】9月21日

【货币名称】德拉姆,1美元≈485德拉姆。

【行政区划】全国划分为10个州和1个州级市(首都埃里温)。

[Country name] Republic of Armenia, Республика Армения

[Natural Geography] A landlocked country in the southern part of the Transcaucasian at the junction of Asia and Europe. It is connected to Turkey in the west, Iran in the south, Georgia in the north and Azerbaijan in the east.

[Area] 29,700 square kilometers

[population] 2,692,200 (as of January 2019)

[Capital] Yerevan, Ереван, with a population of 1,073,800 (as of January 2019)

[National] Armenians account for about 96%. Other ethnic groups include Russian, Ukrainian, Azov, Greek, Georgian, Belarusian, Jewish, Kurdish, etc.

[Language] The official language is Armenian, and the residents are familiar with Russian.

[Religion] Mainly believe in Christianity.

[National Day] September 21

[Currency name] Dram, $1 ≈ 485 Dram.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 10 states and 1 state-level city (the capital of Yerevan).

【简史】公元前9世纪至公元前6世纪,在亚美尼亚境内建立了奴隶制的乌拉杜国。公元前6世纪至公元3世纪,阿凯米尼德王朝和塞琉古王朝统治亚美尼亚,建立大亚美尼亚国。此后,亚两次被土耳其和伊朗瓜分。1804至1828年,两次俄伊战争以伊朗失败告终,原伊朗占领的东亚美尼亚并入沙俄。1918年5月28日,达什纳克楚琼党领导建立了亚美尼亚第一共和国。1920年1月29日,成立亚美尼亚苏维埃社会主义共和国。1922年3月,亚加入外高加索苏维埃社会主义联邦共和国,同年12月30日以该联邦成员国身份加入苏联。1936年12月5日,亚美尼亚苏维埃社会主义共和国改为直属苏联,成为其加盟共和国之一。1990年8月23日,亚美尼亚最高苏维埃通过独立宣言,改国名为“亚美尼亚共和国”。1991年9月21日,亚美尼亚举行全民公决,正式宣布独立。

【国家元首】总统阿尔缅·萨尔基相(Armen Sarkissian, Армен Саркисян),2018年3月当选总统,4月9日就职。

【议会】称国民会议,是国家最高立法机关,任期5年,共设至少101个席位,全部为比例制。2018年12月9日,亚举行非例行议会选举,新议会共设132个议席。“我的行动”政党联盟、“繁荣亚美尼亚”党、“光明亚美尼亚”党进入议会,各获88席、26席和18席。2019年1月14日,亚第七届国民会议召开第一次会议,选举阿拉拉特·米尔佐扬(Ararat Mirzoyan,Арарат Мирзоян)为新任议长。

【政府】总理尼科尔·帕什尼扬(Nikol Pashinyan, Никол Пашинян)。2019年1月14日,亚总统阿尔缅·萨尔基相签署法令,批准“我的行动”联盟提名的候选人帕什尼扬为新一届政府总理。

【政局】2018年4月亚美尼亚改行议会制,共和党主席、卸任总统谢尔日·萨尔基相(Serzh Sargsyan, Cерж Cаргсян)转任总理,引发反对派强烈抗议,就任7天后被迫辞职。5月8日,亚议会进行新一届总理选举,抗议活动领袖帕什尼扬作为唯一候选人当选。帕随即任命新政府成员,并获总统批准。6月7日,亚议会审议通过新政府施政纲领。新政权将促进经济持续发展、打击腐败、改善民生和社会保障、加强军队建设、筹备议会提前选举等列为政府工作目标。为推动议会提前选举,帕于10月16日宣布辞职,并暂行代总理职务。12月9日,亚举行非例行议会选举,帕什尼扬代总理领导的“我的行动”政党联盟赢得议会多数席位。2019年1月14日,亚新一届议会召开第一次大会,选举“我的行动”联盟提名的候选人米尔佐扬为新任议长。同日,亚总统签署法令批准“我的行动”联盟提名的候选人、代总理帕什尼扬为新任总理。

[A brief history] From the 9th century BC to the 6th century BC, the Urudu state of slavery was established in Armenia. From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD, the Akaiminid dynasty and the Seymour dynasty ruled Armenia and established the Great Armenian country. Since then, Asia has been divided twice by Turkey and Iran. From 1804 to 1828, two Russian-Iranian wars ended in Iran’s defeat, and the former Iranian-occupied East Asia and Merino was incorporated into Russia. On May 28, 1918, the Dashnak Chuqiong Party led the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. On January 29, 1920, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was established. In March 1922, Ya joined the Soviet Socialist Federal Republic of the Transcaucasia and joined the Soviet Union as a member of the federal government on December 30 of the same year. On December 5, 1936, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic was replaced by the Soviet Union and became one of its affiliated republics. On August 23, 1990, the Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted the Declaration of Independence and changed its name to the Republic of Armenia. On September 21, 1991, Armenia held a referendum and officially declared independence.

[Head of State] President Armen Sarkissian (Армен Саркисян), elected president in March 2018, took office on April 9.

[Parliament] The National Assembly is the highest legislative body of the country. It has a five-year term and has at least 101 seats, all of which are proportional. On December 9, 2018, Asia held non-routine parliamentary elections. The new parliament has a total of 132 seats. The “My Action” party coalition, the “Prosperity Armenia” party, and the “Bright Armenia” party entered the parliament, each with 88 seats, 26 seats and 18 seats. On January 14, 2019, the seventh session of the seventh National Conference was held to elect Ararat Mirzoyan (Арарат Мирзоян) as the new Speaker.

[Government] Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan (Никол Пашинян). On January 14, 2019, Asian President Almen Sarki signed a decree to approve Pasmanyan, the candidate nominated by the “My Action” Alliance, as the new Prime Minister.

[Political] In April 2018, Armenia changed its parliamentary system. The Republican chairman and outgoing President Serzh Sargsyan (Cерж Cаргсян) was transferred to the prime minister, which triggered a strong protest from the opposition and was forced to resign seven days later. On May 8, the Asian Parliament held a new prime ministerial election, and protest leader Pashnyan was elected as the only candidate. Pai immediately appointed a new government member and was approved by the president. On June 7, the Asian Parliament reviewed and approved the new government policy agenda. The new regime will promote sustained economic development, combat corruption, improve people’s livelihood and social security, strengthen military construction, and prepare for early elections in the parliament. In order to promote the early election of the parliament, Pa announced his resignation on October 16 and temporarily assumed the post of acting prime minister. On December 9, Asia held a non-routine parliamentary election, and the “My Action” party coalition led by Prime Minister Pashniyan won a majority in the parliament. On January 14, 2019, the first meeting of the Asian-African Parliament was held to elect Mirzoyan, the candidate nominated by the “My Action” Alliance, as the new Speaker. On the same day, President Ya signed a decree to approve the candidate nominated by the “My Action” Alliance and Acting Prime Minister Pashnyan as the new Prime Minister.

【经济】亚独立后,经济受基础薄弱及“纳卡”战争和阿塞拜疆、土耳其对其封锁等因素影响连年下滑。2001年开始回升,至2007年GDP连续保持两位数增长,国民生活水平有所提高。2008年第四季度起受国际金融危机影响,经济增速放缓。2009年以来亚政府采取调整产业结构、扩大内需、加快基础设施建设、大力扶植农业等措施,努力消除金融危机后果,收到一定成效。2016年国内生产总值为105亿美元,同比增长约0.2%。2017年亚国内生产总值为116亿美元,同比增长7.5%,外贸额64.26亿美元,同比增长26.9%。2018年亚实现经济较快发展,前三季度经济活力指数分别为10.6%、8.9%和6.5%。其中1-11月,对外贸易额达67.2亿美元,同比增长119.1%。

【外交】亚奉行平衡外交政策。努力巩固与俄战略同盟关系,2015年1月正式加入俄主导的欧亚经济联盟;积极发展同美国及欧盟关系,参加北约“和平伙伴关系”框架内的各项活动,寻求安全政策多元化。2017年11月,亚与欧盟签署了《全面加强伙伴关系协议》。亚与邻国阿塞拜疆因“纳卡”领土争端长期敌对。2016年4月,亚、阿两国在“纳卡”地区爆发大规模武装冲突,造成大量人员伤亡。2017年2月、5月和7月,亚、阿两国在停火线附近数次爆发武装冲突,造成多名士兵和平民伤亡。2018年5月,亚时任总理帕什尼扬前往“纳卡”地区视察。亚与邻国土耳其因“种族灭绝”问题迄未建交,亚要求土承认1915至1923年奥斯曼土耳其帝国对亚族人实施的“种族灭绝”。亚积极加强与格鲁吉亚和伊朗的睦邻友好合作关系,深化与东欧、中东国家的联系,积极参与独联体、欧安组织、欧洲委员会等多边组织事务。

【军事】 亚美尼亚国民军组建于1992年1月28日。亚军总兵员43553人(另有文职人员14800人),编制为5个步兵军、2个航空兵基地、1个防空导弹旅、2个防空导弹团、1个雷达团。

[Economy] After the independence of Asia, the economy was weakened by the foundation and the “Naga” war and Azerbaijan and Turkey’s blockade have affected the decline. In 2001, it began to rebound. By 2007, GDP continued to maintain double-digit growth, and the standard of living of the people has improved. In the fourth quarter of 2008, affected by the international financial crisis, economic growth slowed down. Since 2009, the Asian government has taken measures such as adjusting the industrial structure, expanding domestic demand, accelerating infrastructure construction, and vigorously supporting agriculture, and has worked hard to eliminate the consequences of the financial crisis. In 2016, the gross domestic product was US$10.5 billion, an increase of approximately 0.2% year-on-year. In 2017, the total value of Asian GDP was US$11.6 billion, up 7.5% year-on-year, and the foreign trade volume was US$6.426 billion, up 26.9% year-on-year. In 2018, Asia achieved rapid economic development. The economic vitality index in the first three quarters was 10.6%, 8.9% and 6.5% respectively. From January to November, foreign trade reached US$6.72 billion, an increase of 119.1% year-on-year.

[Diplomatic] Asia pursues a balanced foreign policy. Efforts to consolidate the strategic alliance with Russia, officially joined the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015; actively develop relations with the United States and the European Union, participate in various activities within the framework of NATO’s “Peace Partnership”, and seek diversification of security policies. In November 2017, Asia and the European Union signed the “Comprehensive Partnership Agreement”. Asia and its neighbor, Azerbaijan, have long been hostile because of the “Naka” territorial dispute. In April 2016, a large-scale armed conflict broke out between the two countries in the “Naka” area, causing a large number of casualties. In February, May and July 2017, Asian and Arab countries broke out in several armed conflicts near the ceasefire line, causing several soldiers and civilian casualties. In May 2018, Prime Minister Pashnyan of the Asian Times visited the Naka area. Asia and neighboring Turkey have not yet established diplomatic ties due to the issue of “genocide”. Asia asked for the recognition of the “genocide” imposed on the Asians by the Ottoman Turkish Empire from 1915 to 1923. Asia actively strengthened good-neighborly and friendly relations of cooperation with Georgia and Iran, deepened ties with countries in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and actively participated in multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent States, the OSCE, and the European Commission.

[Military] The Armenian National Army was formed on January 28, 1992. The total number of runner-ups was 43,553 (14,800 civilian personnel), and it was compiled into five infantry units, two aviation bases, one air defense missile brigade, two air defense missile regiments, and one radar regiment.