Plurinational State of Bolivia 多民族玻利维亚国

【国名】 多民族玻利维亚国(Plurinational State of Bolivia,Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia)。

【面积】 109.8万平方公里。

【人口】1121.6万。印第安人占54%,印欧混血种人占31%,白人占15%。官方语言为西班牙语和克丘亚语、阿依马拉语等36种印第安民族语言。多数居民信奉天主教。

【首都】 政府、议会所在地:拉巴斯(La Paz),人口87.7万,海拔高度3627米,年平均气温14℃。法定首都(最高法院所在地):苏克雷(Sucre),人口31.2万,年平均气温21.8℃。

【国家元首】 总统胡安·埃沃·莫拉莱斯·艾马(Juan Evo MORALES Ayma),2014年10月在大选中第二次连任总统,2015年1月22日就职,任期至2020年1月。

【重要节日】 8月6日为独立日,即国庆节。

【简况】 位于南美洲中部,内陆国。东北与巴西交界,东南毗邻巴拉圭,南邻阿根廷,西南邻智利,西接秘鲁。属温带气候。

公元13世纪为印加帝国的一部分。1538年沦为西班牙殖民地,史称上秘鲁。1825年8月6日宣布独立,为纪念解放者玻利瓦尔取名玻利瓦尔共和国,后改为玻利维亚共和国。1835年与秘鲁合并,成立秘鲁-玻利维亚联邦,1839年联邦瓦解。1879年同智利发生太平洋战争,丧失沿海领土,成为内陆国。1932年至1935年与巴拉圭发生查科战争,战败后丧失大片领土。1952年4月爆发人民武装起义,民族主义革命运动领导人帕斯·埃斯登索罗就任总统。此后,军事政变频繁,政局长期动荡。1983年10月恢复民主政体。2001至2005年,玻利维亚政局动荡,先后更迭五位总统。2005年12月,左翼政党“争取社会主义运动”领袖莫拉莱斯在大选中获胜,成为玻利维亚建国以来首位印第安人总统。2009年,国名改为“多民族玻利维亚国”。

[Country name] Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia).

[Area] 1.09 million square kilometers.

[Population] 112.16 million. Indians accounted for 54%, Indian-European mixed-races accounted for 31%, and whites accounted for 15%. The official languages ​​are Spanish and the 36 Indian languages ​​such as Quechua and Aymara. Most residents believe in Catholicism.

[Capital] Government, parliament seat: La Paz, with a population of 877,000, an altitude of 3,627 meters, and an average annual temperature of 14 °C. The legal capital (the seat of the Supreme Court): Sucre, with a population of 312,000 and an annual average temperature of 21.8 °C.

[Head of State] President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma, re-elected for the second time in the general election in October 2014, took office on January 22, 2015, and served until 2020 January.

[Important Festival] August 6th is the Independence Day, the National Day.

[profile] Located in central South America, landlocked country. The northeast borders Brazil, the southeast borders Paraguay, the south is Argentina, the southwest is Chile, and the west is Peru. It is a temperate climate.

The 13th century AD was part of the Inca Empire. In 1538, it became a Spanish colony, and history was called Peru. Independence was declared on August 6, 1825, to commemorate the liberation of Bolivar, the name of the Bolivarian Republic, and later to the Republic of Bolivia. In 1835, it merged with Peru and established the Peruvian-Bolivian Federation. In 1839, the Union collapsed. In 1879, a Pacific War broke out with Chile, losing coastal territories and becoming a landlocked country. The Chaco War broke out with Paraguay from 1932 to 1935, and lost a large territory after the defeat. In April 1952, the People’s Armed Uprising broke out and the leader of the nationalist revolutionary movement, Pas Esden Solo, became president. Since then, military coups have been frequent and the political situation has been turbulent for a long time. The restoration of democracy in October 1983. From 2001 to 2005, the political situation in Bolivia was turbulent and changed to five presidents. In December 2005, the leader of the left-wing party “Socialist Movement” Morales won the election and became the first Indian president since the founding of Bolivia. In 2009, the name of the country was changed to “Plurinational State of Bolivia”.

【简况】 位于南美洲中部,内陆国。东北与巴西交界,东南毗邻巴拉圭,南邻阿根廷,西南邻智利,西接秘鲁。属温带气候。

公元13世纪为印加帝国的一部分。1538年沦为西班牙殖民地,史称上秘鲁。1825年8月6日宣布独立,为纪念解放者玻利瓦尔取名玻利瓦尔共和国,后改为玻利维亚共和国。1835年与秘鲁合并,成立秘鲁-玻利维亚联邦,1839年联邦瓦解。1879年同智利发生太平洋战争,丧失沿海领土,成为内陆国。1932年至1935年与巴拉圭发生查科战争,战败后丧失大片领土。1952年4月爆发人民武装起义,民族主义革命运动领导人帕斯·埃斯登索罗就任总统。此后,军事政变频繁,政局长期动荡。1983年10月恢复民主政体。2001至2005年,玻利维亚政局动荡,先后更迭五位总统。2005年12月,左翼政党“争取社会主义运动”领袖莫拉莱斯在大选中获胜,成为玻利维亚建国以来首位印第安人总统。2009年,国名改为“多民族玻利维亚国”。

【政治】 2005年5月,玻“争取社会主义运动”等主要反对党发动大规模示威游行、罢工封路等抗议活动,反对国会颁布新《石油天然气法》和政府对外资开放油气资源。6月,梅萨总统辞职,议会选举最高法院院长罗德里格斯为临时总统。12月,玻提前举行大选,争取社会主义运动候选人莫拉莱斯获得54%的选票,成为玻建国以来首位印第安人总统,并于2006年1月22日就职。

莫系拉美激进左翼主要领导人之一,执政以来提出在玻建设“社群社会主义”,奉行多元、民主、去殖民化的政策,在政治、经济社会等领域大力推进各项变革措施,如成立制宪大会、实施油气资源国有化、土改等。2009年1月,玻举行全民公投,通过新宪法。同年12月6日,玻举行新宪法颁布后的首次全国大选,莫拉莱斯总统以64.2%的得票率再次当选。执政党“争取社会主义运动”赢得参议院和众议院多数席位。2014年10月,玻举行总统选举,莫拉莱斯以61%的得票率在首轮胜选连任。执政党“争取社会主义运动”继续保持对参、众两院的控制。2016年2月21日,玻举行修宪公投,决定是否将总统和副总统连选连任次数由一次改为两次。24日,玻选举法院宣布公投未获通过。2017年11月,玻宪法法院通过释法确认莫拉莱斯总统有权参加2019年总统选举。

【宪法】 1826年颁布。宪法规定,国体为共和制,总统和副总统均由直接选举产生,总统任期为5年,不得连任,但可隔届当选一次;副总统不得在下届当选总统或副总统。

2009年1月25日,玻举行新宪法公投和限制大地产公投。新宪法以61.47%的高支持率获得通过,多数选民支持个人拥有土地面积限额为5000公顷。新宪法对原宪法做了上百处修改,主要有:(一)强调玻多民族国家性质,赋予公民更多权利,政府应承担更多义务。(二)建立四权分立政治体制,印第安人较前更受重视,提出除行政、立法、司法权力机关外,建立多民族选举机构为第四种国家权力机关。(三)规定总统和副总统可连任1次。(四)改变现行行政区划体制,实行符合宪法的自治制度。(五)国家政权在经济中扮演重要角色,采取复合经济模式,限制大地产和双重地契。(六)关于后续立法及未来的宪法修订,若修改整个宪法或涉及根本内容,需由土著人全权制宪会议进行。

[profile] Located in central South America, landlocked country. The northeast borders Brazil, the southeast borders Paraguay, the south is Argentina, the southwest is Chile, and the west is Peru. It is a temperate climate.

The 13th century AD was part of the Inca Empire. In 1538, it became a Spanish colony, and history was called Peru. Independence was declared on August 6, 1825, to commemorate the liberation of Bolivar, the name of the Bolivarian Republic, and later to the Republic of Bolivia. In 1835, it merged with Peru and established the Peruvian-Bolivian Federation. In 1839, the Union collapsed. In 1879, a Pacific War broke out with Chile, losing coastal territories and becoming a landlocked country. The Chaco War broke out with Paraguay from 1932 to 1935, and lost a large territory after the defeat. In April 1952, the People’s Armed Uprising broke out and the leader of the nationalist revolutionary movement, Pas Esden Solo, became president. Since then, military coups have been frequent and the political situation has been turbulent for a long time. The restoration of democracy in October 1983. From 2001 to 2005, the political situation in Bolivia was turbulent and changed to five presidents. In December 2005, the leader of the left-wing party “Socialist Movement” Morales won the election and became the first Indian president since the founding of Bolivia. In 2009, the name of the country was changed to “Plurinational State of Bolivia”.

[Politics] In May 2005, the main opposition parties such as the “Socialist Movement for Socialism” launched large-scale demonstrations, strikes and road closures, and opposed the Congress’s promulgation of the new “Oil and Gas Law” and the government’s opening of oil and gas resources to foreign capital. In June, President Mesa resigned and the president of the Supreme Court, Rodriguez, was elected as interim president. In December, Glass held a general election in advance, and the socialist movement leader Morales won 54% of the votes, becoming the first Indian president since the founding of the country, and took office on January 22, 2006.

Mozambique is one of the main leaders of the radical left-wing in Latin America. Since its administration, it has proposed to build “community socialism” in Bolivia, pursue a policy of pluralism, democracy, and decolonization, and vigorously promote various reform measures in the political, economic, and social fields, such as Establish a constitutional convention, implement nationalization of oil and gas resources, and land reform. In January 2009, Boli held a referendum and adopted a new constitution. On December 6, the same year, Boli held the first national election after the promulgation of the new constitution. President Morales was re-elected with 64.2% of the votes. The ruling party “for the socialist movement” won the majority of the Senate and the House of Representatives. In October 2014, Boli held a presidential election, and Morales was re-elected in the first round with a 61% vote. The ruling party’s “competition of the socialist movement” continued to maintain control over the Senate and the House of Representatives. On February 21, 2016, Bolivia held a constitutional referendum to decide whether to change the number of re-elections of the president and vice president from one to two. On the 24th, the Bolivian election court announced that the referendum had not been passed. In November 2017, the Bolivian Constitutional Court confirmed that President Morales had the right to participate in the 2019 presidential election.

[Constitution] Promulgated in 1826. The Constitution stipulates that the state is a republican system. The president and the vice president are directly elected. The president is elected for five years and cannot be re-elected, but may be elected once every other year. The vice president may not be elected president or vice president in the next term.

On January 25, 2009, Boli held a new constitutional referendum and restricted the referendum on large real estate. The new constitution was approved with a high support rate of 61.47%, and most voters supported an individual with a land area limit of 5,000 hectares. The new constitution has made hundreds of amendments to the original constitution, mainly including: (1) Emphasizing the nature of the Boli ethnic state, giving citizens more rights, and the government should assume more obligations. (2) Establishing a political system of separation of powers, the Indians are more valued than before, and proposed to establish a multi-ethnic electoral institution as the fourth state power organ in addition to the administrative, legislative, and judicial powers. (3) It is stipulated that the president and the vice president may be re-elected once. (4) Changing the current administrative division system and implementing a constitutional autonomy system. (5) The state power plays an important role in the economy and adopts a complex economic model to restrict large real estate and dual land titles. (6) With regard to follow-up legislation and future constitutional amendments, if the entire constitution is amended or the fundamental content is involved, it must be carried out by the indigenous people’s full authority constitutional assembly.

【议会】 多民族立法大会由参众两院组成。五年一届,选举与总统大选同期举行。众议院设130席,参议院设36席。立法大会主席由副总统兼任。现任立法大会主席是副总统阿尔瓦罗·马塞洛·加西亚·利内拉(Alvaro Marcelo García Linera)。现任参议长莱昂尼达斯·米尔顿·巴龙·伊达尔戈(Leónidas Milton Barón Hidalgo),众议长利利·加夫列拉·蒙塔尼奥·比亚尼亚(Lily Gabriela Montaño Viaña),均于2018年1月连任就职。

【政府】 总统内阁制。总统为国家元首、政府首脑和武装部队统帅。本届政府于2015年1月成立,2015年1月、2017年2月和2018年1月三次改组,由副总统和以下20名部长组成:外交部长迭戈·帕里·罗德里格斯(Diego PARY Rodriguez),总统府部长阿尔弗雷多·拉达(Alfredo RADA),内政部长卡洛斯·古斯塔沃·罗梅罗·博尼法斯(Carlos Gustavo ROMERO Bonifaz),国防部长哈维尔·萨瓦莱塔·洛佩斯(Javier ZAVALETA López),司法与反腐败部长埃克托·阿尔塞(Hector ARCE),教育部长罗伯特·阿吉拉尔(Roberto AGUILAR),卫生部长阿德里亚娜·坎佩罗·纳瓦(Adriana CAMPERO Nava,女),劳动、就业和社会保障部长艾克托尔·安德烈斯·伊诺霍萨(Hector Andres HINOJOSA),经济与财政部长马里奥·阿尔韦托·纪廉·苏亚雷斯(Mario Alberto GUILLÉN Suárez),发展规划部长玛里亚娜·普拉多·诺亚(Mariana PRADO Noya,女),农村发展和土地部长塞萨尔·乌戈·科卡里科·亚纳(Cesar Hugo COCARICO Yana),生产发展和多种经济部长欧亨尼奥·罗哈斯(Eugenio ROJAS),公共工程、服务和住宅部长米尔顿·克拉罗斯·伊诺霍萨(Milton Claros HINOJOSA),油气资源部长路易斯·阿尔韦托·桑切斯·费尔南德斯(Luis Alberto SANCHEZ Fernández),能源部长拉斐尔·阿拉贡·奥里韦拉(Rafael Alarcon ORIHUELA),矿业和冶金部长费利克斯·塞萨尔·纳瓦罗(Felix Cesar NAVARRO),社会联络部长吉塞拉·洛佩斯(Gisela LOPEZ,女)文化和旅游部长威尔玛·阿拉诺卡(Wilma ALANOCA,女),环境与水务部长卡洛斯·雷内·奥尔图尼奥(Carlos René ORTUÑO),体育部长蒂托·蒙塔尼奥·里维拉(Tito MONTAÑO Rivera)。

[Parliament] The multi-ethnic legislative assembly consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. In five years, the election was held concurrently with the presidential election. The House of Representatives has 130 seats and the Senate has 36 seats. The chairman of the legislative assembly is also the vice president. The current President of the Legislative Assembly is Vice President Alvaro Marcelo García Linera. The current Senate, Leónidas Milton Barón Hidalgo, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Lily Gabriela Montaño Viaña, Inaugurated in January 2018.

[Government] The presidential cabinet system. The president is the head of state, the head of government and the commander of the armed forces. The current government was established in January 2015 and was reorganized three times in January 2015, February 2017 and January 2018. It consists of the Vice President and the following 20 ministers: Foreign Minister Diego Parry Rodriguez ( Diego PARY Rodriguez), Presidential President Alfredo RADA, Interior Minister Carlos Gustavo ROMERO Bonifaz, Secretary of Defense Javier Javier ZAVALETA López, Minister of Justice and Anti-Corruption Hector ARCE, Minister of Education Roberto AGUILAR, Minister of Health Adriana Kan Adriana CAMPERO Nava (female), Minister of Labor, Employment and Social Security Hector Andres HINOJOSA, Minister of Economy and Finance Mario Alberto · Mario Alberto GUILLÉN Suárez, Minister of Development Planning Mariana PRADO Noya (female), Minister of Rural Development and Lands Cesar Ugo Kokarico Yana (C Esar Hugo COCARICO Yana), Minister of Production Development and Multi-Economy, Eugenio ROJAS, Minister of Public Works, Services and Housing Milton Claros HINOJOSA, Oil and Gas Resource Minister Luis Alberto SANCHEZ Fernández, Energy Minister Rafael Alarcon ORIHUELA, Minister of Mining and Metallurgy Felix Cesar Nass Felix Cesar NAVARRO, Minister of Social Liaison Gisela LOPEZ, Minister of Culture and Tourism, Wilma ALANOCA (female), Minister of Environment and Water, Carlos Rene · Carlos René ORTUÑO, Sports Minister Tito MONTAÑO Rivera.

【行政区划】 全国共分为九省,分别是贝尼、丘基萨卡、科恰班巴、拉巴斯、奥鲁罗、潘多、波多西、塔里哈和圣克鲁斯省。

【司法机构】 2015年11月直选产生新一届司法机构法官。由大法官、农业环境法院法官、宪法法院法官和法官委员会委员等共56人组成,土著人法官占多数。目前,何塞·安东尼奥·莱维亚(José Antonio Revilla)任最高法院院长,佩特罗尼洛·弗洛雷斯·孔多里(Petronilo Flores Condori)任宪法法院院长总检察长由多民族立法大会选举产生,任期六年,不得连任。现任总检察长拉米罗·何塞·格雷罗·佩尼亚兰达(Ramiro José GUERRERO Peñaranda)。

【政党】 全国主要政党有:

(1)争取社会主义运动(Movimiento Al Socialismo):1997年成立。执政党,议会第一大政治力量,是以古柯农工会联盟为主体的新兴左翼政党,系“广泛参与的全国性民主力量”。主张捍卫各民族人民的尊严和利益,反对新自由主义和经济全球化,主张加强地区一体化,党的领导人为总统胡安·埃沃·莫拉莱斯·艾玛(Juan Evo MORALES Ayma)。

(2)民主统一联盟(Unidad Demócrata):最大反对党,2014年6月由“民族团结党”(Unidad Nacional)和“社会民主运动党”(Movimiento Demócrata Social)合并而成,主张维护中产阶级和企业界利益,党的领导人为玻“水泥大王”萨姆埃尔·多利亚·梅迪那(Samuel Doria MEDINA)。

(3)基督教民主党(Partido Demócrata Cristiano):反对党,1954年2月成立。主张改革现有经济模式,维护社会稳定,促进生产发展。党的领导人为前总统豪尔赫·基罗加(Jorge QUIROGA)。

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into nine provinces, namely Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Podosi, Tarija and Santa Cruz.

[Judiciary] Direct election in November 2015 to produce a new judge of the Judiciary. It consists of 56 judges, judges of the Agricultural Environmental Court, members of the Constitutional Court and members of the Judges Committee. The majority of the indigenous judges. Currently, José Antonio Revilla is the President of the Supreme Court, and Petronilo Flores Condori is the Chief Prosecutor of the Constitutional Court. The National Legislative Assembly is elected for a term of six years and may not be re-elected. The current Attorney General, Ramiro José GUERRERO Peñaranda.

[Party] The main political parties in the country are:

(1) Movimiento Al Socialismo: Established in 1997. The ruling party, the largest political force in the parliament, is a newly-developed left-wing party with the Coca-Federation Union as the main body, and is a “national democratic force with extensive participation.” It advocates defending the dignity and interests of the people of all nationalities, opposes neoliberalism and economic globalization, and advocates strengthening regional integration. The party leader is the president Juan Evo MORALES Ayma.

(2) Unidad Demócrata: The largest opposition party, formed in June 2014 by the merger of the “Unidad Nacional” and the “Movimiento Demócrata Social”, advocates the maintenance of the middle class and enterprises. The interests of the party, the party leader is the glass “cement king” Samuel Doria Medina (Samuel Doria MEDINA).

(3) Partido Demócrata Cristiano: Opposition, established in February 1954. Advocate reform of the existing economic model, maintain social stability, and promote production development. The party leader is former president Jorge QUIROGA.

【重要人物】 胡安·埃沃·莫拉莱斯·艾马(Juan Evo MORALES Ayma):总统。1959年10月26日生于玻利维亚奥鲁罗省一个贫苦印第安人家庭。未受过高等教育。年轻时曾当过矿工、面包工人和泥瓦匠。从80年代起积极投身于古柯农工会组织工作,并逐渐成为该组织的主要领导人,曾连续9次当选6大古柯农工会联盟秘书长。1997年当选众议员, 2001年因领导古柯农封路、游行活动被罢免。2002年,莫组建争取社会主义运动党,并在议会选举中获得35个议席,成为全国第二大党。莫以该党领袖身份参加2002年大选并进入第二轮,但在议会投票中以微弱差距败北。在2005年12月18日大选中,莫赢得54%的选票,当选总统,成为玻建国以来首位印第安人总统。2009年12月6日,玻举行新宪法颁布后的首次全国大选,莫以64.2%的得票率再次当选,任期至2015年1月。2014年10月,莫以61%的得票率再次连任,任期至2020年1月。

【经济 】玻是南美洲最贫穷的国家之一。世界著名矿产品出口国,锂、锡、锑、金、银、铜、铁、锰、钨、锌等矿藏丰富。莫拉莱斯政府执政以来,摒弃新自由主义经济政策,加强国家对经济的干预,推进石油、天然气、矿业、电信和电力等支柱产业国有化,重点促进能矿生产和基础设施建设,加大天然气开发投入,并推动土地改革。有关举措取得积极成效,财税收入稳步增长,宏观经济运行平稳。近年来,经济增长率高于地区平均水平。2017年玻国内生产总值为378.16亿美元,经济增长率为4.2%,全年通货膨胀率为2.7%。2018年上半年,玻经济增长率为4.6%。

[Important] Juan Evo MORALES Ayma: President. Born on October 26, 1959 in a poor Indian family in Oruro, Bolivia. Not educated. When I was young, I worked as a miner, a baker, and a masons. Since the 1980s, he has actively participated in the organization of the Coca Agricultural Union and has gradually become the main leader of the organization. He has been elected as the Secretary-General of the 6 Coca-Federation Unions for 9 consecutive times. In 1997, he was elected as a member of the House of Representatives. In 2001, he was dismissed for leading the road to the road and the parade. In 2002, Mo formed a party for the Socialist Movement and won 35 seats in the parliamentary elections, becoming the second largest party in the country. In the capacity of the party leader, he participated in the 2002 general election and entered the second round, but he lost in a weak gap in the parliamentary vote. In the general election on December 18, 2005, Mo won 54% of the votes and was elected president, becoming the first Indian president since the founding of Bolivia. On December 6, 2009, Boli held the first national election after the promulgation of the new constitution. He was re-elected with a 64.2% vote and will serve until January 2015. In October 2014, Moz was re-elected with a 61% vote and will serve until January 2020.

[Economy] Glass is one of the poorest countries in South America. The world’s leading exporters of mineral products, rich in lithium, tin, antimony, gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese, tungsten, zinc and other minerals. Since the Morales government took office, it has abandoned neo-liberal economic policies, strengthened state intervention in the economy, promoted the nationalization of pillar industries such as oil, natural gas, mining, telecommunications and electric power, and focused on promoting energy production and infrastructure construction. Investment in natural gas development and promotion of land reform. The relevant measures achieved positive results, fiscal and tax revenues increased steadily, and the macro economy operated smoothly. In recent years, the economic growth rate has been higher than the regional average. In 2017, the GDP of Bolivia was 37.816 billion US dollars, the economic growth rate was 4.2%, and the annual inflation rate was 2.7%. In the first half of 2018, the economic growth rate of glass was 4.6%.

【对外贸易】 玻历届政府均重视发展对外贸易,特别是鼓励出口以拉动经济增长。玻积极参与地区一体化进程,与多数拉美国家签有经济互补协定。近年来,玻大力开拓天然气出口市场,并制定了旨在成为南方共同市场能源供应地的战略。现与世界80多个国家和地区保持着贸易关系。2017年,玻外贸总额171.34亿美元,同比增长9.8%,其中出口额78.46亿美元、进口总额为92.88亿美元,分别同比增长8.8%、10.2%。主要贸易对象国为巴西、中国、美国、阿根廷、哥伦比亚、委内瑞拉。

【军事】 实行义务兵役制,凡年满18岁的男性公民必须服兵役,服役期一年。自1995年起,军官服役期延长至35年。海陆空三军总兵力5万人,警察部队总警力3.7万人,归内政部管辖。

【教育】 2016年,玻文盲率降至2.9%。公办学校人数为13.8万人。国家对6-12岁儿童实行义务教育,但基础设施较薄弱,资金缺乏。著名大学有圣弗朗西斯科·哈维尔大学和圣安德烈斯大学。

[Foreign Trade] The successive governments of the Bolivia have attached great importance to the development of foreign trade, especially to encourage exports to stimulate economic growth. Boli actively participated in the regional integration process and signed economic complementarity agreements with most Latin American countries. In recent years, Boli has vigorously explored the natural gas export market and formulated a strategy to become a source of energy for the Southern Common Market. Now it maintains trade relations with more than 80 countries and regions in the world. In 2017, total foreign trade of glass was US$17.134 billion, up 9.8% year-on-year, of which US$7.846 billion was exported and US$9.288 billion was imported, up 8.8% and 10.2% respectively. The main trading countries are Brazil, China, the United States, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela.

[Military] The compulsory military service system is implemented. All male citizens who are 18 years of age or older must perform military service and serve for one year. Since 1995, the military service period has been extended to 35 years. The total strength of the armed forces of the sea, land and air is 50,000, and the total police force of the police force is 37,000. It is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior.

[Education] In 2016, the illiteracy rate dropped to 2.9%. The number of public schools is 138,000. The state provides compulsory education for children aged 6-12, but the infrastructure is weak and the funds are scarce. Famous universities include the University of San Francisco and the University of San Andrés.

【新闻出版】 主要报刊有:《日报》,发行量5万份;《责任报》,发行量4万份;《理性报》,发行量约3万份;《时代报》,发行量约2.5万份;《新闻报》,发行量4万份;《变革报》,发行量1.2万份。

电视台135个,其中首都拉巴斯有22个。国家电视台创建于1964年,在拉巴斯等7个省有转播台。另有9家私营电视台及3家有线电视和卫星电视台。

【对外关系】 玻利维亚奉行反帝、反殖、反霸,独立自主、和平和不结盟的对外政策,维护民族独立和主权,坚持各国一律平等、人民自决、不干涉别国内政、和平解决国际争端等原则。以消除贫困、气候变化和地区一体化为外交重点,注重区域外交、务实外交、多元外交,主张外交为经济建设服务,力争提升玻国际地位。玻历届政府均坚持向智利提出恢复太平洋出海口的要求。

玻系联合国、不结盟运动、世界贸易组织、七十七国集团、美洲国家组织、拉美和加勒比国家共同体、南美国家联盟、美洲玻利瓦尔联盟、安第斯共同体、里约集团、拉普拉塔河流域组织、亚马孙合作条约组织、南方共同市场等成员国。2017年1月起任联合国安理会非常任理事国,任期至2018年底。同86个国家保持外交关系。

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers and periodicals include: “Daily”, with a circulation of 50,000 copies; “Responsibility”, with a circulation of 40,000 copies; “Rational”, with a circulation of about 30,000 copies; “Times”, with a circulation of about 2.5 Wanfen; “News”, circulation of 40,000 copies; “Changes”, the circulation of 12,000 copies.

There are 135 TV stations, including 22 in the capital La Paz. National TV was founded in 1964 and has relay stations in seven provinces including La Paz. There are also 9 private TV stations and 3 cable and satellite TV stations.

[External Relations] Bolivia pursues anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-hegemonic, independent, peaceful and non-aligned foreign policies, safeguards national independence and sovereignty, and upholds the principles of equality of all countries, self-determination of the people, non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs, and peaceful settlement of international disputes. . With the focus on poverty eradication, climate change and regional integration, it focuses on regional diplomacy, pragmatic diplomacy, and pluralistic diplomacy. It advocates diplomacy for economic construction and strives to enhance its international status. The successive governments of the Bolivian government insisted on requesting Chile to restore the Pacific estuary.

The United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the World Trade Organization, the Group of 77, the Organization of American States, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Union of South American Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance of the Americas, the Andean Community, the Rio Group, the La Plata River Member States such as the Basin Organization, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, and the Southern Common Market. Since January 2017, he has served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for a term of office until the end of 2018. Maintain diplomatic relations with 86 countries.