Oriental Republic of Uruguay 乌拉圭东岸共和国
【国名】 乌拉圭东岸共和国（Oriental Republic of Uruguay，República Oriental del Uruguay）。
【国家元首】 总统塔瓦雷·拉蒙·巴斯克斯·罗萨斯（Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas），2015年3月1日就职，任期五年。
【议会】 两院制。参、众两院分别由31名参议员和99名众议员组成，任期五年，可连选连任。其中国会主席兼参议长由副总统兼任。众议长由众议员选举产生，任期一年。每年3月15日至12月15日为国会会期。闭会期间，由参、众两院组成常设委员会主持日常工作。现任众议长为广泛阵线议员塞西莉亚·博蒂诺（Cecilia Bottino，女），2019年3月就职。本届国会于2015年2月15日组成。
[Country name] Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay).
[Area] 17.62 million square kilometers.
[Population] 3.493 million (2017, National Bureau of Statistics of Uruguay), with whites accounting for 91% and Indians accounting for 4.9%. The official language is Spanish. 66% of the residents believe in Catholicism.
[Capital] Montevideo, with an area of 530 square kilometers and a population of 1.381 million (2017, National Bureau of Statistics of Uruguay), with an annual average temperature of 16.5 °C.
[Head of State] President Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas, who took office on March 1, 2015, for a five-year term.
[Important Festival] National Day: August 25.
[profile] Located in the southeastern part of South America, the eastern shore of the Uruguay River and the La Plata River. It borders Brazil to the north, Argentina to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. The coastline is 660 kilometers long. The terrain is flat, with hills and grasslands, with an average elevation of 116.7 meters. It is a temperate climate. It is summer from January to March, with temperatures ranging from 17 °C to 28 °C. It is winter from July to September and temperatures from 6 °C to 14 °C. The annual precipitation increases from 950 mm to 1,250 mm from south to north.
Early was the residence of the Chalu Indians. The Spanish expedition arrived in 1516. In 1726, the Spanish colonists established the city of Montevideo and began colonial rule. In 1810 Jose Artigas launched the independence movement. On August 25, 1825, a group of patriots such as Juan Antonio Lavalleja recovered the city of Montevideo and declared Uruguay independence. In 1903, after the election of the President of the Red Party, Jose Batlle Ordonez, relying on animal husbandry, he vigorously developed foreign trade and service industries and laid the foundation for the development of the national economy. In the first half of the 20th century, Uruguay was known as “South America Switzerland” for its political stability, generous welfare and social peace. In the late 1960s, the economy experienced difficulties, social contradictions intensified, and the situation was turbulent. In February 1973, the military coup came to power and implemented dictatorship. In 1984, the military government returned to the government. In November of the same year, the Red Party candidate Julio Maria Sanguinetti was elected president and Uruguay restored the democratic constitution. In 1989, Luis Lakale of the White Party was elected president. In 1994, Sanguinetti was re-elected as president. In March 2000, the Red Party’s Jorge Batlle came to power. In October 2004, Vasquez, the presidential candidate of the Central Frontier Party Coalition, won the election. In November 2009, the broad front candidate Mujica was elected president. In November 2014, the broad front candidate and former President Vazquez was elected president and took office on March 1, 2015.
[Politics] Since the end of the military dictatorship in the mid-1980s, the Ukrainian democracy has continued to consolidate. Since March 1st, 2015, President Vazquez has been committed to deepening institutional reforms, establishing an efficient and economical government, paying close attention to people’s livelihood, optimizing wealth distribution, improving law and order, and eradicating poverty as priority areas for governance, giving priority to helping vulnerable groups. . Vazquez focused on building a pro-people government, and extensive contacts with the community, and actively strengthened cooperation with the opposition. The current political situation in Uzbekistan remains stable.
[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated on July 18, 1830, and was revised several times. The 1951 Constitution abolished the presidential system and established the State Council (the highest administrative authority). In 1966, the constitution was restored to restore the presidential system. The constitution was abolished after the military coup in 1973. In 1985, the elected government resumed after taking office. The current implementation is a constitution that was amended in 1996 and passed by a referendum. The Constitution stipulates that Uruguay adopts a democratic republican system with separate powers. There is one president and one vice president. The president is the head of state and government and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The President, Vice President and provincial governors are all directly elected by citizens for a term of five years. The president cannot be re-elected, but he can stand for election again. The current Vice President is Lucía Topolansky (female), who took office in September 2017.
[Parliament] The bicameral system. The Senate and the House of Representatives are composed of 31 senators and 99 members of the House of Representatives for a term of five years and are eligible for re-election. The President and the Senate President are also served by the Vice President. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is elected by the House of Representatives for a term of one year. The annual meeting period is from March 15th to December 15th. During the intersessional period, the Standing Committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives will preside over the daily work. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives is a broad-line parliamentarian, Cecilia Bottino (female), who took office in March 2019. The current Congress was formed on February 15, 2015.
（1）广泛阵线（Frente Amplio）：中左翼政党执政联盟，议会第一大政治力量。成立于1971年，包括人民政府运动、社会党、基督教民主党、共产党等派别。1973年被军政府取缔，1982年恢复合法地位。1989年、1994年两度竞选首都市长成功。1994年同其他左翼政党组成进步联盟—广泛阵线。2004年，新多数派加入，改名为进步联盟—广泛阵线—新多数派。2005年再次改名为广泛阵线。1994年、1999年和2004年三次推举联盟主席巴斯克斯参加总统选举，前两次未获成功，第三次在大选首轮投票中胜出。2009年，广泛阵线总统候选人穆希卡赢得大选。2014年11月，该党候选人巴斯克斯再次赢得大选。该党以社会民主主义为指导思想，认为民主应包括政治、经济、社会三方面内涵：追求政治民主，反对集权统治；追求经济民主，反对贫困；追求社会民主，主张经济与社会协调发展。在对外交往中主张通过对话和平解决争端，捍卫自决，反对干涉、封锁、以大欺小。现有20多个左派政党和派别，主要有“人民参与运动”（Movimiento de Participación Popular）、“乌拉圭大会”（Asamblea Uruguay）、“新空间”（Nuevo Espacio）等。现任主席哈维尔·米兰达（Javier Miranda）。
（2）民族党（Partido Nacional）：又称白党（Partido Blanco）。在野党，议会第二大政治力量。1836年成立。代表农牧业主利益，在内地特别是农村影响较大。政治上主张维护国家主权、公民自由和宪法，追求正义的民主社会。主张改革经济、社会和国家体制。奉行独立自主、多元化外交政策，在自决和不干涉原则基础上同世界各国发展关系。1973年被军政府取缔，1982年恢复合法地位，曾于1990～1995年执政。2002年10月退出与红党的执政联盟。党内有“一切向前”（Todos Hacia Adelante）和“全国联盟”（Alianza Nacional）等派系。党的最高领导机构是全国领导委员会。现任主席贝亚特里斯·阿希蒙（Beatriz Argimón）。
（3）红党（Partido Colorado）：在野党，议会第三大政治力量。1836年成立。传统中右翼政党，代表工商资产阶级、社会民主主义者和自由职业者利益。信奉民主、自由、参与、社会公正原则。对内主张建立合理的国民经济体系，发展社会福利事业，公平分配收入。对外强调民族自决和不干涉政策，主张和平解决国际争端，积极参与和推动多边合作及拉美地区一体化。历史上曾执政100多年，1973年被军政府取缔，1982年恢复合法地位，1984年、1994年和1999年三度在大选中获胜。党内主要派别有加油乌拉圭（Vamos Uruguay）、巴特列主义方案（Propuesta Batllista）等。全国执行委员会为该党领导机构，由15名委员按月轮值主席。现任总书记阿德里安·培尼亚（Adrián Peña）。
【重要人物】塔瓦雷·拉蒙·巴斯克斯·罗萨斯：总统。1940年1月17日出生于蒙得维的亚。毕业于乌拉圭大学医学院。1990年至1994年任蒙得维的亚市市长。长期担任广泛阵线主席。1994、1999和2004年连续三次作为广泛阵线候选人参加大选。2005年至2010年任总统。2014年11月在总统选举第二轮投票中胜出，并于2015年3月1日正式就职，任期五年。已婚，夫人玛丽亚·奥西利亚多拉·德尔加多（María Auxiliadora Delgado），有4子。
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 19 provinces.
[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is composed of five judges and is subject to approval by the National Assembly. The judge is ten years old and has a retirement age of 70 years. The dean is rotated by five people for a one-year term. The current President of the Supreme Court is Edmundo Turell.
[Party party] The main political parties are:
(1) Frente Amplio: the center-left political party ruling coalition, the largest political force in the parliament. Founded in 1971, it includes the People’s Government Movement, the Socialist Party, the Christian Democratic Party, and the Communist Party. It was banned by the military government in 1973 and resumed legal status in 1982. In 1989 and 1994, he was twice elected to the mayor of the capital. In 1994, it formed a progressive alliance with other left-wing parties – a broad front. In 2004, the new majority joined, renamed the Progressive Alliance – the broad front – the new majority. In 2005, it was renamed the broad front again. In 1994, 1999 and 2004, the three-time president of the League, Vazquez, participated in the presidential election. The first two failed, and the third time won the first round of the general election. In 2009, the broadfront presidential candidate Mujica won the election. In November 2014, the party’s candidate, Vazquez, won the election again. The party takes social democracy as the guiding ideology and believes that democracy should include political, economic and social connotations: pursuing political democracy and opposing centralized rule; pursuing economic democracy and opposing poverty; pursuing social democracy and advocating coordinated economic and social development. In foreign exchanges, he advocated peaceful settlement of disputes through dialogue, defending self-determination, opposing interference, blockade, and bullying. There are more than 20 leftist parties and factions, including the “Movimiento de Participación Popular”, the “Usaguia Uruguay” and the “Nuevo Espacio”. The current chairman, Javier Miranda.
(2) Partido Nacional: Also known as the Partido Blanco. The opposition party, the second largest political force in the parliament. Established in 1836. Representing the interests of farmers and livestock owners, the impact on the mainland, especially in the countryside. Politically advocated the maintenance of national sovereignty, civil liberties and the constitution, and a democratic society that pursues justice. Advocate reform of the economy, society and state system. We pursue an independent and diversified foreign policy and develop relations with countries around the world on the basis of the principles of self-determination and non-intervention. It was banned by the military government in 1973 and restored its legal status in 1982. It was in power from 1990 to 1995. In October 2002, he withdrew from the ruling coalition with the Red Party. There are factions in the party such as “Todos Hacia Adelante” and “Alianza Nacional”. The party’s highest governing body is the National Leadership Council. The current chairman, Beatriz Argimón.
(3) Partido Colorado: The opposition party, the third largest political force in the parliament. Established in 1836. The traditional right-wing party represents the interests of the industrial and commercial bourgeoisie, social democrats and freelancers. Believe in the principles of democracy, freedom, participation, and social justice. Internally, it advocates the establishment of a reasonable national economic system, the development of social welfare undertakings, and the fair distribution of income. It emphasizes national self-determination and non-intervention policies, advocates peaceful settlement of international disputes, and actively participates in and promotes multilateral cooperation and regional integration in Latin America. He has been in power for more than 100 years in history. He was banned by the military government in 1973 and returned to legal status in 1982. In 1984, 1994 and 1999, he won the election three times. The main factions in the party include Vamos Uruguay and the Propuesta Batllista. The National Executive Committee is the leading body of the party, with 15 members on a monthly basis. The current general secretary, Adrián Peña.
[Important] Tavale Ramon Vasquez Rosas: President. Born in Montevideo on January 17, 1940. Graduated from the University of Uruguay School of Medicine. Mayor of Montevideo, from 1990 to 1994. Long-term chairman of the broad front. In 1994, 1999 and 2004, he participated in the general election as a candidate for a wide front. President from 2005 to 2010. In November 2014, he won the second round of the presidential election and officially took office on March 1, 2015 for a five-year term. Married, Mrs. María Auxiliadora Delgado, has four sons.
[Economy] Latin America is at a medium level of development. The economy is small in scale, with a single industrial structure and dependence on exports. Agriculture and animal husbandry are more developed, mainly producing and exporting meat, wool, aquatic products, leather and rice. The industry is dominated by farming and animal products processing industries. The service industry accounts for a relatively high proportion of the national economy and is dominated by finance, tourism, logistics and transportation.
Implement a free market economy policy and actively participate in regional economic integration. After the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, the Ukrainian government responded positively and maintained steady economic growth. Since Vazquez regained power, he has implemented a sound economic policy, strengthened macroeconomic regulation and control, financial regulation, steadily adjusted economic structure, strictly controlled fiscal expenditure, promoted infrastructure construction, focused on attracting foreign investment, and actively expanded exports. The current Ukrainian economy is generally stable.
In 2018, GDP grew by 1.6% year-on-year, with a per capita GDP of $16,603.
Main economic data:
Inflation rate: 8.17% (as of April 2019)
Unemployment rate 8.4% (as of March 2019)
Exports: $9.088 billion (2018)
Imports: US$ 7.635 billion (2018)
Total import and export volume: 16.723 billion US dollars (2018)
The balance of external debt was US$20.12 billion. (2017)
Foreign exchange reserves amounted to 15.784 billion US dollars. (as of April 2019)
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 34.9 Uruguayan pesos (May 2019).
(Source: International Monetary Fund, Central Bank of Uruguay)
[Resources] rich in marble, amethyst stone, agate, milk white stone and so on. It has been found that there are iron, manganese and other mineral deposits. Rich in forestry and fisheries, it is rich in yellow croaker, squid and squid.
[Industrial] is mainly engaged in the processing of agricultural and animal products, including meat processing, oil extraction, wine making, sugar and canning, flour, milk, cheese processing, etc., followed by the textile industry, mainly processing wool, producing cotton spinning and chemical fiber products. In 2017, there were 16,400 industrial enterprises in the country, and the industrial sector had a labor force of 131,100, accounting for 11.71% of the total labor force. In 2017, the total industrial output value was 1986.67 billion pesos, accounting for 11.71% of the GDP.
[Energy] The total energy consumption in 2017 was 4.639 million tons of oil equivalent, of which oil, electricity and wood charcoal accounted for 38.2%, 20.3% and 11.2% respectively. Crude oil is all dependent on imports, and in 2017, crude oil was imported at 536,000 tons. In 2017, the power generation was 14,400 GWh. In 2018, more than 98% of Uganda’s energy comes from renewable sources.
[Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery] Agriculture and animal husbandry play an important role in the national economy, and most of the agricultural and livestock products are exported. In 2017, the output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery was 87.574 billion pesos, accounting for 8.3% of GDP. The employed population of agriculture and animal husbandry accounts for 8.8% of the total employed population. In 2017, the country’s agricultural land was 16.63 million hectares, of which 2.14 million hectares were arable land. The area of animal husbandry is 6.467 million hectares and the number of pastures is 44,700. The export of traditional products such as meat, wool and leather accounts for 23.5% of the total export volume, making it the seventh largest rice exporter in the world.
[Tourism] The Ukrainian government attaches great importance to the development of tourism and tourism. Foreign tourists mainly come from neighboring countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Chile. Punta del Este and the capital, Montevideo, are major tourist destinations. In 2018, Uzbekistan received a total of 3.712 million foreign tourists, down 5.8% year-on-year, bringing foreign exchange income of 2.155 billion US dollars, down 7.7% year-on-year.
[Energy Environment] In 2007, the carbon dioxide emissions were 6.219 million tons, and the per capita annual emissions were 1.9 tons. The GDP per ton of carbon dioxide emissions was 0.25 tons.
[Transportation] The transportation industry is mainly road transportation, and most of it is controlled by the government.
Highway: The total length is 8742 kilometers, including 377 kilometers of cement road, 7599 kilometers of asphalt road and 800 kilometers of gravel road. In 2011, the number of motor vehicles in the country was 1.604 million and the number of cars produced was 13,900. In 2017, it sold 56,000 new cars.
Railway: The total mileage is 2,993 km. Except for the 11 km re-rail railway, the rest are narrow-gauge railways. In 2017, the national railway passenger traffic was 291,000 passengers and the cargo volume was 628,000 tons.
Water transport: Inland navigation is an important means of transportation, with a total length of 1,250 kilometers. The sea is not developed. The port of Montevideo is the largest port in Uruguay. In addition, there are ports such as Colonia, Passandu, Punta del Este, and Salto. In 2017, there were 4,442 vessels entering the port of Montevideo, with a cargo throughput of 63.493 million tons, a national port cargo throughput of 4.5537 million tons, and a passenger volume of 2.985 million passengers.
Air transport: The capital’s Carrasco International Airport is the largest airport in the country, with airports in Pasangdu, Rivera, Salto, Merlot, Artigas, Punta del Este and Durazno. In 2017, the national air passenger traffic was 2.25 million passengers and the freight volume was 26,000 tons.
[Financial Finance] In 2017, the balance of Ukrainian foreign debt was US$20.12 billion, and the foreign exchange reserve was US$15.473 billion. In 2017, the Ukrainian deficit accounted for 3.5% of GDP.
[Foreign trade] occupies an important position in the national economy, with total foreign trade accounting for about one-third of GDP. The Uzbek government has emphasized the use of foreign trade to promote economic development and adopt policies to encourage export and market diversification. In addition to strengthening economic and trade relations with the countries in the region, the current government is actively exploring the North American and Asia-Pacific markets. In 2018, the main export destinations of Uzbekistan were China, Brazil, the European Union and the United States; the main sources of imports were China, Brazil and Argentina. The main export products are pulp, soybeans, meat, dairy products, wood and rice; the main imported products are automobiles, clothing, shoes, plastics, auto parts and telephones.
In 2018, Uzbekistan’s foreign direct investment totaled 27 million U.S. dollars.
People’s life The domestic urbanization rate is relatively high. In 2017, the national urban population was 3,327,900, accounting for 95.2% of the total population; the rural population was 165,000, accounting for 4.8% of the total population. Social welfare is higher. The government provides welfare subsidies for unemployment, retirement, disability, women and children, work-related injuries, diseases, etc., and implements a 30-year retirement system. A significant portion of government spending is spent on culture, education and health. In 2018, the poverty rate was 8.1%; the extreme poverty rate was 0.1%.
In 2017, the national labor force accounted for 62.9% of the population over 14 years old.
The unemployment rate in 2018 was 7.76%. The number of people enjoying unemployment insurance in the country is 118,000.
In 2017, the birth rate was 13.1‰, the mortality rate was 9.4‰, and the natural population growth rate was 3.7‰. The average life expectancy is 77.55 years old, 72.9 years for men and 80.3 years for women.
In 2017, there were 12,700 doctors and 5,157 beds in the country. The average 275 residents had one doctor. The medical public expenditure accounted for 3.6% of the gross domestic product and the medical system coverage rate was 98.7%.
In 2017, the country used 1.137 million landlines and 5.392 million mobile phones.
In 2011, there were 1,398,800 residential houses in the country.
【军事】 实行志愿兵役制。服役期1—2年，可延长。现总兵力2.1万人，占人口的0.6%。其中陆军1.62万人，海军5403人，空军2984人，准军事部队（特警）920人。2017年国防经费开支为112.85亿比索，占国内生产总值的0.66%。自1992年起参加联合国维和行动，是十大维和人员派遣国之一，目前有2595名乌拉圭士兵在海外执行任务，约占拉美国家参加维和行动人数的40%。军队高级将领有：陆军司令克劳迪奥·费奥拉（Claudio Feola），海军司令卡洛斯·阿维莱拉上将（Carlos Abilleira），空军司令乌戈·马伦科准将（Hugo Marenco）。
[Military] Implement the voluntary military service system. The service period is 1-2 years and can be extended. The total strength is 21,000, accounting for 0.6% of the population. Among them, there are 16,200 Army, 5,403 Navy, 2,984 Air Force, and 920 Paramilitary (Special Police). In 2017, defense spending was 11.285 billion pesos, accounting for 0.66% of GDP. Since 1992, he has participated in UN peacekeeping operations and is one of the top ten peacekeepers. Currently, 2,595 Uruguayan soldiers are performing overseas missions, accounting for 40% of the number of U.S. residents participating in peacekeeping operations. Senior military generals include: Army Commander Claudio Feola, Naval Commander Carlos Abilleira, Air Force Commander Hugo Marenco.
[Culture Education] Education is well developed. A nine-year free compulsory education is implemented, and public universities and colleges are free of tuition fees. In 2015, the national illiteracy rate was 1.6%, and the rural population illiteracy rate was 3.1%. The population of universities and above is 10.8% of the total population. In 2017, Ukrainian education expenditure was US$81.449 billion, accounting for 4.8% of GDP. The Republic University in the capital is the largest public comprehensive university in the country with 22 departments. There are also five private universities, such as Montevideo University, Catholic University, University of Uruguay, and Entrepreneur University.
[News and Publishing] There are 374 kinds of newspapers and periodicals in the country, including 31 kinds of daily newspapers. The main newspapers are: “National Newspaper”, which was founded in 1918 and has a circulation of 100,000 copies. In addition, there are the “Republic of the Republic” and “Observer” and so on. In 2017, there were 4,798 national publications. In 2011, there were more than 100 radio stations and 20 TV stations nationwide.
Foreign relations Pursuing an independent foreign policy, emphasizing not drawing lines with political systems or ideology, advocating world multi-polarization and democratization of international relations, and strengthening South-South cooperation.
Diplomatic and pragmatic, actively participate in regional affairs, relying on the Southern Common Market, supporting the integration of South America and Latin America, focusing on developing traditional relations with the United States and EU countries, and attaching importance to expanding cooperation with Asia-Pacific countries including China.
He maintains diplomatic relations with 176 countries and has embassies in 49 of them. It is the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Union of South American Nations, the Latin American Integration Association, the Latin American Economic System, the Group of 77, the members of the Southern Common Market and the observers of the Non-Aligned Movement. 2016-2017 is a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.
[Relationship with other Latin American countries] Prioritize the development of relations with Latin American countries, especially with members of the MERCOSUR countries such as Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Actively participate in Latin American affairs, with the priority of the Southern Common Market and support the integration of South America and Latin America. Actively advocate strengthening regional cooperation to cope with financial market shocks and maintain regional economic stability. In February 2019, the first meeting of the International Contact Group on Venezuela was held in Uruguay. Uruguay joins other countries in establishing the “Montevideo Mechanism” and actively mediates the situation in Venezuela.
[Relationship with the United States] Since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1830, the United States has maintained traditional friendly relations. In 2007, US President Bush, Treasury Secretary Paulson, Commerce Secretary Gutierrez, Deputy Secretary of State Burns, and Assistant Secretary of State Shannon visited Uruguay respectively, and the two sides signed the Trade and Investment Framework Agreement. In December 2009, US and US Assistant Secretary of State for Hemisphere Affairs Valenzuela visited Ukraine. In March 2010, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton attended the handover ceremony of the U.S. President. In July, US Secretary of State for the Hemisphere Affairs Kelly visited Uzbekistan. In March 2011, Assistant Minister of the Western Hemisphere Affairs of the US Department of Defense Mora visited Uzbekistan to hold the first US-U.S. defense strategy dialogue. In 2012, Vice President Astoria and President of the National Assembly visited the United States. In May 2014, President Mujica visited the United States and held talks with President Obama. In July 2014, Uganda announced that it had received six suspects from the United States. Since the administration of Vazquez in March 2015, the relationship between Uzbe and U.S. has generally developed steadily. After Trump took office in January 2017, Uzbekistan expressed concern about the tendency of US trade protectionism.
[Relationship with the EU] Paying attention to maintaining traditional relations with the EU, but opposing the EU’s agricultural protectionist policies, and hopes to promote Uruguay’s diversification of EU export products through negotiations. From 2010 to 2014, President Mujica visited the European Union headquarters in Spain, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Finland, the Vatican and Brussels. Uganda, Switzerland, Spain, Malta and other countries signed an agreement to avoid double tariffs and extradition. In October 2015, President Vazquez visited France. In February 2017, President Vazquez visited Germany, Finland and Russia.