Niue 纽埃

【国名】纽埃(Niue)。

【面积】260平方公里。

【人口】1618人(2017年),另有约1.2万人居住在新西兰。属波利尼西亚人种。75%的居民信奉埃克利西亚纽埃教,10%信奉摩门教,5%信奉罗马天主教。通用纽埃语和英语。

【首都】阿洛菲(Alofi),居民约900人。

【国家元首】英国女王伊丽莎白二世。女王代表为新西兰总督,现任总督帕齐·雷迪(Patsy Reddy),2016年9月28日就职,任期5年。

【重要节日】宪法日(国庆日):10月19日。

【简史】1000多年前波利尼西亚人到此定居。1774年英国人发现纽埃岛。1900年成为英国“保护地”。1901年作为库克群岛的一部分归属新西兰。1904年单独设立行政机构。1974年实行内部自治,同新西兰保持自由联系。纽埃政府享有完全的行政权和立法权。应纽埃政府要求,新西兰政府可协助处理防务和外交事务。新西兰政府与纽埃政府互派高级专员。纽埃人同时享有纽埃和新西兰双重公民身份。

【议会】一院制。1984年3月31日成立立法议会。由20名议员和1名委任的议长组成。20名议员中,14名由14个村选区推选,其余6名由普选产生,任期3年。选举后产生的新一届议会首次会议通常由议长主持,从当选议员中选举出总理。本届议会于2017年5月选举产生,托克·塔拉吉(Toke Talagi)再度胜选连任,第四次出任总理。议长为托吉亚·皮希吉亚(Togiavalu Pihigia)。

【政府】本届政府内阁成员包括:总理兼内阁与立法、财政与发展计划、检察、公务员、警察与国家安全、燃料、内政与采矿、住房、海关、旅游、纽埃发展银行、纽埃邮政与钱币公司事务部长托克·塔拉吉;社会服务、司法、土地与统计、卫生、教育、体育和妇女事务、社区事务部长比利·塔拉吉(Billy Talagi);自然资源、农业、林业和渔业、气象、环境事务多尔顿·塔格拉吉(Dalton Tagelagi);基础设施、交通、通信、公共事务部长波科托亚·希佩利(Pokotoa Sipeli)。

【司法机构】设高级法院,有向新西兰高等法院上诉的权力。另设土地法院,处理土地纠纷。

【重要人物】托克·塔拉吉:总理。生于1951年1月,1975年毕业于新西兰梅西大学,获农业学学士学位,之后回国担任畜牧业官员。1981年起先后任纽埃驻新西兰奥克兰高专署总领事、纽埃经济事务办公室主任。1999年当选议员。2002年任负责财政、邮政、通讯、教育和环境等事务的副总理。2005年起任巡回大使和纽埃驻非加太-欧盟协定代表。2008年6月当选总理。2011年5月、2014年4月、2017年5月三度胜选连任。

【经济】自然资源贫乏。主要产业为农业、旅游业和渔业。经济上严重依靠新西兰援助和侨汇。人口外流严重。近年来,政府积极采取发展私营部门和旅游业、扩大出口及精简政府工作人员等措施发展经济。使用新西兰货币,1新元约合0.68美元(2019年1月)。2014年,国内生产总值(GDP)为2474万美元,人均GDP为1.7万美元。同年实现税收363万美元。

[Country name] Niue.

[Area] 260 square kilometers.

[Population] 1618 people (2017), and another 12,000 people live in New Zealand. It is a Polynesian race. 75% of the residents believe in Eklisia Niue, 10% believe in Mormonism, and 5% believe in Roman Catholicism. Universal Niue and English.

[Capital] Alofi, with about 900 residents.

[Head of State] Queen Elizabeth II of England. The Queen’s representative is the Governor of New Zealand, and the current Governor, Patsy Reddy, took office on September 28, 2016 for a five-year term.

[Important Festival] Constitution Day (National Day): October 19.

[A brief history] Polynesians settled here more than 1,000 years ago. In 1774 the British discovered Niue. In 1900, it became the British “protected place”. In 1901, it was part of the Cook Islands and belonged to New Zealand. In 1904, an administrative agency was established separately. Internal self-government was implemented in 1974, maintaining free contact with New Zealand. The Niue government enjoys full administrative and legislative power. At the request of the Niue government, the New Zealand government can assist in handling defense and foreign affairs. The New Zealand Government and the Niue Government exchanged high commissioners. The Niue people also enjoy dual citizenship in Niue and New Zealand.

[Parliament] a one-chamber system. The Legislative Assembly was established on March 31, 1984. It consists of 20 members and one appointed speaker. Of the 20 members, 14 were elected by 14 village constituencies and the remaining 6 were elected by universal suffrage for a term of three years. The first meeting of the new parliament, which emerged after the election, is usually chaired by the Speaker and the Prime Minister is elected from among the elected members. The current parliament was elected in May 2017, and Toke Talagi was re-elected for re-election and the fourth time as prime minister. The speaker is Togiavalu Pihigia.

[Government] The current government cabinet members include: Prime Minister and Cabinet and Legislation, Finance and Development Plan, Prosecution, Civil Service, Police and National Security, Fuel, Home and Mining, Housing, Customs, Tourism, Niue Development Bank, Niue Post Toke Talagi, Minister of Coin and Corporate Affairs; Billy Talagi, Minister of Social Services, Justice, Land and Statistics, Health, Education, Sports and Women’s Affairs, Community Affairs; Natural Resources, Agriculture, Forestry And fishery, meteorology, environmental affairs Dalton Tagelagi; Pokotoa Sipeli, Minister of Infrastructure, Transport, Communications, and Public Affairs.

[Judiciary] The High Court has the power to appeal to the New Zealand High Court. There is also a land court to deal with land disputes.

[Important] Tok Taraji: Prime Minister. Born in January 1951, he graduated from Massey University in New Zealand in 1975 with a bachelor’s degree in agriculture and then returned to China as an animal husbandry official. Since 1981, he has served as Consul General of the Niue High Commission in New Zealand and Director of the Niue Economic Affairs Office. Elected as a member in 1999. In 2002, he served as Deputy Prime Minister responsible for finance, postal, communications, education and the environment. Since 2005, he has served as the ambassador of the tour and the representative of Niue-ACP-EU. In June 2008, he was elected prime minister. In May 2011, April 2014, and May 2017, he was re-elected three times.

[Economy] Natural resources are poor. The main industries are agriculture, tourism and fisheries. Economically, it relies heavily on New Zealand aid and remittances. The outflow of the population is serious. In recent years, the government has actively adopted measures such as developing the private sector and tourism, expanding exports and streamlining government workers to develop the economy. In New Zealand currency, S$1 is approximately $0.68 (January 2019). In 2014, the gross domestic product (GDP) was $24.74 million and the per capita GDP was $17,000. In the same year, the tax revenue was 3.63 million US dollars.

【工业】有小型水果加工厂。年产锯木几百立方米,用于当地建设。

【农业】拥有可耕地2.1万公顷。主要产芋头、椰子、薯类和水果等。饲养家禽、猪和牛。

【旅游业】重视发展旅游业,将其作为促进经济发展的龙头。1996年设立旅游局,投资增设旅游点及旅店,目前共有1家酒店和若干小旅馆。2013年来访游客逾7000人,较上年增长40%。

【交通运输】公路全长128公里,1996年开通一条长38.2公里、贯穿全岛的柏油公路。丛林卡车道106公里。2005年10月,纽埃政府与新西兰航空公司签署协议,新航于2005年11月开始执行新纽埃通航。每周有一班往返阿洛菲和新西兰奥克兰的航班。哈南国际机场可降落波音737和767飞机。纽埃至新西兰、库克群岛和塔希提岛的航运业务由新西兰航运公司经营,每隔3至4周有往返于新纽埃的海运服务。小型的库克群岛集装箱船每月两次抵纽埃,此外还有一些不定期客轮。2013年3月,纽埃政府与新西兰航空公司签署协议,新航将在4月至10月的旅游旺季,每两周增加一班飞往纽埃的航班。

【对外贸易】主要贸易对象是新西兰。主要出口产品为鱼、芋头和蜂蜜,主要进口食品、饮料、机械和建筑材料。2011年,纽埃出口额29.1万美元,进口额1176万美元。

【外国援助】纽埃宪法规定,新西兰有义务向纽埃提供援助,新西兰是纽埃最大援助国,援助额占纽GDP50%以上,主要援助领域为旅游、卫生、教育、林业及私营部门。新西兰2015/2016财年对纽埃援助2250万新元,2016/17财年对纽埃援助1380万新元,2018/19财年对纽埃援助预算1461万新元。纽还接受澳大利亚、日本、欧盟、中国、印度、韩国、联合国开发计划署等国家和国际组织的援助。2004年1月,纽埃遭受历史上最强烈的飓风袭击,受灾情况严重。澳大利亚、新西兰、中国、法国、法属波利尼西亚和欧盟都提供了援助。2014年1月,欧盟、澳大利亚及全球环境基金共同援助的5000个储水罐项目完工。

【文化教育】

【教育】对5-14岁儿童实行义务教育。有1所小学和1所中学(含高中)。教师主要从当地挑选,每年还从新西兰或其他国家聘请15-20位教师。目前,纽埃学校引进新西兰课程设置,其高中教育受到新西兰教育认证机构的承认。

[Industrial] There is a small fruit processing factory. The annual output of sawn wood is several hundred cubic meters for local construction.

[Agriculture] has 21,000 hectares of arable land. It mainly produces taro, coconut, potato and fruit. Raise poultry, pigs and cattle.

[Tourism] Pay attention to the development of tourism as a leader in promoting economic development. In 1996, the Tourism Bureau was set up to invest in tourist spots and hotels. There are currently one hotel and several small hotels. In 2013, there were more than 7,000 visitors, an increase of 40% over the previous year.

[Transportation] The total length of the highway is 128 kilometers. In 1996, an asphalt road with a length of 38.2 kilometers and running through the whole island was opened. The Jungle Truck Road is 106 km. In October 2005, the Niue government signed an agreement with Air New Zealand, and Singapore Airlines began implementing the new Niue Airways in November 2005. There is a weekly flight to and from Alofi and Auckland, New Zealand. The Boeing 737 and 767 aircraft can be landed at Hanan International Airport. The shipping operations in Niue to New Zealand, Cook Islands and Tahiti are operated by the New Zealand Shipping Company and there is a maritime service to and from New Niue every three to four weeks. Small Cook Islands container ships arrive in Niue twice a month, in addition to some irregular passenger ships. In March 2013, the Niue government signed an agreement with Air New Zealand. Singapore Airlines will increase its flight to Niue every two weeks during the tourist season from April to October.

[Foreign Trade] The main trade target is New Zealand. The main export products are fish, taro and honey, mainly imported food, beverage, machinery and building materials. In 2011, Niue’s exports amounted to US$291,000 and imports amounted to US$11.76 million.

[Foreign Aid] The Niue Constitution stipulates that New Zealand is obliged to provide assistance to Niue. New Zealand is Niue’s largest donor. The amount of aid accounts for more than 50% of New Zealand’s GDP. The main areas of assistance are tourism, health, education, forestry and the private sector. New Zealand’s FY15/FY16 assistance to Niue was S$22.5 million, with assistance to Niue for S$13.8 million in FY 2016/17 and S$14.41 million for Niue’s aid budget for FY18/19. New Zealand also receives assistance from countries and international organizations such as Australia, Japan, the European Union, China, India, South Korea, and the United Nations Development Program. In January 2004, Niue was hit by the strongest hurricane in history and the situation was severe. Assistance was provided by Australia, New Zealand, China, France, French Polynesia and the European Union. In January 2014, 5,000 water storage tank projects jointly assisted by the European Union, Australia and the Global Environment Facility were completed.

[Culture Education]

[Education] Compulsory education for children aged 5-14. There is 1 elementary school and 1 middle school (including high school). Teachers are mainly selected locally, and 15-20 teachers are hired each year from New Zealand or other countries. Currently, Niue School introduces New Zealand curriculum and its high school education is recognized by the New Zealand Education Certification Body.

【新闻出版】政府新闻处出版英文和纽埃文周刊《托希塔拉纽埃》。纽埃广播公司为政府所有,下设“阳光”广播电台和纽埃电视台,纽埃电视台主要播放新西兰电视节目。1998年,纽埃建成第一家电影院。

【卫生】实行免费医疗,医疗费用由新西兰资助。有1所医院和1个牙医诊所。

【军事】根据1974年《宪法法案》,新西兰负责纽埃国防事务,但须征得纽埃政府同意。新西兰皇家空军定期在纽埃专属经济区巡逻。

【对外关系】纽埃不是联合国成员国。纽埃同新西兰保持自由联系。如纽埃要求,新西兰有义务帮助纽埃处理其外交事务。新西兰和纽埃互派高级专员,新西兰设在纽埃的高专署系唯一的驻纽埃外交机构。新西兰也是纽埃唯一设立驻外代表机构的国家,纽埃分别在惠灵顿设立高专署、在奥克兰设立总领事馆。2004年4月、8月,纽埃总理维维安分别出席在奥克兰举行的太平洋岛国论坛特别首脑会议、在萨摩亚召开的太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。10月,新西兰总理克拉克访问纽埃。11月,纽埃总理维维安赴比利时出席欧盟-非加太议会全体会议和环境会议。2005年1月,纽埃总理维维安出席在日本举行的国际减灾会议并向东南亚海啸受灾国捐款2.5万新元。4月,纽埃总理维维安访问斐济并与斐方达成互用对方领空的协议。2006年5月、6月,纽埃总理维维安分别赴冲绳和巴黎出席第四届“日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议”和第二届“法国-大洋洲峰会”,8月,纽埃总理维维安应邀出席新西兰总督萨特亚南德的就职典礼并访新。10月,纽埃总理维维安赴斐济出席第37届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2007年4月,新西兰总督萨特亚南德访问纽埃。2008年7月、10月,纽埃总理塔拉吉两次访问新西兰。8月,第39届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议和会后对话会在纽埃召开。10月,新西兰总理克拉克赴纽埃出席纽埃宪法日庆祝活动。2009年2月,纽埃总理塔拉吉访问日本,与日本首相麻生太郎会晤。5月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在日本北海道召开的“日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议”。7月,新西兰总理约翰·基访问纽埃。12月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在丹麦哥本哈根举行的联合国气候变化大会。2010年8月,纽埃总理塔拉吉赴瓦努阿图出席第41届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。10月,太平洋岛国论坛经济部长会议在纽埃召开。纽埃总理塔拉吉就新西兰克赖斯特彻奇市地震向新捐赠4.3万美元援助款。2011年3月,太平洋气候变化圆桌会议在纽埃召开。5月、9月,纽埃总理兼外交部长塔拉吉分别赴韩国、新西兰出席首届韩国—太平洋岛国外交部长会议和第42届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。11月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在夏威夷举行的太平洋岛国领导人会议。2012年5月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在日本冲绳举行的日本-太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。8月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在库克群岛举行的第43届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。2013年3月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在新西兰奥克兰举行的太平洋能源峰会。2014年6月,新西兰总理约翰·基访问纽埃,与塔拉吉总理会谈,宣布新方将为纽埃旅游发展和可再生能源项目提供135万新元无偿援助,并与塔吉克总理共同为刚修缮的纽埃机场候机楼剪彩。8月,纽埃总理塔拉吉出席在帕劳举行的第45届太平洋岛国论坛首脑会议。9月,纽埃总理塔拉吉赴萨摩亚出席联合国第三届小岛屿发展中国家国际会议。11月,纽埃总理塔拉吉赴新喀里多尼亚参加法国总统奥朗德同部分太平洋岛国领导人的会晤。同月,纽埃总理塔拉吉赴斐济苏瓦参加印度总理莫迪同太平洋岛国领导人会晤。2015年2月,纽埃总理塔拉吉访问新西兰。10月,新西兰外长麦卡利访问纽埃。2017年3月,新西兰总督雷迪访问纽埃。6月,新西兰总理英格利希访问纽埃。同月,纽埃代表在汤加签署《太平洋更紧密经济关系协定》。2018年3月,新西兰总理阿德恩访问纽埃。

纽埃不是联合国成员国,是联合国教科文组织、世界卫生组织、世界粮农组织、太平洋岛国论坛、太平洋共同体、南太旅游组织、太平洋岛国论坛渔业局的成员及英联邦准成员国。2000年,纽埃签署科托努协定(前身为洛美协定)。2002年,纽埃加入《太平洋紧密经济关系协定》。2008年12月,纽埃决定加入联合国碳平衡网络。2009年4月,纽埃在太平洋岛国能源部长会议期间签署地区燃料合作协定。2012年4月,纽埃签署《全面禁止核试验条约》。

[Press and Publication] The Information Office of the Government published the English and New Haven weekly “Toshitala Niue”. Niue Broadcasting Corporation is owned by the government. It has “Sunshine” radio stations and Niue TV stations. Niue TV stations mainly broadcast New Zealand TV programs. In 1998, Niue built the first cinema.

[Health] Free medical care is provided, and medical expenses are funded by New Zealand. There is 1 hospital and 1 dental clinic.

[Military] According to the 1974 Constitution Act, New Zealand is responsible for the defense of Niue, but with the consent of the Niue government. The Royal New Zealand Air Force regularly patrols the Niue exclusive economic zone.

[External Relations] Niue is not a member of the United Nations. Niue maintains free contact with New Zealand. As Niue asked, New Zealand has an obligation to help Niue deal with its foreign affairs. New Zealand and Niue exchanged high commissioners, and New Zealand’s high-ranking office in Niue was the only diplomatic agency in Niue. New Zealand is also the only country in Niue that has established a representative office abroad. Niue has set up a high-tech office in Wellington and a consulate general in Auckland. In April and August 2004, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian attended the Pacific Summit Forum special summit in Auckland and the Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Samoa. In October, New Zealand Prime Minister Clark visited Niue. In November, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian went to Belgium to attend the EU-ACP parliamentary plenary meeting and environmental conference. In January 2005, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian attended the International Conference on Disaster Reduction held in Japan and donated S$25,000 to the tsunami-affected countries in Southeast Asia. In April, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian visited Fiji and reached an agreement with Fiji to exchange the other’s airspace. In May and June 2006, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian went to Okinawa and Paris to attend the 4th “Japan-Pacific Island Countries Summit” and the 2nd “France-Oceania Summit”. In August, Niue’s Prime Minister Wei An was invited to attend the inauguration ceremony of New Zealand Governor Satyanand and visit the new. In October, Niue’s Prime Minister Vivian went to Fiji to attend the 37th Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In April 2007, New Zealand Governor Satyanand visited Niue. In July and October 2008, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji visited New Zealand twice. In August, the 39th Pacific Islands Forum Summit and post-conference dialogue was held in Niue. In October, New Zealand Prime Minister Clarke went to Niue to attend the celebration of the Constitution Day of Niue. In February 2009, Niue’s Prime Minister Talaj visited Japan and met with Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso. In May, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji attended the “Japan-Pacific Island Countries Summit” held in Hokkaido, Japan. In July, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key visited Niue. In December, Niue Prime Minister Taraji attended the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark. In August 2010, Niue Prime Minister Taraji went to Vanuatu to attend the 41st Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In October, the Pacific Islands Forum Economic Ministers Meeting was held in Niue. Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji donated $43,000 in aid to the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand. In March 2011, the Pacific Climate Change Roundtable was held in Niue. In May and September, Niue Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Taraji went to South Korea and New Zealand to attend the first Korea-Pacific Island Countries Foreign Ministers Meeting and the 42nd Pacific Islands Forum Summit. In November, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji attended the Pacific Island Leaders’ Meeting in Hawaii. In May 2012, Niue Prime Minister Taraji attended the Japan-Pacific Island Countries Summit in Okinawa, Japan. In August, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji attended the 43rd Pacific Islands Forum Summit in the Cook Islands. In March 2013, Niue Prime Minister Taraji attended the Pacific Energy Summit in Auckland, New Zealand. In June 2014, New Zealand Prime Minister John Key visited Niue and met with Prime Minister Taraji, announcing that the new party will provide NZ$1.35 million in free assistance for the Niue Tourism Development and Renewable Energy Project, and together with Prime Minister Tajik The repaired Niue Airport terminal is cut. In August, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji attended the 45th Pacific Islands Forum Summit in Palau. In September, Prime Minister Tulaji of Niue went to Samoa to attend the Third International Conference of Small Island Developing States. In November, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji went to New Caledonia to attend the meeting between French President Hollande and some Pacific island leaders. In the same month, Niue’s Prime Minister Taraji went to Suva, Fiji, to attend the meeting between Indian Prime Minister Modi and the leaders of the Pacific island countries. In February 2015, Niue Prime Minister Talaj visited New Zealand. In October, New Zealand Foreign Minister McAlely visited Niue. In March 2017, New Zealand Governor Reddy visited Niue. In June, New Zealand Prime Minister Inglich visited Niue. In the same month, the Niue representative signed the Pacific Closer Economic Relations Agreement in Tonga. In March 2018, New Zealand Prime Minister Adeen visited Niue.

Niue is not a member of the United Nations. It is a member of UNESCO, the World Health Organization, the World Food and Agriculture Organization, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community, the South Pacific Tourism Organization, the Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Bureau and the Associate Commonwealth Member States. In 2000, Niue signed the Cotonou Agreement (formerly the Lomé Agreement). In 2002, Niue joined the Pacific Compact Economic Relations Agreement. In December 2008, Niue decided to join the UN Carbon Balance Network. In April 2009, Niue signed a regional fuel cooperation agreement during the Pacific Island Countries Energy Ministers Meeting. In April 2012, Niue signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.