Nepal 尼泊尔

【国名】 尼泊尔 (Nepal)

【面积】 147181平方公里

【人口】 约2898万(2016年)。尼泊尔语为国语,上层社会通用英语。多民族、多宗教、多种姓、多语言国家。居民86.2%信奉印度教,7.8%信奉佛教,3.8%信奉伊斯兰教,2.2%信奉其他宗教。

【首都】 加德满都 (Kathmandu),海拔约1400米,常住人口约500万。月平均最高气温 29℃(7月),月平均最低气温2℃(1月)。

【国家元首】 总统比迪亚·德维·班达里(Bidya Devi Bhandari),2015年10月28日当选,是尼泊尔历史上首位女性元首。2018年3月14日,班达里总统再次连任。

【重要节日】 共和日:5月28日。国庆日:9月20日。德赛节(Dashain):又称大德赛节(Bara Dashain)、十胜节(Vijaya Dashami),是民间最大节日,在10月,共15天,全国放假7天。

【自然条件】 南亚内陆山国,位于喜马拉雅山南麓,北邻中国,其余三面与印度接壤。全国分北部高山、中部温带和南部亚热带三个气候区。北部冬季最低气温为-41℃,南部夏季最高气温为45℃。

【简史】 13世纪初,马拉王朝兴起,大力推行印度教。1768年,沙阿王朝崛起并统一全国。1846年,拉纳家族依靠英国支持夺取军政大权,并获世袭首相地位,使国王成为傀儡。1950年,尼人民掀起声势浩大的反对拉纳家族专政的群众运动和武装斗争。特里布文国王恢复王权,结束拉纳家族统治,实行君主立宪制。1960年,马亨德拉国王取缔政党,实行无党派评议会制。1990年,尼爆发大规模“人民运动”,比兰德拉国王被迫恢复君主立宪。2001年,比兰德拉国王在王室血案中遇害,比胞弟贾南德拉继位。2005年,贾在解散政府后亲政。主要政党结成“七党联盟”,与尼共(毛主义)联手反对国王,并于2006年通过第二次“人民运动”推翻国王统治。2008年,尼举行制宪会议选举,选后产生的制宪会议宣布成立尼泊尔联邦民主共和国。

[Country name] Nepal (Nepal)

[Area] 147,181 square kilometers

[Population] About 28.98 million (2016). Nepalese is the national language and the upper class is the common English. Multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-name, multi-lingual countries. 86.2% of residents believe in Hinduism, 7.8% believe in Buddhism, 3.8% believe in Islam, and 2.2% believe in other religions.

[Capital] Kathmandu, about 1,400 meters above sea level, has a resident population of about 5 million. The monthly average maximum temperature is 29°C (July), and the monthly average minimum temperature is 2°C (January).

[Head of State] President Bidya Devi Bhandari, elected on October 28, 2015, is the first female head of state in Nepal’s history. On March 14, 2018, President Bandaari was re-elected.

[Important Festival] Republic Day: May 28th. National Day: September 20. Dashain: Also known as the Bara Dashain and the Vijaya Dashami, it is the largest festival in the private sector. In October, it was 15 days and the national holiday was 7 days.

[Natural conditions] The inland mountain country of South Asia is located in the southern foothills of the Himalayas, bordering China to the north and the other three sides bordering India. The country is divided into three climatic zones: the northern high mountain, the central temperate zone and the southern subtropical zone. The northern minimum winter temperature is -41 °C, and the southern summer maximum temperature is 45 °C.

[A brief history] At the beginning of the 13th century, the Mala Dynasty rose and vigorously promoted Hinduism. In 1768, the Shah Dynasty rose and unified the country. In 1846, the Lana family relied on Britain to support the seizure of military and political power, and was given the status of a hereditary prime minister, making the king a shackle. In 1950, the Nigerian people set off a massive mass movement and armed struggle against the dictatorship of the Lana family. King Tribhuvan restored the kingship, ending the Rana family rule and implementing the constitutional monarchy. In 1960, King Mahendra banned political parties and implemented a non-partisan parliamentary system. In 1990, a large-scale “people’s movement” broke out in Nepal, and King Bandra was forced to restore constitutional monarchy. In 2001, King Birendra was killed in the royal bloody case, and he was succeeded by his brother, Gianandra. In 2005, Jia was pro-government after dissolving the government. The main political parties formed a “seven-party alliance”, joined forces with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) to oppose the king, and in 2006 passed the second “people’s movement” to overthrow the king’s rule. In 2008, Nigeria held a Constituent Assembly election, and the Constituent Assembly, which was elected after the election, announced the establishment of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

【政治】 1996年,尼共(毛主义)宣布退出议会,开展人民战争。2001年发生“王室血案”,比兰德拉国王等王室成员遇害,比的胞弟贾南德拉登基。此后,贾南德拉国王解散议会,并于2005年亲政。2006年,尼主要政党组成的“七党联盟”与尼共(毛)联合发起反国王街头运动。国王妥协,宣布恢复议会。随后,议会通过宣言,剥夺国王权力。2006年11月,政党政府与尼共(毛)签署《全面和平协议》,宣布结束11年的武装冲突。2007年,议会颁布临时宪法,组建包含尼共(毛)的临时议会,成立包含尼共(毛)的临时政府。2008年首届制宪会议选举普拉昌达为尼泊尔共和国时代的首任总理,拉姆·巴兰·亚达夫为首任总统,苏巴斯·内姆旺为制宪会议主席。此后,马达夫·库马尔·尼帕尔、贾拉·纳特·卡纳尔、巴布拉姆·巴特拉伊、基尔·拉杰·雷格米、苏希尔·柯伊拉腊先后当选总理。

2015年9月20日,尼泊尔正式颁布新宪法,10月,比迪亚·德维·班达里、卡·普·夏尔马·奥利、昂萨莉·加尔蒂·马嘎分别当选总统、总理和议长。2016年8月,普拉昌达当选为尼总理。2017年6月,大会党主席谢尔·巴哈杜尔·德乌帕接替普拉昌达任总理。2017年,尼分别于5月、6月和9月举行地方议会选举。10月15日,尼议会解散。尼于11月和12月分两阶段举行省级议会和联邦议会众议院选举,于2018年2月举行联邦议会联邦院选举。2018年2月15日,卡·普·夏尔马·奥利再次就任总理。3月,比迪亚·德维·班达里连任总统。克里希纳·巴哈杜尔·马哈拉当选为众议院议长。加内什·普拉萨德·蒂米尔西纳当选为联邦院主席。

【宪法】 2015年9月,尼泊尔颁布新宪法。新宪法确定尼为联邦民主共和国;将全国划分为7个联邦省;总统为礼仪性国家元首和军队统帅,总理由议会多数党领袖担任;联邦议会实行两院制,由联邦院和众议院组成;2016年1月,尼泊尔议会通过宪法第一修正案,将选举划分等条款的基本原则由比例包容制变为人口比例第一、兼顾包容原则。

【议会】 尼泊尔新宪法颁布后,制宪会议自动转化为立法议会。2017年10月,尼立法议会解散。2017年11月至2018年2月,尼分阶段举行联邦议会众议院和联邦院选举。众议院议长为马哈拉,联邦院主席为蒂米尔西纳。

[Politics] In 1996, the Communist Party (Maoist) announced its withdrawal from the parliament and the people’s war. In 2001, the “royal blood case” occurred, and the royal family members such as King Randra, were killed, and the younger brother of the family, Gyanendra, was enthroned. Since then, King Gyanendra dissolved the parliament and pro-governed in 2005. In 2006, the “Seven-Party Alliance” composed of the main political parties of Nepal and the Communist Party of Nepal (Mao) jointly launched the anti-King street movement. The king compromised and announced the restoration of the parliament. Subsequently, the parliament passed a declaration depriving the king of power. In November 2006, the political party government and the CPN (Mao) signed the “Comprehensive Peace Agreement”, announcing the end of 11 years of armed conflict. In 2007, the parliament issued an interim constitution to form an interim parliament containing the CPN (Mao) and an interim government containing the CPN (Mao). The first Constitutional Convention in 2008 elected Prachanda as the first prime minister of the Republic of Nepal, Ram Balan Yadav as the first president, and Subas Nemwang as the chairman of the Constitutional Convention. Since then, Madhav Kumar Nipal, Jala Nat Kanal, Babram Batrai, Kiel Raj Jetham, Suhir Koirala Elected to the prime minister.

On September 20, 2015, Nepal officially promulgated a new constitution. In October, Bidia Devi Bandari, Kapu Sharma Oli and Onsali Garty Ma Rong were elected presidents respectively. Prime Minister and Speaker. In August 2016, Prachanda was elected Prime Minister of Nepal. In June 2017, the chairman of the General Assembly, Shel Bahadur Deuba, succeeded Prachanda as Prime Minister. In 2017, Nepal held local council elections in May, June and September. On October 15, the Nigerian parliament was dissolved. In November and December, Nepal held provincial and parliamentary parliamentary elections in two phases, and in February 2018, the federal parliamentary federal elections were held. On February 15, 2018, Kapu Sharma Olli became the Prime Minister again. In March, Bidia Devi Bandari was re-elected as president. Krishna Bahadur Mahara was elected as Speaker of the House of Representatives. Ganesh Prasad Tamil Sina was elected president of the Federal Academy.

[Constitution] In September 2015, Nepal enacted a new constitution. The new constitution determines that the country is a federal democratic republic; the country is divided into seven federal provinces; the president is the ceremonial head of state and the army commander, the prime minister is the leader of the parliamentary majority; the federal parliament is bicameral, composed of the federal and the House of Representatives; 2016 In January, the Nepali parliament passed the First Amendment of the Constitution, changing the basic principles of the provisions such as electoral division from proportional and inclusive to the first in the population and the principle of tolerance.

[Parliament] After the promulgation of the new Nepalese Constitution, the Constitutional Convention was automatically transformed into a Legislative Assembly. In October 2017, the Nigerian Legislative Assembly was dissolved. From November 2017 to February 2018, the federal parliamentary House of Representatives and the Federal Court were elected. The Speaker of the House of Representatives is Mahara, and the President of the Federal Court is Tamil Sina.

【政府】目前,尼内阁共有22名成员:总理奥利(Mr.K P Sharma Oli),副总理兼国防部长博克瑞尔(Mr.Ishwor Pokhrel),副总理兼人口与卫生部长亚达夫(Mr.Upendra Yadav),内政部长塔帕(Mr.Ram Bahadur Thapa),外交部长贾瓦利(Mr.Pradeep Kumar Gyawali),能源、水资源与灌溉部长普恩(Mr.Bashar Man Pun),教育与科技部长博克瑞尔(Mr.Giriraj Mani Pokhrel),工业、商业与供应部长亚达夫(Mr.Matrika Prasad Yadav),基础设施与交通部长马哈塞特(Mr.Raghubir Mahaseth),劳工与社会保障部长比斯塔(Mr.agaokarna Bista),森林与环境部长巴斯内特(Mr.Shakti Bahadur Basnet),城市发展部长拉伊(Mr.Mohamed Istiyak Rai),联邦事务与总行政部长潘迪特(Mr.Lal Babu Pandit),妇女、儿童与老年人部长塔帕(Ms.Tham Maya Thapa),财政部长卡蒂瓦达(Mr.Yuba Raj Khatiwada),青体部长比什瓦卡马(Mr.Jagat Bishwokarma),文化、旅游与民航部长阿迪卡里(Mr.Rabindra Adhikari),法律、司法与议会事务部长达卡尔(Mr.Bhanubhakta Dhakal),农业、土地管理与合作部长阿里亚尔(Ms. Padma Kumari Aryal),饮水部长马加尔(Ms.Bina Magar),信息技术与通讯部长巴斯科塔(Mr.Gokul Prasad Baskota)等。

【行政区划】新宪法规定全国分7个联邦省。

【司法机构】新宪法规定尼法院分为三级:最高法院、高级法院和地方法院。

【重要人物】比迪亚·德维·班达里,女,尼泊尔总统,1961年生。早年投身反对国王专制统治学生运动,加入尼泊尔共产党(联合马列),多次当选尼共(联)中央委员。其丈夫马丹·库马尔·班达里(Madan Kumar Bhandari)是尼泊尔共产党(马列)创始人之一,著名马克思主义理论家,先后担任尼共(马列)和尼共(联)总书记。他提出的人民多党民主思想成为尼共(联)主要理论。马丹于1993年在车祸中去世。比迪亚1997年任环境与人口部长,2009年任国防部长,成为尼历史上首个女防长。2014年当选尼共(联)副主席。2015年10月28日当选尼总统,2018年3月连任。

卡·普·夏尔马·奥利,男,尼泊尔总理,1952年生。1970年加入尼泊尔共产党。因反抗国王统治和印度干涉,受到国王当局和印方打压,多次被捕入狱。曾担任尼泊尔王国政府内政大臣、过渡政府副首相兼外交大臣。2015年10月当选总理。2016年7月辞职。2018年2月再次当选总理。5月,同尼泊尔共产党(毛中心)主席普拉昌达共同担任尼泊尔共产党联合主席。

普拉迪普·库马尔·贾瓦利,男,尼泊尔外长,1962年生。1978年加入尼泊尔共产党。1997年任尼共(联)中央委员,先后负责党校和议会事务工作。1999年当选议员。2006-2007年担任文化、旅游与民航部长。2014年在尼共(联)九大上当选尼共(联)中央书记处书记。2017年在联邦众议院选举中当选议员。2018年3月就任外长。

【主要政府网站】总统府https://www.presidentofnepal.gov.np/

总理府 https://www.opmcm.gov.np/

政府官方网站 http://www.nepal.gov.np/

外交部 https://mofa.gov.np/

[Government] At present, the Nepalese cabinet has 22 members: Prime Minister Oliv (Mr. KP Sharma Oli), Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister Mr. Ishwor Pokhrel, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Population and Health Yadav (Mr .Upendra Yadav), Interior Minister Mr. Ram Bahadur Thapa, Foreign Minister Mr. Pradeep Kumar Gyawali, Minister of Energy, Water Resources and Irrigation Mr. Bashar Man Pun, Education and Technology Minister Mr. Giriraj Mani Pokhrel, Minister of Industry, Commerce and Supply Mr. Matrika Prasad Yadav, Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Mr. Raghubir Mahaseth, Minister of Labour and Social Security Mr. agaokarna Bista, Minister of Forests and Environment Mr. Shakti Bahadur Basnet, Minister of Urban Development Mr. Mohamed Istiyak Rai, Minister of Federal Affairs and General Administration Pandit (Mr .Lal Babu Pandit), Ms.Tham Maya Thapa, Minister of Women, Children and Senior Citizens, Mr. Yuba Raj Khatiwada, Minister of Finance, Minister of Green Body, Mr.Jagat Bish Wokarma), Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation, Mr. Rabindra Adhikari, Minister of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Mr. Bhanubhakta Dhakal, Minister of Agriculture, Land Management and Cooperation, Ms. Padma Kumari Aryal), Minister of Drinking Water Ms. Bina Magar, Minister of Information Technology and Communications, Mr. Gokul Prasad Baskota.

[Administrative Division] The new constitution stipulates that the country is divided into seven federal provinces.

[Judiciary] The new constitution stipulates that the Nigerian court is divided into three levels: the Supreme Court, the High Court and the District Court.

[Important figures] Bidia Devi Bandari, female, Nepalese president, born in 1961. In the early years, he joined the movement against the king’s autocratic rule, joined the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marx), and was elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. His husband, Madan Kumar Bhandari, is one of the founders of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist), a famous Marxist theoretician who served as general secretary of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) and the Communist Party of Nepal. The multi-party democratic thinking he proposed was the main theory of the Communist Party of China. Madan died in a car accident in 1993. Bidia was the Minister of Environment and Population in 1997 and the Minister of Defence in 2009, becoming the first female defense chief in the history of Nepal. In 2014, he was elected vice chairman of the Communist Party of China. On October 28, 2015, he was elected President of Nepal and re-elected in March 2018.

Kapu Sharma Oli, male, Prime Minister of Nepal, born in 1952. Joined the Communist Party of Nepal in 1970. Rebellious against the king’s rule and Indian interference, he was suppressed by the king’s authorities and the Indian side and was arrested and imprisoned several times. He served as Minister of the Interior of the Royal Government of Nepal, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Transitional Government. In October 2015, he was elected prime minister. Resigned in July 2016. In February 2018, he was re-elected as Prime Minister. In May, he co-chaired the Communist Party of Nepal with the Chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (Mao Center) Prachanda.

Pradeep Kumar Jawali, male, Nepalese Foreign Minister, born in 1962. Joined the Communist Party of Nepal in 1978. In 1997, he served as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (NLD) and was responsible for party school and parliamentary affairs. Elected as a member in 1999. From 2006 to 2007, he served as Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. In 2014, he was elected secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (NLD) at the Nine National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In 2017, he was elected as a member of the House of Representatives election. In March 2018, he became the foreign minister.

[Main government website] Presidential Office https://www.presidentofnepal.gov.np/

Prime Minister’s Office https://www.opmcm.gov.np/

Government official website http://www.nepal.gov.np/

Ministry of Foreign Affairs https://mofa.gov.np/

【政党】有70多个党派,主要包括:

(1)尼泊尔共产党(Nepal Communist Party):由尼泊尔共产党(联合马列)和尼泊尔共产党(毛主义中心)于2018年5月合并而成。指导思想为马克思列宁主义和以社会主义为导向的人民多党民主。现任联合主席为尼总理、原尼共(联)主席卡·普·夏尔马·奥利(K P Sharma Oli)和原尼共(毛中心)主席普什帕·卡迈勒·达哈尔(普拉昌达)(Puspa Kamal Dahal“Prachanda”)。

(2)尼泊尔大会党 (Nepali Congress) :1947年1月成立。主张巩固多党民主,建立民族团结并保持相互信任与合作,坚持不结盟。1999年7月,组建中央工作委员会,主席吉里贾·普拉萨德· 柯伊拉腊(Girija Prasad Koirala)。2002年6月,谢尔·巴哈杜尔·德乌帕(Sher Bahadur Deuba)成立大会党(民主)并自任主席,大会党分裂。2007年9月,大会党与大会党(民主)合并为大会党。现任主席为谢尔·巴哈杜尔·德乌帕 (Sher Bahadur Deuba)。

【经济】 农业国,经济落后,世界上最不发达国家之一。上世纪90年代初起,开始实行以市场为导向的自由经济政策,但由于政局多变和基础设施薄弱,收效不彰。严重依赖外援,预算支出四分之一来自外国捐赠和贷款。2017/2018财年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:293亿美元

人均国内生产总值:1003.6美元

国内生产总值增长率:5.89%

货币名称:尼泊尔卢比(Nepalese Rupee)

汇率:1美元=113卢比

(注:尼泊尔财政年度起于上年度7月16日,止于下年度7月15日。)

[Party] has more than 70 parties, including:

(1) Nepal Communist Party: formed by the merger of the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marx) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Center) in May 2018. The guiding ideology is Marxism-Leninism and socialist-oriented multi-party democracy. The current co-chairman is Prime Minister of Nepal, former Chairman of the Commonwealth (United Nations), KP Sharma Oli, and former Chairman of the Commonwealth (Mao Center), Pushpa Kamal Dahar ( Prashang Kamal Dahal “Prachanda”).

(2) Nepali Congress Party (Nepali Congress): Established in January 1947. It advocates consolidating multi-party democracy, building national unity and maintaining mutual trust and cooperation, and persisting in non-alignment. In July 1999, the Central Working Committee was formed, and the chairman, Girija Prasad Koirala. In June 2002, Sher Bahadur Deuba established the Congress Party (Democracy) and assumed the chairmanship. The Congress Party split. In September 2007, the Congress Party and the Congress Party (democracy) merged into the Congress Party. The current chairman is Sher Bahadur Deuba.

[Economy] The agricultural country, the economy is backward, and one of the least developed countries in the world. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the implementation of a market-oriented free economic policy has begun, but due to the political situation and weak infrastructure, the results have not been effective. Relying heavily on foreign aid, a quarter of the budget expenditure comes from foreign donations and loans. The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $29.3 billion

Per capita GDP: $1003.6

GDP growth rate: 5.89%

Currency Name: Nepalese Rupee

Exchange rate: 1 USD = 113 rupees

(Note: The fiscal year of Nepal starts on July 16 of the previous year and ends on July 15 of the following year.)

【资源】有铜、铁、铝、锌、磷、钴、石英、硫磺、褐煤、云母、大理石、石灰石、菱镁矿、木材等,均只得到少量开采。水力资源丰富,水电蕴藏量为8300万千瓦,约占世界水电蕴藏量2.3%。其中经济和技术上开发可行的装机容量约为4200万千瓦。

【工业】基础薄弱,规模较小,机械化水平低,发展缓慢,以轻工业和半成品加工为主,主要有制糖、纺织、皮革制鞋、食品加工、香烟和火柴、黄麻加工、砖瓦生产和塑料制品等。

【农业】农业人口占总人口约80%。耕地面积为325.1万公顷。主要种植大米、甘蔗、茶叶盒烟草等农作物,粮食自给率达97%。

【旅游业】地处喜马拉雅山南麓,自然风光旖旎,气候宜人,徒步旅游和登山业比较发达。赴尼旅游的主要为亚洲游客,其中以印度、中国游客居多,其次为西欧和北美游客。

【交通运输】 以公路和航空为主。截至2016年,公路约29157公里,有各类机场56个,直升机停机坪约120个。除首都有一国际机场外,其余为地区中心或小规模机场。全国有一家国营的尼泊尔航空公司、6家私营航空公司和一家私营直升飞机公司。国内主要城镇有班机通航。同中国、印度、巴基斯坦、泰国、孟加拉国、文莱、新加坡、阿拉伯联合酋长国、德国和英国等国家和地区通航。

【对外贸易】主要贸易伙伴有印度、美国、中国、欧盟等。主要进口商品是煤、石油制品、羊毛、药品、机械、电器、化肥等,主要出口商品是蔬菜油、铜线、羊绒制品、地毯、成衣、皮革、农产品、手工艺品等。

【外国援助】主要援助国和国际组织是:美国、英国、日本、印度、挪威、中国、世界银行、亚洲开发银行、联合国和欧盟等。

【医疗卫生】全国有公立医院100余所,1100多个医疗站,2600多个村级医疗站,200多个初级保健中心,110余家私立医院。公立医院医生约2000人,注册护士为11000多名。最大的公立医院是加德满都的比尔医院(Bill Hospital),最大的私立医院是加德满都的诺维克医院(Norvic International Hospital)

【军事】只有陆军,参谋长为普尔纳·昌德拉·塔帕上将(General Purna Chandra Thapa )。实行志愿兵役制,士兵服役期均为17年。总兵力约10万人,下辖8个师、19个旅、1个兵种部和3个兵种局。现有警察7.2万人、武警部队3.6万人。

【教育】 现行教育体制分为初等、中等和高等三级。初等教育为5年(小学),中等教育为7年,包括初级中等教育3年(初中),中级中等教育2年和高级中等教育2年。高等教育为8年,包括本科3年、硕士2年、博士3年。尼泊尔实行10年免费教育制,学费全面。截至2016年,尼共有公立初级和中等教育学校约3.5万所,在校学生约97.3万人;公立的综合及专科高等教育机构13所,在校学生40.6万人。总受教育率为65.94%。

尼泊尔共有9所综合性大学:特里布文大学、马亨德拉梵文大学、加德满都大学、博克拉大学、普尔阪查尔大学、尼泊尔梵文大学、兰毗尼佛教大学、中西部大学、远西部大学、农业和林业大学。

[Resources] There are copper, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, cobalt, quartz, sulfur, lignite, mica, marble, limestone, magnesite, wood, etc., all of which are only mined in small quantities. It is rich in water resources, with a hydropower reserve of 83 million kilowatts, accounting for 2.3% of the world’s hydropower reserves. Among them, the economically and technically feasible installed capacity is about 42 million kilowatts.

[Industry] The foundation is weak, the scale is small, the level of mechanization is low, and the development is slow. It is mainly processed by light industry and semi-finished products, mainly including sugar, textile, leather shoes, food processing, cigarettes and matches, jute processing, brick production and Plastic products, etc.

[Agriculture] The agricultural population accounts for about 80% of the total population. The area of ​​cultivated land is 3.251 million hectares. Mainly planting rice, sugar cane, tea box tobacco and other crops, the food self-sufficiency rate reached 97%.

[Tourism] Located in the southern foothills of the Himalayas, the natural scenery is beautiful and the climate is pleasant. The hiking and mountaineering industries are relatively developed. The main tourist destinations in Nepal are Asian tourists, with Indian and Chinese tourists, followed by Western European and North American tourists.

[Transportation] Mainly by road and aviation. As of 2016, the highway is about 29,157 kilometers, with 56 airports of various types and about 120 helicopter aprons. Except for the international airport, the capital is the regional center or small-scale airport. There is a state-owned Nepal Airlines, six private airlines and a private helicopter company. There are flights in major cities and towns in China. It is open to navigation with countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Brunei, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, Germany and the United Kingdom.

[Foreign Trade] The main trading partners are India, the United States, China, and the European Union. The main imported commodities are coal, petroleum products, wool, pharmaceuticals, machinery, electrical appliances, fertilizers, etc. The main export commodities are vegetable oil, copper wire, cashmere products, carpets, garments, leather, agricultural products, handicrafts, etc.

[Foreign Aid] The main donor countries and international organizations are: the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, India, Norway, China, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations and the European Union.

[Medical and Health] There are more than 100 public hospitals in the country, more than 1,100 medical stations, more than 2,600 village-level medical stations, more than 200 primary health care centers, and more than 110 private hospitals. There are about 2,000 doctors in public hospitals and more than 11,000 registered nurses. The largest public hospital is Bill Hospital in Kathmandu. The largest private hospital is the Norvic International Hospital in Kathmandu.

[Military] Only the Army, the chief of staff is General Purna Chandra Thapa. The voluntary military service system was implemented and the soldiers served for 17 years. The total strength is about 100,000 people. It has 8 divisions, 19 brigades, 1 arms department and 3 arms bureaus. There are 72,000 police officers and 36,000 armed police forces.

[Education] The current education system is divided into three levels: elementary, middle and high. Primary education is 5 years (primary school), secondary education is 7 years, including junior secondary education for 3 years (junior high school), intermediate secondary education for 2 years and advanced secondary education for 2 years. Higher education is 8 years, including 3 years of undergraduate, 2 years of master’s degree, and 3 years of doctoral degree. Nepal has a 10-year free education system with comprehensive tuition fees. As of 2016, there are about 35,000 public primary and secondary education schools in Nigeria, with a student base of about 973,000; 13 public and specialized higher education institutions with 406,000 students. The total education rate is 65.94%.

There are 9 comprehensive universities in Nepal: Tribhuvan University, Mahendra Sanskrit University, Kathmandu University, Pokhara University, Pul Sangchar University, Nepal Sanskrit University, Lumbini Buddhist University, Midwest University, Far West University, University of Agriculture and Forestry.

【新闻出版】 注册发行报刊约6000余种,其中日报500余份。尼泊尔语报刊占90以上,其次是英语、印地语。发行量最大的两份日报均为官方报纸:《廓尔喀报》,尼泊尔语,1902年创刊;《新兴尼泊尔报》,英语,1965年创刊。此外还有《加德满都邮报》、《喜马拉雅时报》、《共和报》、《康提普尔》等多种日报。

尼泊尔国家通讯社为官方通讯社,成立于1962年4月。

尼泊尔广播电台为唯一官方电台,成立于1951年,用尼泊尔语、英语、尼瓦尔语和印地语广播。此外,尼还有4家私人调频电台。

尼泊尔电视台创建于1984年,1985年12月28日在首都开播,自2006年起实现全天24小时播出。尼共有30多家电视台获准开办,近20家开始播送节目。

【对外关系】 奉行平等、互利、相互尊重和不结盟的外交政策,主张在和平共处五项原则基础上同世界各国发展友好关系,截至2018年11月,已同163个国家建交。高度重视发展同中、印两大邻国友好关系。重视加强同美、英等西方国家关系,争取经援和投资。积极推动南亚区域合作联盟发展,加德满都为南盟秘书处所在地。2016年3月,成为上海合作组织对话伙伴国。2018年8月,举办第四届环孟加拉湾多领域经济技术合作倡议(BIMSTEC)峰会。

【同中国的关系】参见“中国尼泊尔双边关系”

【同印度的关系】1947年6月两国正式建交。印是尼最大贸易伙伴和重要援助国,尼印实行开放边界。2010年1月,印外长克里希纳访尼。2月,尼泊尔总统亚达夫访印。2011年1月,尼泊尔总统亚达夫再次访印。2011年10月,尼泊尔总理巴特拉伊访印。2012年12月,尼总统亚达夫访印。2014年5月,尼泊尔总理柯伊拉腊参加印度新任总理莫迪就职典礼。2014年,印度总理莫迪两度访尼。2015年9月,尼新宪法颁布后,印度收紧边境管控,造成尼国内物资严重短缺,尼印关系紧张。2016年1月,尼议会通过新宪法修正案,部分满足反对派诉求。印度对修正案表示欢迎,逐步放松对尼禁运。2016年2月尼泊尔总理奥利访印,尼印关系初步转圜。2016年5月,尼总统取消访印,尼政府召回驻印大使,尼印关系再次陷入僵局。2016年8月,尼泊尔总理派副总理兼内政部长尼迪作为总理特使访印。2016年9月,尼外长马哈特访印,尼总理普拉昌达访印,尼印关系逐步缓和。2016年11月,印度总统慕克吉对尼国事访问,这是印度总统近18年来对尼泊尔的首次访问。2017年4月尼泊尔总统班达里对印度进行国事访问。8月,尼泊尔总理德乌帕访问印度。2018年2月,印度外长斯瓦拉吉访尼。2018年4月,尼总理奥利访印。2018年5月,印总理莫迪访尼。2018年8月,印总理莫迪赴尼出席第四届环孟加拉湾多领域经济技术合作倡议(BIMSTEC)峰会。

【同美国的关系】1947年4月,尼美建交并签订友好和商务条约。近年来,美国代理助理国务卿帮办柯什普、副国务卿奥特罗、助卿帮办柯勒门茨、副国务卿舍曼、副国务卿布林肯、助理国务卿帮办威尔斯等高官相继访尼。2018年12月,尼外长贾瓦利正式访问美国,同美国务卿蓬佩奧举行会谈。

【同联合国的关系】2007年1月,安理会通过关于尼问题的决议,成立驻尼政治特派团(UNMIN),协助尼各方推进和平进程。UNMIN历经数次延期,于2011年1月撤离。尼泊尔积极参加联合国维和行动,截至2017年8月,尼军共有4500余人参与维和行动,是联合国维和行动第6大出兵国。

[Press and Publication] About 6,000 kinds of newspapers and periodicals have been registered, including more than 500 daily newspapers. Nepalese newspapers account for more than 90, followed by English and Hindi. The two daily newspapers with the largest circulation are official newspapers: Gurkha, Nepali, which was founded in 1902; Emerging Nepalese, English, started in 1965. In addition, there are various daily newspapers such as the Kathmandu Post, the Himalayan Times, the Republican, and Kandy Poole.

The National News Agency of Nepal was established as an official news agency in April 1962.

Nepal Radio is the only official radio station, founded in 1951 and broadcast in Nepali, English, Nival and Hindi. In addition, there are 4 private FM stations in Nigeria.

Nepal TV was founded in 1984 and broadcasted in the capital on December 28, 1985. It has been broadcast 24 hours a day since 2006. More than 30 TV stations have been approved to operate, and nearly 20 have started broadcasting programs.

[External Relations] Pursuing a foreign policy of equality, mutual benefit, mutual respect and non-alignment, it advocates developing friendly relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. By November 2018, it has established diplomatic relations with 163 countries. We attach great importance to the development of friendly relations with China and India. Attach importance to strengthening relations with the United States, Britain and other Western countries, and strive for economic aid and investment. Actively promote the development of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Kathmandu is the seat of the SAARC Secretariat. In March 2016, it became a partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In August 2018, the 4th BAMTEC Summit on the Multi-Domestic Economic and Technological Cooperation (BIMSTEC) was held.

[Relationship with China] See “China-Nepal Bilateral Relations”

[Relationship with India] In June 1947, the two countries formally established diplomatic relations. India is the largest trading partner and important donor of Nepal, and India and India implement an open border. In January 2010, Indian Foreign Minister Krishna visited Nepal. In February, Nepalese President Yadav visited India. In January 2011, Nepalese President Yadav visited India again. In October 2011, Nepalese Prime Minister Batraj visited India. In December 2012, Nepali President Yadav visited India. In May 2014, Nepalese Prime Minister Koirala participated in the inauguration ceremony of India’s new Prime Minister Modi. In 2014, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Nepal twice. In September 2015, after the promulgation of the Nisshin Constitution, India tightened border control, resulting in a serious shortage of domestic supplies in Nigeria and tension between Nigeria and India. In January 2016, the Nigerian Parliament passed a new constitutional amendment to partially satisfy the opposition demands. India welcomed the amendment and gradually relaxed the embargo on Nepal. Nepalese Prime Minister Olli visited India in February 2016, and the relationship between Nepal and India was initially changed. In May 2016, President Nie canceled his visit to India and the Nigerian government recalled the ambassador to India. The relationship between Nepal and India has once again reached a deadlock. In August 2016, Nepal’s Prime Minister sent Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, Nidi, as the special envoy of the Prime Minister to visit India. In September 2016, Foreign Minister Mahat visited India and Prime Minister Prachanda visited India. The relationship between Nepal and India has gradually eased. In November 2016, Indian President Mukherjee paid a visit to Nigeria. This is the first visit of the Indian President to Nepal in the past 18 years. In April 2017, Nepalese President Bundari paid a state visit to India. In August, Nepalese Prime Minister Deuba visited India. In February 2018, Indian Foreign Minister Swaraj visited Nepal. In April 2018, Prime Minister Olli visited India. In May 2018, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Nepal. In August 2018, Indian Prime Minister Modi went to Nepal to attend the Fourth BIMSTEC Summit.

[Relationship with the United States] In April 1947, Niamey established diplomatic relations and signed a friendship and business treaty. In recent years, US Assistant Secretary of State Assistant Secretary Ke Shipu, Deputy Secretary of State Otello, Assistant Secretary Clermans, Deputy Secretary of State Sherman, Deputy Secretary of State Brinken, Assistant Secretary of State Assistant to Wells and other senior officials have visited Nepal. In December 2018, Foreign Minister Jawali officially visited the United States and held talks with US Secretary of State Pompeo.

[Relationship with the United Nations] In January 2007, the Security Council adopted a resolution on the Nigerian issue and established the UNMIN Political Mission (UNMIN) to assist the Nepalese parties in advancing the peace process. UNMIN has been postponed several times and was withdrawn in January 2011. Nepal actively participated in UN peacekeeping operations. As of August 2017, the Nepalese army had more than 4,500 people participating in peacekeeping operations and was the sixth largest troop contributor to UN peacekeeping operations.