Negara Brunei Darussalam 文莱达鲁萨兰国

【国 名】 文莱达鲁萨兰国(Negara Brunei Darussalam)。

【面 积】 5765平方公里。

【人 口】 42.13万(2017年)。其中马来人占65.8%,华人占10.2%,其他种族占24%。

【语言和宗教】 马来语为国语,通用英语,华人使用华语较广泛。伊斯兰教为国教,其他还有佛教、基督教等。

【首 都】 斯里巴加湾市(Bandar Seri Begawan),位于文莱-摩拉区,面积100.36平方公里,人口约14万。从17世纪起成为文莱首都,原称“文莱城”,1970年10月4日改为现名。

【行政区划】 全国划分为4个区:文莱-摩拉区(Brunei-Muara)、马来奕区(Belait)、都东区(Tutong)、淡布隆区(Temburong)。

【国家元首】 苏丹· 哈吉·哈桑纳尔·博尔基亚·穆伊扎丁·瓦达乌拉(Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah),1967年10月5日继位。

[Country name] Negara Brunei Darussalam.

[area] 5,765 square kilometers.

[People] 42.13 million (2017). Among them, Malays accounted for 65.8%, Chinese accounted for 10.2%, and other ethnic groups accounted for 24%.

[Language and Religion] Malay is a national language, general English, and Chinese are widely spoken in Chinese. Islam is a state religion, and others include Buddhism and Christianity.

[City Capital] Bandar Seri Begawan, located in the Brunei-Mora area, covers an area of 100.36 square kilometers and has a population of about 140,000. It became the capital of Brunei since the 17th century and was originally called “Brunei City”. It was changed to its current name on October 4, 1970.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into four districts: Brunei-Muara, Belait, Tutong, and Temburong.

[Head of State] Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah, succeeded on October 5, 1967.

【重要节日】 独立日:1月1日。国庆日:2月23日。苏丹哈吉·哈桑纳尔·博尔基亚的生日:7月15日。文莱是穆斯林国家,开斋节是其最盛大的节日,每年日期根据伊斯兰历而定。

【简 况】 位于加里曼丹岛西北部,北濒南中国海,东南西三面与马来西亚的沙捞越州接壤,并被沙捞越州的林梦分隔为东西两部分。海岸线长约162公里,有33个岛屿,沿海为平原,内地多山地。属热带雨林气候,终年炎热多雨。年均气温28°C。

古称浡泥。14世纪中叶伊斯兰教传入,建立苏丹国。16世纪初国力处于最强盛时期。16世纪中期起,葡萄牙、西班牙、荷兰、英国等相继入侵。1888年沦为英国保护国。1941年被日本占领。1946年英国恢复对文莱控制。1971年与英国签约,获得除外交和国防事务外的自治。1984年1月1日完全独立。

【政 治】 文莱自1984年1月1日独立之日起即正式宣布“马来伊斯兰君主制”(MIB)为国家纲领。其内涵为:国家维护马来语言、文化和风俗主体地位,在全国推行伊斯兰法律和价值观,王室地位至高无上。该纲领将伊斯兰教确认为文莱国教,反对政教分离。

【宪 法】 1959年9月29日颁布第一部宪法。1971年和1984年曾二度修宪。宪法规定,苏丹为国家元首和宗教领袖,拥有立法、行政和司法等全部国家权力。国家设有五个委员会,即宗教委员会(Religious Council)、枢密委员会(Privy Council)、行政委员会(Executive Council)、立法委员会(Legislative Council)及王位继承委员会(Council of Succession),协助苏丹理政。2004年第三次修宪,内容涉及政体、司法、宗教、民俗等多个方面,共13项内容,包括赋予苏丹无须经立法会同意而自行颁布紧急法令等法令的权利;制定选举法令,让人民参选从政;伊斯兰教为国教,但人民有宗教信仰自由;以马来语作为官方语言,英语可作为法庭办案语言等。

[Important Festival] Independence Day: January 1. National Day: February 23. The birthday of Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah: July 15. Brunei is a Muslim country and Eid al-Fitr is its most grand festival, with annual dates depending on the Islamic calendar.

[Profile] It is located in the northwest of Kalimantan Island, bordering on the South China Sea in the north, and bordering Sarawak in Malaysia on the southeast and west sides. It is divided into two parts by the forest dream of Sarawak. The coastline is about 162 kilometers long and has 33 islands. The coast is plain and the interior is mountainous. It has a tropical rainforest climate and is hot and rainy all year round. The annual average temperature is 28 °C.

The ancient name is mud. In the middle of the 14th century, Islam was introduced and the Sultanate was established. At the beginning of the 16th century, national power was at its strongest. Since the mid-16th century, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom have successively invaded. In 1888 he became a British protectorate. It was occupied by Japan in 1941. In 1946 the British resumed control of Brunei. Signed a contract with the United Kingdom in 1971 to gain autonomy in addition to diplomatic and defense affairs. Completely independent on January 1, 1984.

[Politics] Brunei officially declared the “Malay Islamic Monarchy” (MIB) as a national program since its independence on January 1, 1984. Its connotation is: the state maintains the status of Malay language, culture and customs, and promotes Islamic law and values ​​throughout the country, and the status of the royal family is supreme. The program recognizes Islam as Brunei’s state religion and opposes the separation of church and state.

[Constitution] The first constitution was promulgated on September 29, 1959. In 1971 and 1984, the constitution was revised twice. The Constitution stipulates that the Sudan is the head of state and religious leader and has all state powers such as legislation, administration and justice. The state has five committees, the Religious Council, the Privy Council, the Executive Council, the Legislative Council and the Council of Succession, which assist the Sudanese government. In the third revision of the Constitution in 2004, it covered 13 aspects including polity, justice, religion, folklore, etc., including the right to grant the Sudan a decree such as an emergency decree without the consent of the Legislative Council; The people are elected to politics; Islam is the state religion, but the people have freedom of religious belief; Malay is the official language, and English can be used as a court case language.

【议 会】 1962年曾举行选举。1970年取消选举,议员改由苏丹任命。1984年2月,苏丹宣布终止立法会,立法以苏丹圣训方式颁布。2017年1月,苏丹任命本届立法会议员。议长拉赫曼获得连任,议员包括苏丹、王储兼首相府高级部长比拉等内阁成员、各区县代表及社会贤达共38人。

【政 府】 1988 年12月1日,苏丹宣布组成政府。1989年1月、2005年5月、2010年5月、2015年10月和2018年1月,苏丹对内阁进行改组。

现内阁成员如下:苏丹兼任首相、国防部长、财政与经济部长及外交部长,王储兼首相府高级部长比拉(Crown Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah),苏丹特别顾问兼首相府部长丕显·拿督伊萨(Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Setia Bakti Di-Raja Dato Laila Utama Haji Awang Isa bin Pehin Datu Perdana Manteri Dato Laila Utama Haji Awang Ibrahim),内政部长阿布·巴卡尔(Pehin Orang Kaya Seri Kerna Dato Seri Setia (Dr) Haji Awang Abu Bakar bin Haji Apong),宗教事务部长巴达鲁丁(Pehin Udana Khatib Dato Paduka Seri Setia Ustaz Haji Awang Badaruddin bin Pengarah Dato Paduka Haji Awang Othman),初级资源与旅游部长阿里(Dato Seri Setia Haji Ali bin Haji Apong),国防部第二部长哈尔比(Pehin Datu Lailaraja Major General (Rtd) Dato Paduka Seri Haji Awang Halbi bin Haji Mohd Yussof),卫生部长伊山姆(Dato Paduka Dr Haji Mohd Isham bin Jaafar),首相府部长莫克提(Dato Seri Paduka Awang Haji Abdul Mokti bin Haji Mohd Daud),首相府部长兼财政与经济部第二部长刘光明(Dato Seri Paduka Dr Awang Haji Mohd Amin Liew bin Abdullah),外交部第二部长艾瑞万(Dato Seri Paduka Haji Erywan bin Pehin Datu Pekerma Jaya Haji Mohd Yusof),发展部长苏海米(Dato Seri Paduka Awang Haji Suhaimi bin Haji Gafar),首相府能源与工业部长马特·苏尼(Dato Paduka Dr. Awang Haji Mat Suny bin Haji Mohd Hussein),教育部长哈姆扎(Dato Paduka Awang Haji Hamzah bin Haji Sulaiman),交通部长穆塔里布(Abdul Mutalib bin Pehin Orang Kaya Seri Setia Dato Paduka Haji Yusof),文化、青年与体育部长阿米努丁·伊哈山(Major General (Rtd) Dato Paduka Seri Haji Aminuddin Ihsan bin Pehin Orang Kaya Saiful Mulok Dato Seri Paduka Haji Abidin)。另有5名副部长。

【司法体制】 文莱司法体系以英国习惯法为基础。一般刑事案件在推事庭或中级法院审理,较严重的案件由高级法院审理,民事案件最终可上诉至英国枢密院。最高法院由上诉法院和高级法院组成,现任首席大法官基弗拉维(Dato Seri Paduka Awang Haji Kifrawi bin Dato Paduka Haji Kifli),是文首位本土培养的大法官。此外设伊斯兰法庭,处理违反伊斯兰教义的案件。现任伊斯兰法庭首席法官为阿卜杜勒·哈密德(Datuk Abdul Hamid Mohamed)。文自2014年5月起开始实施伊斯兰刑法,至2016年仍处于处理普通案件的第一阶段。总检察署审查通过伊斯兰刑事诉讼法一年后进入第二阶段。现任总检察长哈雅提(Datin Seri Paduka Hajah Hayati binti Pehin Orang Kaya Shahbandar Dato Seri Paduka Haji Mohd Salleh),系文首位女检察长。

[Meetings] In 1962, elections were held. The election was abolished in 1970 and the members were appointed by the Sudan. In February 1984, the Sudan announced the termination of the Legislative Council, which was enacted in the form of the Hadith of the Sudan. In January 2017, the Sudan appointed the current Legislative Council. Speaker Rahman was re-elected, including members of the Cabinet of Sudan, the Crown Prince and Prime Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office, Bira, and representatives from various districts and counties and 38 members of the community.

[Government] On December 1, 1988, Sudan announced the formation of the government. In January 1989, May 2005, May 2010, October 2015 and January 2018, the Sudan reorganized the cabinet.

The current cabinet members are as follows: Sudan is also the prime minister, defense minister, finance and economic minister and foreign minister, Crown Prince and senior minister of the Prime Minister’s Office, Crown Prince Haji Al-Muhtadee Billah, Sudanese Special Adviser and Prime Minister of the Prime Minister, Datuk Datuk Pesin Orang Kaya Laila Setia Bakti Di-Raja Dato Laila Utama Haji Awang Isa bin Pehin Datu Perdana Manteri Dato Laila Utama Haji Awang Ibrahim, Interior Minister Pehin Orang Kaya Seri Kerna Dato Seri Setia (Dr) Haji Awang Abu Bakar bin Haji Apong), Minister of Religious Affairs Pehin Udana Khatib Dato Paduka Seri Setia Ustaz Haji Awang Badaruddin bin Pengarah Dato Paduka Haji Awang Othman, Minister of Primary Resources and Tourism Dato Seri Setia Haji Ali bin Haji Apong), Deputy Minister of Defense, Pehin Datu Lailaraja Major General (Rtd) Dato Paduka Seri Haji Awang Halbi bin Haji Mohd Yussof), Minister of Health Dato Paduka Dr Haji Mohd Isham bin Jaafar, Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office Dato Seri Paduka Awa Ng Haji Abdul Mokti bin Haji Mohd Daud), Minister of Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Economy, Dato Seri Paduka Dr Awang Haji Mohd Amin Liew bin Abdullah, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dato Seri Paduka Haji Erywan Bin Pehin Datu Pekerma Jaya Haji Mohd Yusof), Development Minister Dato Seri Paduka Awang Haji Suhaimi bin Haji Gafar, Prime Minister of Energy and Industry Minister Dato Paduka Dr. Awang Haji Mat Suny bin Haji Mohd Hussein), Minister of Education Dato Paduka Awang Haji Hamzah bin Haji Sulaiman, Minister of Transport Abdul Mutalib bin Pehin Orang Kaya Seri Setia Dato Paduka Haji Yusof, Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports Aminuddin · Major General (Rtd) Dato Paduka Seri Haji Aminuddin Ihsan bin Pehin Orang Kaya Saiful Mulok Dato Seri Paduka Haji Abidin). There are also 5 deputy ministers.

[Judicial System] The Brunei judicial system is based on English common law. General criminal cases are heard in the adjudicating court or the intermediate court. The more serious cases are heard by the higher courts, and the civil cases can eventually be appealed to the British Privy Council. The Supreme Court is composed of the Court of Appeal and the High Court. The current Chief Justice, Dato Seri Paduka Awang Haji Kifrawi bin Dato Paduka Haji Kifli, is the first local judge to be trained. In addition, an Islamic court is set up to deal with cases that violate Islamic teachings. The current Chief Justice of the Islamic Court is Datuk Abdul Hamid Mohamed. The article began to implement the Islamic Penal Code in May 2014 and is still in the first stage of handling ordinary cases until 2016. The General Prosecutor’s Office reviewed the adoption of the Islamic Criminal Procedure Law and entered the second phase one year later. The current Attorney General Datin Seri Paduka Hajah Hayati binti Pehin Orang Kaya Shahbandar Dato Seri Paduka Haji Mohd Salleh is the first female prosecutor.

【重要人物】 苏丹·哈吉·哈桑纳尔·博尔基亚:苏丹、国家元首、首相兼国防部长、财政与经济部长、外交部长、皇家武装部队最高统帅、五星级上将和皇家警察部队总督察。掌握立法权。1946年7月15日生于斯里巴加湾市。幼年在国内受宫廷教育,1959年就读于吉隆坡维多利亚学院(中学)。1961年被封为王储。1966年在英国皇家圣赫斯特陆军学院受训,获上尉军衔。1967年10月5日在其父退位后继任第29世苏丹,翌年8月1日加冕。

阿尔穆塔迪·比拉王储:系苏丹与苏丹后长子。1974年2月17日生于斯里巴加湾市。早年在国内受宫廷教育,曾在文莱理工大学、文莱大学和英国牛津大学学习伊斯兰教、文莱历史、政治、经济、文化和外交课程。后到文莱政府部门和企业广泛学习,以了解文莱国情和政府部门运作,培养治国理政的能力和经验。1998年8月被封为王储。2004年3月被封为皇家武装部队四星上将。2004年7月与王室宗亲之女萨拉完婚。2005年5月被任命为文莱皇家警察部队副总督察,同年5月内阁改组时被任命为首相府高级部长。2018年1月内阁改组,比拉继续担任该职务。

【经 济】 文莱经济以石油天然气产业为支柱,非油气产业均不发达,主要有制造业、建筑业、金融业及农、林、渔业等。最近几年,由于油气产量下降,文莱经济增长出现停滞,而国际原油价格下滑更使文经济雪上加霜。2017年,文实现国内生产总值(GDP)183.8亿文币(约合141.3亿美元),同比增长1.3%。这是文经济在连续4年负增长后首次回升。

在其他经济指标方面,文首相府经济规划与发展局报告显示,2017年文失业人数为19200人。2017年通货膨胀率-0.2%。

为摆脱单一经济束缚,近年来文政府大力发展油气下游产业、伊斯兰金融及清真产业、物流与通讯科技产业、旅游业等,加大对农、林、渔业以及基础设施建设投入,积极吸引外资,推动经济向多元化方向发展。

2016年,为加快吸引外资,进一步加快经济多元化发展,文莱政府进行了一系列改革,新设了一站式服务平台,优化缩减各项行政审批、决策流程。新成立了达鲁萨兰企业 (DARe),并设立外国直接投资行动与支持中心(FAST Center),为外国投资者提供更全面、快速的服务。

文莱货币为文莱元,与新加坡元实行1:1汇率挂钩,1美元约合1.35文元(2019年1月)。

[Important figures] Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah: Sudan, Head of State, Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, Minister of Finance and Economy, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Supreme Commander of the Royal Armed Forces, Five-Star Admiral and Royal Chief Inspector of the Police Force. Master the legislative power. Born on July 15, 1946 in the city of Bandar Seri Begawan. He was courted in the country at an early age and studied at the Victoria College (Secondary School) in Kuala Lumpur in 1959. In 1961 was sealed as the Crown Prince. In 1966, he was trained at the Royal St. Hurst Army College in the United Kingdom and was awarded the rank of captain. On October 5, 1967, after his father abdicated, he succeeded to the 29th Sultan, and was crowned on August 1 of the following year.

Crown Prince Almutadi Bila: The eldest son of Sudan and Sudan. Born on February 17, 1974 in the city of Bandar Seri Begawan. In the early years, he was educated in court in the country. He studied Islamic, Brunei history, politics, economics, culture and diplomacy at Brunei University of Technology, Brunei University and Oxford University. Afterwards, I went to the Brunei government departments and enterprises to learn extensively to understand the national conditions of Brunei and the operation of government departments, and to cultivate the ability and experience of governing the country. In August 1998, he was named Crown Prince. In March 2004, he was named a four-star general of the Royal Armed Forces. In July 2004, she married the daughter of the royal family. In May 2005, he was appointed Deputy Chief Inspector of the Royal Brunei Police Force. In May of the same year, he was appointed as the Senior Minister of the Prime Minister’s Office when the cabinet was reorganized. In January 2018, the cabinet was reorganized and Bira continued to hold the position.

[Economics] Brunei’s economy is dominated by the oil and gas industry, and the non-oil and gas industries are underdeveloped, mainly manufacturing, construction, finance, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. In recent years, due to the decline in oil and gas production, Brunei’s economic growth has stagnated, and the decline in international crude oil prices has made the economy even worse. In 2017, the text achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of 18.38 billion coins (about 14.13 billion US dollars), an increase of 1.3%. This is the first time that the Wen economy has rebounded after four consecutive years of negative growth.

In terms of other economic indicators, the report of the Prime Minister’s Office of Economic Planning and Development shows that the number of unemployed people in 2017 was 19,200. The inflation rate in 2017 was -0.2%.

In order to get rid of the single economic constraints, in recent years, the Chinese government has vigorously developed oil and gas downstream industries, Islamic finance and halal industries, logistics and communication technology industries, tourism, etc., increased investment in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and infrastructure construction, and actively attracted foreign investment. Promote the development of the economy in a diversified direction.

In 2016, in order to accelerate the attraction of foreign investment and further accelerate the diversified economic development, the Brunei government has carried out a series of reforms, and established a one-stop service platform to optimize and reduce various administrative approval and decision-making processes. The newly established Darussalan Enterprise (DARe) and the establishment of the FAST Center provide a more comprehensive and fast service for foreign investors.

The Brunei currency is Brunei dollar, which is pegged to the Singapore dollar by a 1:1 exchange rate, which is equivalent to 1.35 yuan (January 2019).

【工 业】 文工业基础薄弱,经济结构单一,主要以石油和天然气开采与生产为主。根据2017《BP世界能源统计年鉴》,截至2016年底,文莱已探明石油储量为11亿桶;天然气储量为3000亿立方米,均占全球总量的0.1%。文莱政府一方面积极勘探新油气区,另一方面对油气开采奉行节制政策。近年来,文莱石油日产量控制在20万桶以下,是东南亚第三大产油国;天然气日产量在3000万立方米左右,为世界第四大天然气生产国。

【农、林、渔业】 农业基础薄弱。2016年,在苏丹的高度重视下,文政府提出了完成稻米产量自给并实现出口的战略目标。目前,中国、菲律宾、新加坡、韩国、泰国等国企业不同程度参与了文水稻种植项目试验。

文森林覆盖率为72.11%,其中森林约占陆地面积一半。文限制森林砍伐和原木出口,实行“砍一树、种四树”和每年10万立方米限额伐木政策,主要满足国内市场需要。

文有162公里海岸线,渔业资源丰富,但渔业产值占国内生产总值不足1%,国内市场需求50%依靠进口。文政府鼓励外资进入,与本地公司开展渔业养殖合作。

【旅游业】 旅游业是文莱近年大力发展的优先领域之一。文莱政府采取多项鼓励措施吸引游客赴文旅游,主要旅游景点有水村、王室陈列馆、清真寺、淡布隆国家森林公园等。2017年文国际旅客约25.9万人次。

【交通运输】 公路:截至2017年底,总长为3674.2公里。2016年6月,中国公司在文承建的特里塞—鲁木高速公路建成通车,全长18.6公里。主要居民点都有现代化道路网联通,是世界上拥有私车比例较高国家之一。公共交通不发达。

水运:摩拉深水港占地24公顷,码头长861米,泊位8个,吃水深12.5米,另有一个87米长的集料码头,年吞吐量超过10万个集装箱。斯里巴加湾市有93米长的商业码头,141米长的海军和政府船舶使用的泊位和40米长的旅客码头。马来奕港可停靠2条船,有744平米的货仓,1837平米的露天存货场。另有诗里亚和卢穆特两港口主要供石油与天然气出口用。

空运:首都斯里巴加湾市有国际机场。文莱皇家航空公司有客机十余架,每周有多个航班直达东盟国家、澳大利亚、中东、中国(香港、上海、杭州、南宁)等国家和地区。此外,与中国东方航空公司、香港航空公司等航空公司开通了代码共享航线。2013年10月1日,新航运大厅建成。2014年底,机场能容纳的旅客数量升至300万人次。

【对外贸易】 主要出口原油、石油产品和液化天然气,进口机器和运输设备、工业品、食物、药品等。据文莱官方统计,2017年文莱进出口贸易总额119.68亿文元,同比上升14%。其中出口77.12亿文元,同比上升13.6%;进口42.56亿文元,同比上升15.4%。文主要贸易伙伴为日本、韩国、马来西亚、泰国和新加坡。大宗出口产品是原油和天然气,主要出口市场为日本、韩国、印度。主要进口来源地为中国、新加坡、马来西亚和美国。

【军 事】 1961年5月31日建立文莱马来兵团,1965年5月更名为文莱皇家军团。军队指挥权曾长期由英国人控制。1984年独立后,改称文莱皇家武装部队,由陆军、海军、空军、支援司令部和训练学院五部分组成。2009年支援司令部被裁撤,增设联合部队司令部。文军现主要由陆、海、空三军,联合部队司令部和训练学院组成。文实行志愿兵役制。苏丹任国防部长兼武装部队最高统帅、五星上将,王储兼首相府高级部长比拉为四星上将。2014年1月塔维被任命为武装部队司令。

现有总兵力约6000人,其中陆军约4000人,海军1300人,空军700人。另有一支廓尔喀预备部队(尼泊尔雇佣军)。皇家警察部队约4000人。

[Industrial] The cultural industry has a weak foundation and a single economic structure, mainly focusing on oil and natural gas exploitation and production. According to the 2017 BP World Energy Statistical Yearbook, Brunei has proven oil reserves of 1.1 billion barrels by the end of 2016; natural gas reserves are 300 billion cubic meters, accounting for 0.1% of the global total. On the one hand, the Brunei government actively explores new oil and gas areas, and on the other hand, it adopts a policy of control over oil and gas exploitation. In recent years, Brunei Oil’s daily output is controlled below 200,000 barrels, making it the third largest oil producer in Southeast Asia; the daily output of natural gas is around 30 million cubic meters, making it the fourth largest natural gas producer in the world.

[Agriculture, forestry, fishery] The agricultural foundation is weak. In 2016, under the great attention of the Sudan, the government proposed a strategic goal of completing self-sufficiency in rice production and achieving exports. At present, China, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and other countries have participated in the experiment of rice cultivation projects to varying degrees.

The forest coverage rate is 72.11%, of which forest accounts for about half of the land area. The article restricts deforestation and log export, and implements a policy of “cutting a tree, planting four trees” and a limit of 100,000 cubic meters per year, mainly to meet the needs of the domestic market.

The text has a coastline of 162 kilometers and is rich in fishery resources, but the fishery output value accounts for less than 1% of GDP, and domestic market demand is 50% dependent on imports. The government encourages foreign capital to enter and cooperate with local companies in fish farming.

[Tourism] Tourism is one of the priority areas of Brunei’s vigorous development in recent years. The Brunei government has adopted a number of incentives to attract tourists to Wenzhou. The main tourist attractions are Shuicun, Royal Pavilion, Mosque, and Dembron National Forest Park. In 2017, there were approximately 259,000 international passengers.

[Transportation] Highway: As of the end of 2017, the total length is 3674.2 kilometers. In June 2016, the Chinese company was opened to traffic on the Tris-Lumu Expressway in Wencheng, with a total length of 18.6 kilometers. The main residential areas have modern road network connectivity, which is one of the countries with a high proportion of private cars in the world. Public transportation is underdeveloped.

Water transport: The Mora deep-water port covers an area of ​​24 hectares. The terminal is 861 meters long, with 8 berths and a draft of 12.5 meters. There is also a 87-meter-long aggregate terminal with an annual throughput of more than 100,000 containers. The city of Bandar Seri Begawan has a 93-meter commercial pier, a 141-meter-long berth for government and government vessels and a 40-meter-long passenger terminal. Malay Danang can dock 2 boats, with 744 square meters of warehouse and 1837 square meters of open storage. In addition, the two ports of Shiria and Lumut are mainly used for oil and gas exports.

Air transport: There is an international airport in the capital city of Bandar Seri Begawan. Royal Brunei Airlines has more than a dozen passenger planes, and several flights a week directly to ASEAN countries, Australia, the Middle East, China (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanning) and other countries and regions. In addition, code sharing routes have been opened with airlines such as China Eastern Airlines and Hong Kong Airlines. On October 1, 2013, the new shipping hall was completed. At the end of 2014, the number of passengers that the airport can accommodate rose to 3 million.

[Foreign Trade] Mainly export crude oil, petroleum products and liquefied natural gas, imported machinery and transportation equipment, industrial products, food, medicines, etc. According to official statistics of Brunei, the total import and export trade of Brunei in 2017 was 11.968 billion yuan, up 14% year-on-year. Of this total, exports were 7.712 billion yuan, up 13.6% year-on-year; imports were 4.256 billion yuan, up 15.4% year-on-year. The main trading partners are Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. The bulk export products are crude oil and natural gas, and the main export markets are Japan, South Korea and India. The main sources of imports are China, Singapore, Malaysia and the United States.

[Military] On May 31, 1961, the Brunei Malay Corps was established. In May 1965, it was renamed the Royal Brunei Army. The command of the military has long been controlled by the British. After independence in 1984, it was renamed the Royal Brunei Armed Forces and consisted of five parts: the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Support Command, and the Training Academy. In 2009, the Support Command was abolished and a Joint Forces Command was added. The civil army is mainly composed of the army, sea and air forces, the joint force command and the training college. The text implements the voluntary military service system. The Sudan is the top minister of defense and the top commander of the armed forces, the five-star general, the Crown Prince and the senior minister of the Prime Minister’s Office, Bila, a four-star general. In January 2014, Tavi was appointed Commander of the Armed Forces.

The total total strength is about 6,000, including about 4,000 in the Army, 1,300 in the Navy, and 700 in the Air Force. There is also a Gurkha reserve force (Nepalese mercenary). The Royal Police Force has about 4,000 people.

【教 育】 政府实行免费教育,并资助留学费用,英文和华文私立学校资金自筹。据文莱经济发展局数据,2017年,文共有学校251所,其中公立学校174所,私立学校77所。在校学生总数为110097人,教师人数为10686人。文公民受教育程度较高,女性识字率为95.3%,男性识字率为97.8%。

【医疗卫生】 政府重视人民的生活环境和医疗服务,向公民提供免费医疗,包括到国外免费就医,对永久居民和政府部门里的外籍雇员及其家属也仅收取象征性费用。人均寿命为77.3岁,女性为78.3岁、男性为76.3岁。医疗体系分为四级:卫生诊所、卫生中心、医疗中心和医院。目前共有6所医院。

【新闻出版】 主要英文报纸《婆罗州公报》(Borneo Bulletin),《文莱时报》(The Brunei Times)于2016年11月停刊。有马来文报纸《PERMATA》。中文报纸由国外进口,马来西亚中文日报《联合日报》、《诗华日报》和《星洲日报》设有文莱新闻版,在文莱发行。

【对外关系】 奉行不结盟及同各国友好的外交政策。主张国家无论大小、强弱,都应相互尊重。1984年2月24日加入联合国,重视联合国作用。1993年12月9日加入关贸总协定,1994年4月15日成为世界贸易组织成员国。 1984年1月7日成为东盟第六个成员国,与东盟各国关系密切。视东盟为外交基石,主张通过东盟实现地区稳定、繁荣与团结。2006年7月至2009年7月任中国-东盟关系协调国。系亚太经合组织(APEC)和亚欧会议(ASEM)成员,重视维护地区和平、安全与稳定,对区域性经济合作持积极态度,主张各国实行贸易、投资自由化和开展经济技术合作。认为近年来国际形势的变化对国际关系产生了深刻影响,联合国和地区组织应在维护和平、保持稳定和促进发展中发挥作用。支持联合国改革,希望通过改革加强联合国的地位和作用,提高联合国的效率和活力,认为安理会改革应多倾听中小发展中国家的声音,增加发展中国家的代表性。重视同中国、美国、日本等大国关系。积极发展同伊斯兰国家间的关系,是伊斯兰会议组织成员国。系英联邦和不结盟运动等国际组织成员国。2013年担任东盟轮值主席国。

截至2018年1月,文与170个国家建交,共设立对外派驻机构(使馆、高专署和总领馆)44个。在沙特吉达、马来西亚沙巴、沙捞越及中国香港设有总领馆,在纽约联合国总部、日内瓦设有常驻代表团,在布鲁塞尔欧盟总部设有代表团,并向日内瓦世贸组织派有常驻代表

[Education] The government implements free education and subsidizes the cost of studying abroad. The English and Chinese private schools fund themselves. According to data from the Brunei Economic Development Bureau, in 2017, there were 251 schools in total, including 174 public schools and 77 private schools. The total number of students in the school is 110,097 and the number of teachers is 10,686. Citizens have a higher level of education, with a female literacy rate of 95.3% and a male literacy rate of 97.8%.

[Health Care] The government attaches importance to people’s living environment and medical services, and provides free medical care to citizens, including free medical treatment abroad. It also charges a nominal fee for permanent residents and foreign employees in government departments and their families. The average life expectancy is 77.3 years, for women 78.3 years and for men 76.3 years. The medical system is divided into four levels: health clinics, health centers, medical centers and hospitals. There are currently 6 hospitals.

[Press and Publication] The main English newspaper Borneo Bulletin and The Brunei Times ceased publication in November 2016. There is a Malay newspaper “PERMATA”. Chinese newspapers are imported from abroad, and the Malaysian Chinese Daily “United Daily”, “Shihua Daily” and “Sin Chew Daily” have a Brunei news edition, which is distributed in Brunei.

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of non-alignment and friendship with other countries. Advocating that the country, regardless of size, strength or weakness, should respect each other. Joined the United Nations on February 24, 1984, attaching importance to the role of the United Nations. Joined the GATT on December 9, 1993 and became a member of the World Trade Organization on April 15, 1994. On January 7, 1984, he became the sixth member of ASEAN and has close ties with ASEAN countries. Regarding ASEAN as the cornerstone of diplomacy, it advocates achieving regional stability, prosperity and solidarity through ASEAN. From July 2006 to July 2009, he served as the coordinating country of China-ASEAN relations. He is a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM). He attaches importance to maintaining regional peace, security and stability, and takes a positive attitude toward regional economic cooperation. He advocates that countries implement trade, investment liberalization and economic and technological cooperation. It is believed that changes in the international situation in recent years have had a profound impact on international relations. The United Nations and regional organizations should play a role in maintaining peace, maintaining stability and promoting development. Supporting the reform of the United Nations, we hope to strengthen the status and role of the United Nations through reforms and improve the efficiency and vitality of the United Nations. We believe that the reform of the Security Council should listen more to the voices of small and medium-sized developing countries and increase the representation of developing countries. Attach importance to relations with major powers such as China, the United States, and Japan. Actively developing relations with Islamic countries is a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. Member States of international organizations such as the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement. In 2013, he served as the rotating presidency of ASEAN.

As of January 2018, Wen established diplomatic relations with 170 countries and established 44 institutions (embassy, ​​higher education, and consulates). Consulates in Saudi Jeddah, Sabah, Sarawak and Hong Kong, China, with permanent missions at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, Geneva, and a delegation to the European Union headquarters in Brussels. Resident representative