【国 名】 蒙古国（Mongolia）
【面 积】 156.65万平方公里。
【人 口】 约318万人（2018年6月）。喀尔喀蒙古族约占全国人口的80%，此外还有哈萨克等少数民族。主要语言为喀尔喀蒙古语。居民主要信奉喇嘛教。
【首 都】 乌兰巴托（Ulaanbaatar）。常住人口约141万（2018年）。平均气温为1.6℃。
【国家元首】 总统哈勒特马·巴特图勒嘎（KHALTMAA BATTULGA），2017年7月10日就任。
【简 况】 位于亚洲中部的内陆国，东、南、西与中国接壤，北与俄罗斯相邻。属典型的大陆性气候，常年平均气温为1.56℃。冬季最低气温可至-50℃，夏季戈壁地区最高气温达40℃以上。
[Country name] Mongolia (Mongolia)
[Dimensions] 1,566,500 square kilometers.
[People] About 3.18 million people (June 2018). The Khalkha Mongolian population accounts for about 80% of the country’s population, in addition to ethnic minorities such as Kazakh. The main language is Khalkha Mongolian. Residents mainly believe in Lamaism.
[The capital] Ulaanbaatar. The resident population is about 1.41 million (2018). The average temperature is 1.6 °C.
[Head of State] President KHALTMAA BATTULGA, took office on July 10, 2017.
(1) The date is the same as that of the Chinese Tibetan New Year. It is the most solemn festival of the Mongolian people. It was formerly known as the “herder’s festival” and was only celebrated in pastoral areas. In December 1988, the Mongolian National People’s Hural Bureau decided that White Moon was a national holiday.
(2) July 11. In 1921, the People’s Revolution led by the Mongolian People’s Party won. On July 10, the constitutional government of the monarchy was established in Cullen (now Ulaanbaatar), and the next day was designated as National Day. Since 1922, Mongolia has regularly held the national Nadam on July 11 every year, becoming a major part of the National Day event. On June 13, 1997, the third meeting of the Mongolian National Day Central Committee decided to rename the Mongolian National Day “National Day-Nadam”. Nadam, the Mongolian meaning “game”, “entertainment”, originally refers to the “Men’s Three Athletics” (wrestling, horse racing and archery) with a long history of the Mongolian nationality. It now refers to a group entertainment activity held in the ancient traditional way, rich Rich national characteristics.
[profile] A landlocked country located in central Asia, bordering China to the east, south, and west, and adjacent to Russia to the north. It is a typical continental climate with an average annual temperature of 1.56 °C. The lowest temperature in winter can reach -50 °C, and the highest temperature in the Gobi region in summer is above 40 °C.
【宪 法】 现行宪法于1992年1月通过，同年2月12日起生效。宪法规定：蒙古国是独立自主的共和国；视在本国建立人道的公民民主社会为崇高目标；在未颁布法律的情况下，禁止外国军事力量驻扎蒙古国境内和通过蒙古国领土；国家承认公有制和私有制的一切形式；国家尊重宗教，宗教崇尚国家，公民享有宗教信仰自由；根据公认的国际法准则和原则，奉行和平外交政策。根据该宪法，改国名为“蒙古国”，实行议会制。
【议 会】 国家大呼拉尔是国家最高权力机关，行使立法权。国家大呼拉尔可提议讨论内外政策的任何问题，并将以下问题置于自己特别权力之内予以解决：批准、增补和修改法律；确定内外政策基础；宣布总统和国家大呼拉尔及其成员选举日期；决定和更换国家大呼拉尔常设委员会；颁布总统当选并承认其权力的法律；罢免总统；任免总理及政府成员；决定国家安全委员会的组成及权限；决定赦免等。国家大呼拉尔为一院制议会，其成员由蒙古国公民以无记名投票的方式直接或间接选出，任期四年。本届国家大呼拉尔于2016年6月产生，共76个席位，议席分布为：人民党65席、民主党9席、人民革命党1席、独立候选人1席。国家大呼拉尔主席为米耶贡布·恩赫包勒德（MIYEEGOMBO ENKHBOLD）（人民党），2016年7月5日就任。
【政 府】 国家权力最高执行机关，政府成员由国家大呼拉尔任命。现政府由人民党组成。总理为乌赫那·呼日勒苏赫（UKHNAA HURELSYKH），下设副总理、政府办公厅主任及各部部长等共15名政府成员。
[Constitution] The current Constitution was adopted in January 1992 and became effective on February 12 of the same year. The Constitution stipulates that Mongolia is an independent republic; it regards the establishment of a humane democratic society in the country as a lofty goal; in the absence of laws, foreign military forces are prohibited from stationing in Mongolia and through Mongolian territory; the state recognizes public ownership and private ownership. All forms; the state respects religion, religion respects the country, citizens enjoy freedom of religious belief; and pursues a peaceful foreign policy in accordance with recognized norms and principles of international law. According to the Constitution, the name of the country was changed to “Mongolia” and the parliamentary system was implemented.
[Parliament] The National Hural is the highest authority of the state and exercises legislative power. The National Hural can propose to discuss any issues of internal and external policies and to address the following issues within their own special powers: ratification, addition and revision of laws; determination of internal and external policy bases; announcement of the President and the National Hural and its Member election date; decision and replacement of the National Hural Standing Committee; promulgation of the president’s election and recognition of its powers; removal of the president; appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and government members; determination of the composition and authority of the National Security Council; decision to pardon. The National Hural is a one-chamber parliament whose members are elected directly or indirectly by Mongolian citizens by secret ballot for a term of four years. The National Hural has been produced in June 2016 with a total of 76 seats. The seats are divided into 65 seats of the People’s Party, 9 seats of the Democratic Party, 1 seat of the People’s Revolutionary Party, and 1 seat of independent candidates. The President of the National Grand Hural is MIYEEGOMBO ENKHBOLD (People’s Party), which took office on July 5, 2016.
[Government] The highest executive authority of state power, and members of the government are appointed by the National Hural. The current government is composed of the People’s Party. The Prime Minister is UKHNAA HURELSYKH, which consists of 15 government members including the Deputy Prime Minister, the Director of the Office of the Government and the Ministers.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into the capital and 21 provinces.
[Judiciary] The court exercises judicial power and is composed of the Supreme Court and local courts at all levels. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Cedar Rieger, took office in November 2010. The procuratorate consists of the General Prosecutor’s Office and the local procuratorates at all levels. In February 2015, Ma Enkh Amugu was appointed as the State Attorney General.
【政 党】 实行多党制。至2016年，共有22个政党。主要有：
（1）蒙古人民党（Mongolian People’s Party）。1921年3月1日成立，1925年3月改称蒙古人民革命党，1997年2月该党召开的二十二大确定党的性质为“民族民主主义性质的中左翼政党”。理论基础为“民主社会主义思想”。2007年10月该党召开二十五大，通过党章修正案，决定保留党章中“党主席兼任总理”的规定。2010年11月召开二十六大，恢复党名为人民党，选举由31人组成的领导委员会。党员约16万名。现任主席米·恩赫包勒德。
[Political Party] Implement a multi-party system. By 2016, there were 22 political parties. There are:
(1) Mongolian People’s Party. It was established on March 1, 1921, and was renamed the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party in March 1925. In February 1997, the 22nd Party of the Party established the nature of the party as “a national-democratic party with a national democratic nature.” The theoretical basis is “democratic socialist thinking.” In October 2007, the party convened the 25th National Congress. Through the amendment of the Party Constitution, it decided to retain the provisions of the “Party Chairman and Prime Minister” in the Party Constitution. In November 2010, the 26th National Congress was held. The party was renamed the People’s Party and the 31-member leadership committee was elected. There are about 160,000 party members. The current chairman, M. Enkhbold.
(2) Democratic Party. On December 6, 2000, it was formed by the merger of the Mongolian National Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Democratic Renaissance Party, the Religious Democratic Party and the Democratic Party. Party members are about 140,000. The party’s aim is to attach importance to human development, human power and freedom, and to assume corresponding social responsibilities depending on individual ability. The party’s goal is to consolidate Mongolia’s political independence; establish a rational and strong economic system; establish an open society; establish a good governance; and closely integrate social development with the progress of the international community. The National Congress of the Party meets every four years. The National Consultative Council (equivalent to the Central Committee) has eight standing committees responsible for daily work. The party’s supervisory authority is a basic charter committee independent of any individual and is responsible for the party constitution. Party Chairman Zan Enkhbold.
[Important person] President: Ha Bartuller. Born in March 1963. In 1982, he graduated from Mongolian Painting Art Middle School. Long-term business, such as hotels and livestock products. In 2004, 2008 and 2012, he was elected to the National Hural Committee (Members). From 2008 to 2012, he served as Minister of Transportation, Architecture and Urban Construction. From 2012 to 2014, he was Minister of Industry and Agriculture. In July 2017, he was elected the seventh president of Mongolia.
President of the National Hural: M. Enkhbold. Born in July 1964, graduated from the National University of Mongolia in 1987 with a master’s degree in economics. In 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016, he was elected to the National Hural Committee for four consecutive times. From 2005 to 2007, he was the chairman of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (now the Mongolian People’s Party). Premier of the 2006-2007. Deputy Prime Minister from 2007 to 2012. From 2012 to 2016, he served as Vice President of the National Hural. Since 2013, he has been the chairman of the Mongolian People’s Party. In June 2016, he became the chairman of the National Grand Hural.
Prime Minister: U. Huzhe Sukh. Born in 1968, graduated from the Mongolian National Defense University in 1989, majoring in political science. In 1994, he graduated from the National School of Administration and Management. Graduated from the National University of Mongolia in 2000. Master of Science in Political Science. He has been elected as a member of the National Hural Group for three times. He has served as the chairman of the Mongolian Democratic Youth League, the General Secretary of the People’s Party, and the Minister. He has served as Deputy Prime Minister twice from 2014 to 2015 and 2016 to 2017. In October 2017, he served as Prime Minister.
【农 业】 农业（主要指种植业）并非蒙古国国民经济的支柱产业，但关系国计民生，历来受到政府的重视。农业从业人口6万余人，产值约占农牧业总产值的四分之一。蒙古国的主要农作物有小麦、大麦、土豆、白菜、萝卜、葱头、大蒜、油菜等。2017年，蒙种植谷物总产量23.81万吨，较上年下降50.7%；土豆12.18万吨，较上年下降26.3%；蔬菜8.21万吨，较上年下降13.1%；饲料作物100.81万吨，较上年下降21%。
[Economic Profile] Major industries include mining, agriculture, animal husbandry, transportation, and service industries. The national economy is highly dependent on foreign countries. Has long been a planned economy. In 1991, the transition to a market economy began. In July 1997, the government adopted the “1997-2000 privatization of state-owned assets”, with the goal of making the private sector dominate the national economy.
Rich underground resources. More than 80 kinds of minerals such as copper, molybdenum, gold, silver, uranium, lead, zinc, rare earth, iron, fluorite, phosphorus, coal and petroleum have been discovered. The national forest coverage rate is about 8%.
Gross domestic product: $11.947 billion (2017)
GDP growth rate: 5.1%
Currency name: Tugrik (TUGRUG)
Exchange rate: 1 US dollar = 2666.3 Tugrik (January 2019)
[Animal Husbandry] Animal husbandry is a traditional industry in Mongolia, the foundation of the national economy, and the main source of raw materials for Mongolia’s processing industry and daily necessities. Mongolia is sparsely populated and has a long duration in winter. Animal husbandry production is still dominated by natural stocking. At this stage, it is still difficult to achieve large-scale, modern production, which is greatly affected by natural climate and livestock. In the past two years, there has been no blizzard disaster, and no large-scale epidemic has occurred. The livestock industry has ushered in a bumper harvest, and the stock of livestock has reached a record high.
[Agriculture] Agriculture (mainly refers to planting) is not a pillar industry of Mongolia’s national economy, but it has always been valued by the government in relation to the national economy and people’s livelihood. The agricultural employment population is more than 60,000, and the output value accounts for about one quarter of the total output value of agriculture and animal husbandry. The main crops in Mongolia are wheat, barley, potatoes, cabbage, radishes, onions, garlic, and rapeseed. In 2017, the total grain output of Mongolian cultivation was 238,100 tons, down 50.7% from the previous year; the potato was 121,800 tons, down 26.3% from the previous year; the vegetable was 82,100 tons, down 13.1% from the previous year; the feed crop was 1,008,100 tons. Last year, it fell by 21%.
[Industrial and Mining] In 2017, the total output value of industry and mining was 129.326 billion, an increase of 30.3% over the previous year. Among them, the total output value of the mining industry was 938.60 billion, an increase of 32.8%; the total output value of the manufacturing industry was 2.6258 trillion, an increase of 31.4%. Mongolia is rich in mineral resources, and some large ore reserves are in a leading position in the world. At present, the large and medium-sized mines that have been mined and exported in Mongolia are: Oyu Tolgoi Copper and Gold Mine (OT Mine), Tawen Tolgoi Coal Mine (TT Mine), Erdente Copper and Molybdenum Mine, Nalin Suhai Special coal mine, Baqinol coal mine, Tumultin slag zinc mine, Tamutcha oil field, etc.
【交通运输业】 2017年，蒙古运输业总收入13580亿图，较上年增长14%；运输货物5391万吨，增加33.5%；运送旅客2.157亿人次旅客，减少18.3%。其中，公路运输收入5064亿图，增长8.5%，运输货物3121万吨，增加53%，运送旅客2.12亿人次，减少18.6%；铁路运输收入5291亿图，增加21.1%，运输货物2270万吨，增加13.6%，运送旅客262万人次，减少0.8%；航空运输收入3222亿图，增长12.2%，运输货物3082.6吨，减少0.5%，运送旅客 82.54万人次，增加22.6%。
【对外贸易】 实行经济开放政策。近年来，积极发展同西方发达国家和亚洲国家的经贸合作，2017年蒙古国与世界其他国家和地区的贸易总额为105亿美元、增长27.3%。其中出口62亿美元，增长26.1%， 进口43亿美元，增长29.1%。
[Construction Industry] In 2017, the total output value of Mongolia’s construction industry was 3,103.6 billion, an increase of 1.5% over the previous year. Among them, the output value of residential buildings was 1,234.9 billion, an increase of 13.4%; the output value of non-residential buildings (industrial, trade, hospitals, schools, etc.) was 1,112 billion, a decrease of 12.0%; the output value of general-purpose buildings (roads, bridges, public facilities, etc.) was 700 billion. Figure, an increase of 2.1%; construction maintenance output value of 83.7 billion maps, an increase of 80.6%.
[Transportation Industry] In 2017, the total revenue of Mongolian transportation industry was 135.8 billion, an increase of 14% over the previous year; the transportation of goods was 53.91 million tons, an increase of 33.5%; the transportation of passengers was 215.7 million passengers, a decrease of 18.3%. Among them, road transport revenue was 56.4 billion, an increase of 8.5%, transport cargo was 31.21 million tons, an increase of 53%, transporting passengers was 212 million passengers, a decrease of 18.6%; railway transport revenue was 529.1 billion, an increase of 21.1%, and transport goods 22.7 million tons. The increase was 13.6%, the number of passengers transported was 2.62 million, a decrease of 0.8%; the air transport revenue was 322.2 billion, an increase of 12.2%, the transport of goods was 3082.6 tons, a decrease of 0.5%, and the number of passengers transported was 825,400, an increase of 22.6%.
[Tourism] Mongolia has a small population, a vast territory and a good natural landscape. It is one of the few countries in the world that retains nomadic culture. The tourism industry has broad prospects for development. The peak season is from June to August every year.
[Financial Finance] Mongolia’s domestic financial market is small. For the whole year of 2017, Mongolia’s fiscal budget revenue (including foreign aid) totaled 7.2 trillion maps (about 2.951 billion US dollars), an increase of 24.1% over the previous year; fiscal expenditure (including debt service) totaled 8.9 trillion maps (about 3.648 billion yuan). US dollar), a decrease of 5.4%; a fiscal deficit of 1.7 trillion chart (about 697 million US dollars), a decrease of 52.4%.
[Foreign Trade] Implement an economic open policy. In recent years, we have actively developed economic and trade cooperation with Western developed countries and Asian countries. In 2017, the total trade volume between Mongolia and other countries and regions in the world was US$10.5 billion, an increase of 27.3%. Of this total, exports were US$6.2 billion, up 26.1%, and imports were US$4.3 billion, up 29.1%.
Exports are mainly mineral products, textiles and livestock products; imports mainly include mineral products, machinery and equipment, and food. The main trading partners are China, Russia, the European Union, Canada, the United States, Japan, and South Korea.
【军 事】 蒙古人民军于1921年3月18日创建。总统兼任武装力量总司令。1996年起实行文职国防部长制度。武装力量总参谋部独立于国防部。实行义务兵役制，1997年开始对武装力量组织结构进行调整，其编制体制由师－团制转入了旅－营制。1998年起增加了替代、合同兵役和抵偿服役制。1992年起服役期改为一年。总兵力约1.4万人。
【对外关系】 国家大呼拉尔1994年通过的《蒙古国对外政策构想》规定，蒙古奉行开放、不结盟的外交政策，强调“同俄罗斯和中国建立友好关系是蒙古对外政策的首要任务”，主张同中俄“均衡交往，发展广泛的睦邻合作”。同时重视发展同美日德等西方发达国家、亚太国家、发展中国家以及国际组织的友好关系与合作。2011年，蒙古国家大呼拉尔通过新《对外政策构想》，将“开放、不结盟的外交政策”拓展为“爱好和平、开放、独立、多支点的外交政策”，强调对外政策的统一性和连续性。明确对外政策首要任务是发展同俄、中两大邻国友好关系，并将“第三邻国”政策列入构想，发展同美、日、 欧盟、印度、韩国、土耳其等西方国家和联盟的关系。2004年，蒙古成为上海合作组织首个观察员国。2012年3月，蒙与北约建立“全球伙伴关系”。11月，蒙加入欧安组织，成为该组织第57个成员国。
[Military] The Mongolian People’s Army was founded on March 18, 1921. The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Since 1996, the civilian defense minister system has been implemented. The General Staff of the Armed Forces is independent of the Ministry of Defence. The compulsory military service system was implemented. In 1997, the organizational structure of the armed forces was adjusted. The system of its formation was transferred from the division-team system to the brigade-management system. Since 1998, the substitution, contract military service and compensation service system have been added. Since 1992, the service period has been changed to one year. The total strength is about 14,000.
[Cultural Education] Implement a free general education system in the country. There are 751 full-time general education schools and 63 professional training centers nationwide. There are 113 colleges and universities across the country, and there are 16 Chinese universities, including national universities, science and technology universities, and education universities. There are 92 private universities, including Izha Zasak University and Outergen Tengger University. 5 are branches of foreign universities. According to the Intergovernmental Cultural and Scientific Cooperation Agreement, Mongolia has exchanged students with more than 50 countries. The main cultural units in Mongolia include: National Folk Song and Dance Troupe, National Theatre, National Opera and Dance Theatre, National Acrobatic Institute, National Music Hall, National Puppet Theatre and Bogda Khan Palace Museum, Qiao Yijin Lama Temple Museum, Plastic Art Museum. National History Museum, National Museum of Natural History, Cultural Heritage Center, National Library, National Art Gallery and other units.
[Press and Publication] According to Mongolian statistics, there are about 126 newspapers published nationwide, 92 magazines, 76 radio stations, 150 TV stations, and more than 30 online media. The main newspapers include “Daily”, “Century News”, “Today”, “Pravda”, “Mongolia News” and so on. These newspapers are the largest circulation newspapers in Mongolia. Except for Pravda, which is a newspaper of the Mongolian People’s Party, the rest are free publications. In addition, there are “Suo Yun Bo Bao” (Military News), “Ulaanbaatar Times”, “People’s Rights” and so on.
Mongolian News Agency (referred to as Mengtong News Agency): The official news agency, founded in 1921. The agency has partnerships with Xinhua News Agency, Reuters, Russian News Agency, and Tass.
National Public Radio: The only non-private radio station in Mongolia and the most influential news organization. Radio stations cover the whole country.
In addition, TV9, TV5, TV25, Ulaanbaatar TV, “Eagle”, C1, TV8, NTV, education, USB, etc. are larger private TV stations.
[External Relations] The Mongolian Foreign Policy Concept adopted by the National Hural in 1994 stipulates that Mongolia pursues an open and non-aligned foreign policy and emphasizes that “building friendly relations with Russia and China is the primary task of Mongolia’s foreign policy.” He advocated “balanced exchanges with China and Russia and the development of broad-based good-neighborly cooperation.” At the same time, it attaches importance to the development of friendly relations and cooperation with Western developed countries, Asia-Pacific countries, developing countries and international organizations. In 2011, Mongolian National Hural extended the “open, non-aligned foreign policy” into a “foreign policy of peace-loving, open, independent and multi-point” through the new “foreign policy concept”, emphasizing the unity of foreign policy. And continuity. The primary task of clarifying foreign policy is to develop friendly relations with Russia and China, and to include the “third neighbor” policy in the development of the United States, Japan, the European Union, India, South Korea, Turkey and other Western countries and alliances. relationship. In 2004, Mongolia became the first observer of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In March 2012, Mongolia and NATO established a “global partnership”. In November, Mongolia joined the OSCE and became the 57th member of the organization.