【国 名】 马来西亚（Malaysia）
【面 积】 约33万平方公里。
【人 口】 3240万。其中马来人69.1%，华人23%，印度人6.9%，其他种族1.0%。马来语为国语，通用英语，华语使用较广泛。伊斯兰教为国教，其他宗教有佛教、印度教和基督教等。
【首 都】 吉隆坡（Kuala Lumpur），人口约180万。
【国家元首】 最高元首阿卜杜拉·艾哈迈德·沙阿（Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah），2019年1月31日就任第16任最高元首。
[Country name] Malaysia (Malaysia)
[Area] About 330,000 square kilometers.
[People] 32.4 million. Among them, Malays are 69.1%, Chinese are 23%, Indians are 6.9%, and other races are 1.0%. Malay is a national language, general English, and Chinese is widely used. Islam is a state religion, and other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity.
[Capital] Kuala Lumpur has a population of approximately 1.8 million.
[Head of State] Supreme Head of State Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah, January 31, 2019 Incumbent as the 16th highest head of state.
[Important Festivals] There are about 100 large and small festivals across the country. There are 10 national festivals stipulated by the government, namely: National Day (also known as Independence Day, August 31), New Year’s Day, Eid al-Fitr, Spring Festival, Haji Festival, Deepavali, May Day, Christmas, Vesak, and the highest birth of the current head of state. Except for a few holiday dates, the specific dates of the rest of the festival were announced by the government in the previous year.
【简 况】 位于东南亚，国土被南中国海分隔成东、西两部分。西马位于马来半岛南部，北与泰国接壤，南与新加坡隔柔佛海峡相望，东临南中国海，西濒马六甲海峡。东马位于加里曼丹岛北部，与印尼、菲律宾、文莱相邻。全国海岸线总长4192公里。属热带雨林气候。内地山区年均气温22-28℃，沿海平原为25-30℃。
【政 治】 实行君主立宪联邦制。因历史原因，沙捞越州和沙巴州拥有较大自治权。
[Profile] Located in Southeast Asia, the land is divided into two parts, the East and West by the South China Sea. West Malaysia is located in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula, bordering Thailand in the north, Singapore across the Johor Strait in the south, the South China Sea in the east and the Malacca Strait in the west. East Malaysia is located in the northern part of Kalimantan, adjacent to Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. The total length of the national coastline is 4192 kilometers. Tropical rain forest climate. The average annual temperature in the mountainous areas of the interior is 22-28 °C, and the coastal plain is 25-30 °C.
At the beginning of the Christian era, the Malay Peninsula had ancient countries such as shackles and wolf teeth. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Manchuria Kingdom, centered on Malacca, unified most of the Malay Peninsula. Since the 16th century, it has been occupied by Portugal, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. At the beginning of the 20th century, it completely became a British colony. The history of Sarawak, Sarawakan and Sabah is in Brunei. In 1888, the two places became British protected areas. During the Second World War, the Malay Peninsula, Sarawak, and Sabah were occupied by Japan. After the war, Britain resumed colonial rule. On August 31, 1957, the United States of Malaya announced independence. On September 16, 1963, Malayan United States merged with Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah to form Malaysia (Singapore exit on August 9, 1965).
[Politics] Implement the constitutional monarchy of the monarchy. For historical reasons, Sarawak and Sabah have greater autonomy.
The National Front of the ruling coalition headed by Umno (“BN”) has long been in power and the political situation is generally stable. On October 31, 2003, Mahathir resigned from the party and government, and Badawi took over the fifth prime minister of Malaysia and the BN and Umno chairman. In 2004 and 2008, Badawi twice reelected the prime minister. In March 2009, Badawi resigned from the party and government. In April, Najib took over the BN, Umno Chairman and served as the sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia. In May 2013, the Barisan Nasional led by Najib won the thirteenth national election and continued to govern. On May 9, 2018, Malaysia held its fourteenth general election, and Mahathir’s Hope Alliance won more than half of the seats in the House of Commons. Mahathir was sworn in as prime minister. On July 2, the Ma Xin government completed the formation of the cabinet.
【宪 法】 1957年颁布马来亚宪法，1963年马来西亚成立后继续沿用，改名为马来西亚联邦宪法，后多次修订。宪法规定：最高元首为国家首脑、伊斯兰教领袖兼武装部队统帅，由统治者会议选举产生，任期5年。最高元首拥有立法、司法和行政的最高权力，以及任命总理、拒绝解散国会等权力。1993年3月，马议会通过宪法修正案，取消了各州苏丹的法律豁免权等特权。1994年5月修改宪法，规定最高元首必须接受并根据政府建议执行公务。2005年1月，马议会再次通过修宪法案，决定将各州的供水事务管理权和文化遗产管理权移交中央政府。
【议 会】 国会是最高立法机构，由上议院和下议院组成。下议院共设议席222个，任期5年，可连任。现任下议长穆罕默德·阿里夫，2018年7月任职。上议院共70席，由全国13个州议会各选举产生2名，其余44名由最高元首根据内阁推荐委任，任期3年，可连任两届。现任上议长维纳斯瓦兰（S. Vigneswaran），2016年4月26日就任。
【政 府】 马新政府内阁名单如下：总理敦·马哈蒂尔·宾·穆罕默德（Tun Dr. Mahathir Bin Mohamad），副总理兼妇女及家庭发展部长旺·阿兹莎（Dato’ Seri Dr. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail），总理府（宗教事务）部长穆加希德（Dato’ Dr. Mujahid Bin Yusof）,总理府（法律事务）部长刘伟强（Datuk Liew Vui Keong）,财政部长林冠英（Lim Guan Eng），内政部长穆希丁（Tan Sri Haji Muhyiddin Bin Haji Mohd. Yassin），国防部长穆罕默德·沙布（Mohamad Bin Sabu）,外交部长赛夫丁（Dato’ Saifuddin Abdullah），交通部长陆兆福（Anthony Loke Siew Fook），教育部长马智礼（Dr. Mazslee Bin Malik），农业与农基产业部长沙拉胡丁（Salahuddin Bin Haji Ayub），乡村发展部长丽娜（Rina Binti Mohd Harun），人力资源部长古拉（Kula Segaran Murugeson），经济事务部长阿兹敏（Dato’ Seri Mohamed Azmin Bin Ali），通讯及多媒体部长哥宾星（Gobind Singh Deo），卫生部长祖基菲里（Dr. Haji Dzulkefly Bin Ahmad），房屋及地方政府部长祖莱达（Zuraida Binti Kamaruddin），联邦直辖区部部长卡立德（Khalid Abdul Samad），旅游艺术与文化部部长克达比（Datuk Mohamad Din Ketapi），能源、科技、科学、气候变化及环境部部长杨美盈（Yeo Bee Yin），青年及体育部部长赛沙迪（Syed Sadduq Syed Abd Rahman），国际贸易与工业部部长达尔·雷金（Ignatius Dorell Leiking），国内贸易合作及消费事务部部长赛弗丁（Dato’ Saifuddin Nasution Bin Ismail），企业家发展部部长里庄（Mohd Redzuan Bin Md. Yusof），原产业部部长郭素沁（Teresa Kok Suh Sim），工程部部长巴鲁（Baru Bian），水务、土地及天然资源部部长夏维尔（Dr. Xavier Jayakumar a/l Arulanandam）。
[Constitution] The Constitution of Malaya was promulgated in 1957. After the establishment of Malaysia in 1963, it was re-used and renamed the Constitution of Malaysia. It was revised several times. The Constitution stipulates that the Supreme Head of State shall be the head of state, the leader of Islam and the commander of the armed forces, elected by the Conference of the Rulers for a term of five years. The Supreme Head of State has the highest powers of legislation, justice, and administration, as well as the power to appoint a prime minister and refuse to dissolve the parliament. In March 1993, the Malaysian Parliament passed a constitutional amendment to remove the privilege of legal immunity from the states of Sudan. The Constitution was amended in May 1994, stipulating that the Supreme Head of State must accept and perform official duties in accordance with government recommendations. In January 2005, the Malaysian Parliament again passed the constitutional amendment and decided to transfer the management rights of water administration and cultural heritage management of the states to the central government.
[Rules of the Rulers] State heads of the four states of Johor, Pahang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, and the nine states of the city, Malacca, Penang, Sarawak, Sabah composition. Its function is to elect the highest heads and deputy heads of state in nine hereditary Sudans; to review and enact national laws and regulations; to have final jurisdiction over national Islam issues; to consider Malays and Sabah, Sarawak Major issues such as the privileged status of indigenous peoples. No law concerning the privileged position of the ruler may be passed without the consent of the meeting. The Prime Minister and the State Ministers of State (the state with the Sudan) and the Chief Minister (the state without the Sudan) assisted the meeting.
[Parliament] Congress is the highest legislative body, composed of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons has a total of 222 seats for a term of five years and can be re-elected. The current speaker, Mohamed Arif, served in July 2018. The House of Lords has a total of 70 seats, and two of the 13 state councils in the country are elected. The remaining 44 are appointed by the Supreme Head of State on the recommendation of the Cabinet for a term of three years and can be re-elected for two consecutive terms. The current speaker, S. Vigneswaran, took office on April 26, 2016.
[Government] The list of the Malaysian government cabinet is as follows: Prime Minister Mahathir Bin Mohamad, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Women and Family Development Dato’ Seri Dr. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail), Prime Minister’s Office (Religious Affairs) Minister Dato’ Dr. Mujahid Bin Yusof, Prime Minister’s Office (Legal Affairs) Minister Datuk Liew Vui Keong, Finance Minister Lim Guan Eng , Interior Minister Mu Sri Din Sihan Mohd. Yassin, Defense Minister Mohamad Bin Sabu, Foreign Minister Dato’ Saifuddin Abdullah, Minister of Transportation Anthony Loke Siew Fook ), Minister of Education Dr. Mazslee Bin Malik, Minister of Agriculture and Agro-Industry Industries Salahuddin Bin Haji Ayub, Minister of Rural Development Rina Binti Mohd Harun, Minister of Human Resources Kula Segaran Murugeson ), Minister of Economic Affairs Dato’ Seri Mohamed Azmin Bin Ali, Minister of Communications and Multimedia, Gobind Singh Deo), Health Minister Dr. Haji Dzulkefly Bin Ahmad, Minister of Housing and Local Government Zuraida Binti Kamaruddin, Federal Territory Minister Khalid Abdul Samad, Travel Art and Minister of Culture Datuk Mohamad Din Ketapi, Minister of Energy, Technology, Science, Climate Change and Environment Yeo Bee Yin, Minister of Youth and Sports Syed Sadduq Syed Abd Rahman, International Trade With the Minister of Industry Ignatius Dorell Leiking, Minister of Domestic Trade Cooperation and Consumer Affairs Dato’ Saifuddin Nasution Bin Ismail, Minister of Entrepreneurship Development Mohd Redzuan Bin Md. Yusof, formerly Minister of Industry Teresa Kok Suh Sim, Minister of Engineering Baru Bian, Minister of Water, Land and Natural Resources Dr. Xavier Jayakumar a/l Arulanandam.
【司法机构】 最高法院于1985年1月1日成立。1994年6月改名为联邦法院。设有马来亚高级法院（负责西马）和婆罗州高级法院（负责东马），各州设有地方法院和推事庭。另外还有特别军事法庭和伊斯兰教法庭。联邦法院首席大法官理查德（Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Richard Malanjum）。总检察长汤米·汤姆斯（Tommy Thomas），2018年6月就任。
【政 党】 注册政党有40多个。巫统、马华公会和印度人国大党等政党组成国民阵线曾长期执政61年。2018年大选后，由人民公正党、民主行动党、国家诚信党和土著团结党组成的希望联盟取代国民阵线上台执政。
（1）人民公正党 （People’s Justice Party/Parti Keadilan Rakyat）：1999年4月4日成立，前身是1990年注册的伊斯兰教社会联盟。旨在联合各政党和非政府组织力量，抗衡政府，争取公正。党员超过50万。第十四届大选取得47席。现任主席为前副总理安瓦尔·易卜拉欣。
（2）民主行动党（The Democratic Action Party）：以华人为主的多民族政党。1966年3月成立，前身是新加坡人民行动党在马来半岛的分部。党员约45万。第十四届大选取得42席。现任主席陈国伟。
（3）国家诚信党（Parti Amanah Negara）：由伊斯兰教党开明派组成，于2015年9月16日宣布成立。现任主席为国防部长穆罕默德·沙布。
（4）土著团结党（Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia，简称Bersatu）：以土著和马来人为主的政党。2016年9月9日成立。现任主席为内政部长穆希丁，名誉主席为总理马哈蒂尔。
（1）马来民族统一机构 （The United Malays National Organization,简称“巫统”，UMNO）：马来人政党。成立于1946年5月11日。1987年4月因党争而分裂，被法庭判为非法组织。1988年2月马哈蒂尔在原巫统基础上重组“新巫统” （The New United Malays National Organization）。1996年，从巫统分裂出去的“四六”精神党重返新巫统后再次还名为“巫统”。现有党员350万。现任主席扎希德。
（2）马来西亚华人公会（Malaysian Chinese Association，简称“马华公会”，MCA）：华人政党。1949年2月27日成立，原名马来亚华人公会，马来西亚成立后改为现名。党员110万。现任总会长魏家祥。
（3）马来西亚印度人国大党（Malaysian Indian Congress，简称“国大党”，MIC）：1946年8月2日成立。马来西亚印度、巴基斯坦族政党，旨在争取和维护两族利益。党员55万人。现任主席苏巴拉马年。
此外，伊斯兰教党（Parti Islam Malaysia，简称PAS）系以马来穆斯林为主的宗教政党，主要势力在北马。1951年8月23日成立，1973年至1977年曾加入国民阵线。1959年至1978年和1990年至今在吉兰丹州执政，1992年8月决定在吉兰丹州实施伊斯兰刑事法。1959年至1962年和1999年至2004年在登嘉楼州两次执政。2008年至2013年在吉打州短暂执政。2018年大选赢得吉兰丹和登嘉楼两州政权。党员约100万。现任主席哈迪·阿旺（Hadi Awang）。
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 13 states and 3 federal territories. The 13 states are Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Glass City, Selangor, Terengganu and Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia. There are also three federal territories in the capitals of Kuala Lumpur, Butraqaya and Labuan.
[Judiciary] The Supreme Court was established on January 1, 1985. In June 1994, it was renamed the Federal Court. There are the High Court of Malaya (responsible for West Malaysia) and the High Court of Borneo (responsible for East Malaysia), and the states have local courts and referral chambers. There are also special military courts and Islamic courts. Federal Court Chief Justice Tan Sri Datuk Seri Panglima Richard Malanjum. Attorney General Tommy Thomas, who took office in June 2018.
[Political Party] There are more than 40 registered political parties. Umno, the MCA and the Indian National Congress and other political parties formed the National Front, which had been in power for 61 years. After the 2018 general election, the Hope Alliance, composed of the People’s Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party, the National Honest Party, and the Indigenous Solidarity Party, replaced the National Front and the Taiwan ruling.
The main ruling party:
(1) People’s Justice Party/Parti Keadilan Rakyat: Established on April 4, 1999, the predecessor was the Islamic Social Union registered in 1990. It aims to unite the strengths of political parties and non-governmental organizations to counter the government and strive for justice. More than 500,000 members. 47 seats in the fourteenth general election. The current chairman is former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim.
(2) The Democratic Action Party: A multi-ethnic party dominated by Chinese. Established in March 1966, the predecessor was the Singapore People’s Action Party branch in the Malay Peninsula. Party members are about 450,000. 42 seats were obtained in the fourteenth general election. The current chairman Chen Guowei.
(3) Parti Amanah Negara: It is composed of the Islamic Party’s enlightened group and was announced on September 16, 2015. The current chairman is the Minister of Defence, Mohamed Shab.
(4) Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (Bersatu): a political party dominated by indigenous and Malays. Established on September 9, 2016. The current chairman is Interior Minister Muhidin, and the honorary chairman is Prime Minister Mahathir.
Main opposition party:
(1) The United Malays National Organization (UMU): Malay political party. Established on May 11, 1946. In April 1987, he was divided by the party struggle and was convicted by the court as an illegal organization. In February 1988, Mahathir reorganized the New United Malays National Organization on the basis of the original Umno. In 1996, the “Four-Six” spirit party, which was split from Umno, returned to the new Umno and was renamed “UMNO.” The existing party members are 3.5 million. The current chairman, Zahid.
(2) Malaysian Chinese Association (Malaysian Chinese Association, MCA): Chinese political parties. Established on February 27, 1949, formerly known as the Malayan Chinese Association, Malaysia was renamed its current name after its establishment. Party members are 1.1 million. The current president Wei Jiaxiang.
(3) Malaysian Indian Congress (Malaysian Indian Congress, MIC): Established on August 2, 1946. Malaysian Indian and Pakistani political parties aim to win and protect the interests of both communities. Party members are 550,000. The current president, Subara Ma Year.
In addition, the Party of Islam Malaysia (PAS) is a religious party dominated by Malay Muslims, with the main force in North Malaysia. It was established on August 23, 1951, and joined the National Front from 1973 to 1977. In 1959 to 1978 and 1990, he was in power in Kelantan. In August 1992, he decided to implement Islamic criminal law in Kelantan. From 1959 to 1962 and from 1999 to 2004, he was twice in power in Terengganu. From 2008 to 2013, he was in power for a short time in Kedah. The 2018 general election won the two states of Kelantan and Terengganu. Party members are about 1 million. The current chairman is Hadi Awang.
【经 济】 上世纪70年代前，经济以农业为主，依赖初级产品出口。70年代以来不断调整产业结构，大力推行出口导向型经济，电子业、制造业、建筑业和服务业发展迅速。同时实施马来民族和原住民优先的“新经济政策”，旨在实现消除贫困、重组社会的目标。
[Important figures] Abdullah Ahmed Shah: The highest head of state. Born in Kelantan on July 30, 1959. He studied in the UK and received military education. On January 15, 2019, he took over the sixth Sudanese government in Pahang, and became the highest head of state on January 31, 2019. married.
Dun Mahathir Bin Muhammad: Prime Minister. Born in Kedah in July 1925. Received a bachelor’s degree in medicine from the University of Malaya, Singapore. In 1946, he joined the Malaysian National Unity (UMNO) and was an early member of Umno. In 1964, he was elected to the lower house of parliament. He joined the cabinet in 1974 and has served as Minister of Education, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Trade and Industry. From 1981 to 2003, he served as the fourth prime minister of Malaysia, and served concurrently as a minister. In September 2016, the Indigenous Solidarity Party was incorporated and served as honorary chairman. In June 2017, the Indigenous Solidarity Party joined the Alliance of Hope. In May 2018, the leadership hoped that the Alliance won the general election and became the prime minister again. Married with 7 children.
Wang Azsha: Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Women and Family Development. Born in Singapore on December 3, 1952. Graduated from the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. Worked in government hospital for 14 years. In 1998, the National Justice Party was founded. The party merged with the Malaysian People’s Party in 2003 to become the People’s Justice Party, and Wang Azasha was the chairman. In the 2018 general election, the People’s Justice Party won 47 national conference seats and became the largest ruling party. Wang Azisha is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Women and Family Development, the first female deputy prime minister in Malaysia. Married with 6 children.
[Economy] Before the 1970s, the economy was dominated by agriculture and relied on the export of primary products. Since the 1970s, the industrial structure has been constantly adjusted, and an export-oriented economy has been vigorously promoted. The electronics industry, manufacturing industry, construction industry and service industry have developed rapidly. At the same time, the implementation of the “new economic policy” of the Malay nation and the indigenous people is aimed at achieving the goal of eradicating poverty and reorganizing society.
Since 1987, the economy has maintained a high growth rate of more than 8% for 10 consecutive years. In 1991, the cross-century development strategy of “2020 Vision” was proposed, aiming to build Ma into a developed country in 2020. Emphasis on the development of high technology, launched the “Multimedia Super Corridor”, “Bio Valley” and other projects. In 1998, affected by the Asian financial crisis, the economy experienced negative growth. The government adopted policies such as stabilizing exchange rates, restructuring bank corporate debt, expanding domestic demand and exports, and the economy gradually recovered and maintained medium-speed growth. Since the second half of 2008, due to the impact of the international financial crisis, Malaysia’s domestic economic growth has slowed down and exports have declined. The Malaysian government has launched 7 billion ringgit and 60 billion ringgit to stimulate economic measures in response to the crisis. After Prime Minister Najib took office in 2009, he took a number of measures to stimulate the growth of the Malaysian economy and domestic demand. The Malaysian economy gradually got rid of the impact of the financial crisis, and the momentum of stabilization and recovery was obvious. In 2015, Ma announced the 11th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020), continued to promote economic transformation, and focused on improving people’s livelihood. In 2016, Ma proposed the 2050 National Transformation Plan (TN50) to plan the development of Malaysia’s 2020-2050 development.
In 2017, the main economic figures for Malaysia are as follows:
Gross domestic product (GDP): 132.5 billion ringgit
GDP growth rate: 5.9%
Per capita GDP: 41,093 ringgit
Total import and export: 1.7 billion ringgit
Foreign exchange reserves: $109.5 billion
【资 源】 自然资源丰富。橡胶、棕油和胡椒的产量和出口量居世界前列。曾是世界产锡大国，近年来产量逐年减少。马来西亚石油储量丰富，此外还有铁、金、钨、煤、铝土、锰等矿产。盛产热带硬木。
【工 业】 政府鼓励以本国原料为主的加工工业，重点发展电子、汽车、钢铁、石油化工和纺织品等。2017年，马制造业领域产值为2700亿林吉特。
【矿 业】 以锡、石油和天然气开采为主。根据2017版《BP世界能源统计年鉴》，马原油储量为36亿桶，天然气储量为12000亿立方米。2017年马来西亚石油日产量为648000桶，天然气日产量为6904百万标准立方英尺。
[Resources] Rich in natural resources. The production and export of rubber, palm oil and pepper are among the highest in the world. It used to be a major tin-producing country in the world, and its output has decreased year by year in recent years. Malaysia has abundant oil reserves, as well as minerals such as iron, gold, tungsten, coal, bauxite and manganese. Rich in tropical hardwood.
[Industrial] The government encourages processing industries based on domestic raw materials, focusing on the development of electronics, automobiles, steel, petrochemicals and textiles. In 2017, the manufacturing value of the horse manufacturing industry was 270 billion ringgit.
[Mine industry] Based on tin, oil and natural gas exploitation. According to the 2017 edition of the BP World Energy Statistical Yearbook, Ma crude oil reserves are 3.6 billion barrels and natural gas reserves are 1.200 billion cubic meters. In 2017, Malaysian oil production was 64,800 barrels per day, and natural gas production was 6,904 million standard cubic feet per day.
[Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries] The cultivated land area is about 4.85 million hectares. Agriculture is dominated by economic crops, mainly oil palm, rubber and tropical fruits. The food self-sufficiency rate is about 70%. Rich in tropical forests. The fishing industry is mainly based on offshore fishing. In recent years, deep-sea fishing and aquaculture have developed. In 2017, Ma’s agricultural output was RM66.3 billion.
[Services] A wide range of services including water, electricity, transportation, communications, wholesale, retail, restaurants, restaurants, finance, insurance, real estate and government services. Since the 1970s, the Malaysian government has continuously adjusted its industrial structure, which has enabled the service industry to develop rapidly and become one of the pillar industries for the development of the national economy. The number of employed people is about 5,536,600, accounting for 50.76% of the national employment population, and it is the industry with the largest number of employed people.
[Tourism] The third largest economic pillar of the country and the second largest source of foreign exchange earnings. There are about 4,072 hotels in the hotel. The main tourist spots are: Kuala Lumpur, Genting, Penang, Malacca, Langkawi, Tioman Island, Redang Island, Pangkor Island and so on. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Tourism, the number of visitors to Malaysia in 2017 was 25.9 million.
[Transportation] There is a good road network throughout the country. The main trunk roads and railways run through the north and south of the Malay Peninsula, and the aviation industry is developed.
Water transport: Inland water transport is underdeveloped, and more than 80% of shipping depends on foreign airlines. There are a total of 1,008 vessels of various types, including 508 registered merchant ships of 100 tons or more, with a registered gross tonnage of 1.755 million tons and 50 ocean-going vessels. There are 19 ports in total. In recent years, we have vigorously developed ocean transportation and port construction. The main shipping companies are Malaysia International Shipping Company. The main ports are Klang, Penang, Kuantan, Johor Bahru, Kuching and Labuan.
Air transport: Civil aviation is mainly operated by Malaysia Airlines and Asian Airlines. Malaysia Airlines has 89 aircraft and 113 routes. In November 1996, Asian Airlines was put into operation. AirAsia had 188 aircraft and 83 routes. There are 25 airports in the country, including 7 international airports: Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Langkawi, Kota Bharu, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching.
【军 事】 陆军的前身是1935年英国殖民地政府组建的马来兵团。1958年从英国人手中接管原英殖民地海军辅助部队，1963年正式改为马来西亚皇家海军。1958年6月1日正式建立马来皇家空军。最高元首是三军最高统帅。国防决策机构为国家安全委员会，总理任主席。武装部队总司令是军队最高指挥官。总司令卡玛鲁扎曼，2016年12月任职。实行志愿兵役制，服役期为10年。
【新闻出版】 约有50份报纸，用8种文字出版，发行量从几万到几十万不等。主要报纸有：马来文的《Berita Harian每日新闻》、《Utusan马来前锋报》；英文的《The Star星报》、《New Strait Times新海峡时报》、《Malay Mail马来邮报》；华文的《星洲日报》、《中国报》、《东方日报》、《南洋商报》等。
马来西亚广播电视：官办，简称RTM。马来西亚广播台建于1946年。拥有Radio Klasik、Nasional FM、TraXX FM、Ai FM、Minnal FM、Asyik FM 6个国家电台频道、17个州电台频道，用马来语、英语、华语、泰米尔语和土著语广播。私营广播台有Fly FM、Hot FM、One FM等。马来西亚电视台建于1963年。包括第一电视台（TV1）、第二电视台（TV2）和TV Okey，用马来语、英语、华语等播放。私营电视台有第三电视台（TV3）、NTV7、八度空间（8TV）和TV9。
[Foreign Capital] Strongly attract foreign investment. The main sources of foreign investment are Japan, the European Union, Singapore, China, South Korea and the United States. In 2017, Malaysia attracted foreign direct investment of approximately RM41 billion.
[People’s Life] In 2016, the average disposable income of the Ma family was 6,141 ringgit per month. In 2017, the average life expectancy was 72.3 for men and 77.2 for women. (Source: Ma Bureau of Statistics)
[Military] The Army’s predecessor was the Malay Corps formed by the British colonial government in 1935. In 1958, the British colonial naval auxiliary force was taken over from the British. In 1963, it was officially changed to the Royal Malaysian Navy. The Malay Royal Air Force was formally established on June 1, 1958. The highest head of state is the supreme commander of the three armed forces. The national defense decision-making body is the National Security Council and the Prime Minister is the chairman. The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the highest commander of the army. Commander-in-Chief Kamaru Zahman, served in December 2016. The voluntary military service system is implemented and the service period is 10 years.
The total strength of the three armed forces was 129,500. The Army has 105,000 people, and has been organized into a Corps Command, 4 divisions, 1 rapid reaction brigade, 10 infantry brigades, 5 artillery regiments, 4 armored regiments, 26 tanks, more than 1,100 armored vehicles, and 400 artillery vehicles. door. The Navy has 125,000 people, and has two naval headquarters, which are composed of 10 squadrons, equipped with more than 100 ships and 4 naval bases. The Air Force has 12,000 people, two departments (5 battalions), 12 squadrons and support units, and 3 air bases. There are also 46,600 reserve troops and more than 200,000 paramilitary units.
[Cultural Education] Ma, Hua and Yin have their own unique cultures. The government has worked hard to shape a national culture based on Malay culture, promote a “national education policy”, and attach importance to universal education in Malay. Chinese education is more common and has a more complete Chinese education system.
Implement free primary education. The budget for education in 2018 is 6.1 billion ringgit. As of the end of 2017, Malaysia had a total of 7,901 primary schools and 2,586 secondary schools. There are 20 colleges and universities such as Malaya University and National University in the country. In recent years, private higher education institutions have developed rapidly, and there are more than 500 private colleges. In 2017, there were 672,000 college students.
[Press and Publication] There are about 50 newspapers published in 8 languages, with circulation ranging from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands. The main newspapers are: “Berita Harian Daily News” in Malay, “Utusan Malay Front”, “The Star Star” in English, “New Strait Times”, “Malay Mail Malay Post”; Chinese “Sin Chew Daily”, “China Daily”, “Oriental Daily”, “Nanyang Business Daily” and so on.
Malaysian National News Agency: referred to as Bernama, Ma Xinshe, semi-official news agency. Founded in 1968, it has 33 branches in the Asia Pacific region.
Malaysian Radio and Television: Official Office, referred to as RTM. The Malaysian Broadcasting Station was built in 1946. Radio Klasik, Nasional FM, TraXX FM, Ai FM, Minnal FM, Asyik FM 6 national radio channels, 17 state radio channels, broadcast in Malay, English, Mandarin, Tamil and Aboriginal. Private broadcasters include Fly FM, Hot FM, One FM, etc. Malaysian TV was built in 1963. It includes the first TV station (TV1), the second TV station (TV2) and TV Okey, and plays in Malay, English, Mandarin, etc. Private TV stations have third TV stations (TV3), NTV7, octaves (8TV) and TV9.
[External Relations] Pursue an independent, neutral, and non-aligned foreign policy. Regarding ASEAN as the cornerstone of its foreign policy, it will give priority to developing relations with ASEAN countries. Attach importance to developing relations with major powers. It is a member of the Commonwealth and has more contacts with other member states. It has established diplomatic relations with 132 countries and has 110 embassies and consulates in 84 countries.
Vigorously carry out economic diplomacy, actively promote South-South cooperation, and oppose Western trade protectionism. In 1998, the sixth informal meeting of leaders of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was hosted. It is argued that APEC maintains a loose economic forum nature and opposes its development as a regional group. Attach importance to East Asian cooperation and advocate the establishment of an East Asian community. In 1997, he hosted the first informal meeting of ASEAN and China, Japan and Korea (10+3) leaders, and hosted the first East Asia Summit at the end of 2005. Actively committed to the establishment of the ASEAN Free Trade Area and the economic development cooperation of the Mekong Basin. In 2015, as the rotating presidency of ASEAN, hosted the ASEAN Summit, the ASEAN and Dialogue Partners, and the East Asia Summit.
Actively develop relations with Islamic countries and non-aligned countries and pay attention to Islamic affairs. It is argued that post-war reconstruction in Iraq should respect its sovereign independence and territorial integrity and conform to the wishes of the Iraqi people. On the Middle East issue, the struggle of the Palestinian people is not a religious confrontation but a defense of territorial sovereignty. An independent Palestinian state should be recognized by the international community. In 2006, he convened a meeting in the capacity of the Islamic State Conference Organization and the Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement. He also wrote to the UN Secretary-General and the permanent members of the Security Council to seek a just and reasonable solution to the Iraq issue and the Middle East issue.
He advocates maintaining the status of the United Nations as a core international organization and paying attention to the establishment of a new international political and economic order. In May 2004, he was elected as a member of the UN Human Rights Commission for 2005-2007. Ma was elected to the Human Rights Council twice in May 2006 and May 2010, with a term of three years. Ma served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for 2015-2016.
Support international counter-terrorism cooperation, stress that counter-terrorism should address the root causes of terrorism, deny the inevitable connection between Islam and terrorism, and promote dialogue between religion and civilization.