Kyrgyz Republic 吉尔吉斯共和国
【国名】吉尔吉斯共和国（Kyrgyz Republic, Кыргызская Республика），简称吉尔吉斯斯坦（Kyrgyzstan，Кыргызстан）。
【国家元首】索隆拜·沙里波维奇·热恩别科夫（Сооронбай Шарипович Жээнбеков），2017年11月24日宣誓就职，任期六年。
[Country name] Kyrgyz Republic, Кыргызская Республика, referred to as Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан).
[Area] 19.99 million square kilometers.
[Population] As of October 2018, the number of permanent residents registered in Kyrgyzstan was 6.362 million, accounting for 49.5% of men. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, of which Kyrgyz accounted for 72.8%, Uzbek 14.5%, Russians 6.2%, Donggans 1.1%, Uygurs 0.9%, Tajiks 0.9%, and Turkish 0.7%. The Kazakhs account for 0.6%, and the others are ethnic groups such as Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, North Korea and Ukraine. More than 70% of the residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Sunnis. Kyrgyz is the national language and Russian is the official language.
[Capital] Bishkek (Бишкек). The population is 1.026 million (October 2018). The average temperature in January is -6 °C, and the average temperature in July is 26 °C.
Osh, Ош, with a population of 297,300 (October 2018). The average temperature in January is -2 °C, and the average temperature in July is 28 °C.
[Head of State] Solongby Sharipovich Jennbekov (Сооронбай Шарипович Жээнбеков), sworn in on November 24, 2017, for a term of six years.
[Important Festival] New Year: January 1; Naurus Festival: March 21; Constitution Day: May 5; Army Day: May 29; Independence Day: August 31. The main religious festivals are Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, and Easter.
[Profile] Located in the northeastern part of Central Asia, the boundary line is about 4,503 kilometers long. It borders Kazakhstan in the north and northeast, Tajikistan in the south, Uzbekistan in the southwest, and China in the southeast and east. There are many mountains in the territory, with an average elevation of 2,750 meters. 90% of the territory is above 1,500 meters above sea level. It is a continental climate. The average temperature in January is -6 °C, and the average temperature in July is 27 °C.
It has been written in the 3rd century BC. The Kyrgyz Khanate was established in the 6th-13th centuries. In the 16th century, it was forced to move from the upper reaches of the Yenisei River to its current residence. In 1876, it was annexed by Russia. The Soviet regime was established from November 1917 to June 1918. The Karajirgis Autonomous Prefecture was established on October 14, 1924. On December 5, 1936, the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was established and joined the Soviet Union. On August 31, 1991, the Kyrgyz Supreme Soviet officially declared independence through the National Declaration of Independence. It changed its name to the Kyrgyz Republic and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States on December 21 of the same year.
[Politics] is a secular state separated from politics and religion. Politically implement democratic reforms and implement a multi-party system. The first president, Akayev (November 1990-March 2005), politically promoted democratic reforms during the ruling period, and implemented a market-oriented reform policy in the economy. In the spring of 2005, when Kyrgyzstan changed its abnormal regime, Akayev was forced to step down. The opposition leader and former Prime Minister Bakiyev was elected as the new president in July of the same year. On July 23, 2009, Bakiyev was re-elected successfully. The “4·7” revolution broke out in 2010, the Bakiyev regime was overthrown, and the interim government with Otunbayeva as prime minister was proclaimed. On June 27th, the referendum of the Kyrgyz Republic passed a new constitution, the state government changed to a parliamentary system, and Otunbayeva became the president of the transitional period.
On October 30, 2011, Kyrgyzstan held a presidential election. The Transitional Prime Minister Almazbek Atambabaye was elected president in the first round of voting with 62.52% of the vote for a term of six years.
On October 15, 2017, Kyrgyzstan held a new presidential election, 11 candidates were elected, 3 million registered voters nationwide, and about 1.69 million votes. The Social Democratic Party candidate and former Prime Minister Solonby Jennbekov won the first round of voting with a vote of 54.77% and was elected as the new president for a six-year term.
[Constitution] On May 5, 1993, the Kyrgyz parliament passed the first constitution after independence, stipulating that Kyrgyzstan is a sovereign, unitary democratic republic based on the rule of law and secular state, and the separation of legislative, judicial, and administrative powers. For the head of state. Since then, the Constitution has been amended several times. After the “4·7” revolution in 2010, Kyrgyzstan established an interim government. In May, the interim government announced the draft constitution, and on June 27, a referendum was passed to pass the new constitution. According to the new constitution, the Kyrgyz government transitioned from the presidential system to the parliamentary system. On December 11, 2016, Kyrgyzstan held a constitutional referendum to transfer part of the president’s authority to the government.
【政府】 现总理穆哈梅特卡雷·久舍科耶维奇·阿布尔加济耶夫（Мухаммедкалый Дюшекеевич Абулгазиев），2018年4月任职。
[Parliament] The first parliament was elected on February 25, 1990, and disbanded in September 1994. In February 1995, a new parliament composed of the Legislative Assembly and the People’s Congress was elected. In February 2000, Kyrgyzstan elected the third parliament, which consisted of a legislative meeting and a meeting of people’s congresses. The Legislative Council is composed of 60 members and is elected by a single constituency and a proportional representation of political parties. The People’s Deputies’ Conference consists of 45 members and implements a regional representation system. In 2005, the parliament was changed from a bicameral system to a one-chamber system, and the number of members was reduced from 105 to 75. The proportional representation system of political parties is abolished, and all members are elected by a single constituency election system. On October 21, 2007, the Kyrgyz Republic referendum passed a new constitution, which stipulates that the parliament is elected according to the proportional representation system of the political party and consists of 90 members. The president designates a political party that has obtained a majority of seats in the parliamentary elections to form a government. After the “4·7” revolution in 2010, the Kyrgyz parliament was dissolved. On June 27, 2010, Kyrgyzstan adopted a new constitution, the state government changed to a parliamentary system, and implemented a one-chamber system consisting of 120 members for a five-year term. The fifth parliamentary election was held in October, and the hometown party, the Social Democratic Party, the Dignity Party, the Republic Party and the Motherland Party entered the Parliament. On October 4, 2015, Kyrgyzstan held the sixth parliamentary election. The Social Democratic Party, the Republic-Hometown Party, the Kyrgyz Party, the Progressive Party, the Common Party, and the Motherland Party entered the Parliament. On October 7, the Social Democratic Party, the Kyrgyz Party, the Progressive Party, and the Motherland Party signed an agreement to form a ruling coalition. The Social Democratic Party member A. Jennbekov was elected as the Speaker. In April 2016, the parliamentary ruling coalition was dissolved, the Speaker of the A. Jennbekov resigned, the Social Democratic Party, the Kyrgyz party, the Common Party formed the ruling coalition, and the Chairman of the Social Democratic Party Committee, Turssonbekov, was elected as the Speaker. In October 2017, Speaker Tursksbekov resigned and Kyrgyz party member Zhumabekov was elected as Speaker. In April 2018, the government of the Kyrgyzstan Reform Group, the second largest party of the parliament, and the former opposition republic-hometown party joined the ruling coalition. The current ruling coalition is composed of the Social Democratic Party, the Republic-Hometown Party, the Kyrgyz Party, and the Common Party.
[Government] The current Prime Minister Muhammet Kari Jisekekevich Abu Ghaziev (Мухаммедкалый Дюшекеевич Абулгазиев), served in April 2018.
[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 7 states and 2 cities: the capital city of Bishkek, Osh, and Chuhe, Taras, Issyk, Osh, Jalalabad, Naryn , Batken State.
[Economy] According to the data released by the Kyrgyz National Statistical Committee, according to the production method, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kyrgyzstan in 2017 is 493.322 billion som (about 7.163 billion US dollars, the average annual exchange rate in 2017 is 1 US dollar). Exchanged 68.87 som), an increase of 4.5%. In 2017, Kyrgyzstan’s economic growth relied mainly on the development of industry, agriculture, construction, and service industries. Excluding the output value of the “Kumtor Gold Mine”, Kyrgyzstan’s GDP was 445.391 billion som (about US$6.467 billion), a year-on-year increase of 4.5%. From January to November 2018, Kyrgyzstan’s GDP was US$6.795 billion, an increase of 3.1% year-on-year.
[Resources] Natural resources mainly include gold, antimony, tungsten, tin, mercury, uranium and rare metals. Among them, the output of plutonium ranks third in the world and the first in the CIS. Tin production and mercury production rank second in the CIS, and hydropower resources rank third in the CIS countries.