Kyrgyz Republic 吉尔吉斯共和国

【国名】吉尔吉斯共和国(Kyrgyz Republic, Кыргызская Республика),简称吉尔吉斯斯坦(Kyrgyzstan,Кыргызстан)。

【面积】19.99万平方公里。

【人口】截止2018年10月,吉常住人口登记数量为636.2万人,男性占比49.5%。有80多个民族,其中吉尔吉斯族占72.8%,乌兹别克族占14.5%,俄罗斯族占6.2%,东干族占1.1%,维吾尔族占0.9%,塔吉克族占0.9%,土耳其族占0.7%,哈萨克族占0.6%,其他为鞑靼、阿塞拜疆、朝鲜、乌克兰等民族。70%以上居民信仰伊斯兰教,多数属逊尼派。吉尔吉斯语为国语,俄语为官方语言。

【首都】比什凯克(Bishkek,Бишкек)。人口102.6万(2018年10月)。1月平均气温-6℃,7月平均气温26℃。

南都奥什(Osh,Ош),人口29.73万(2018年10月)。1月平均气温-2℃,7月平均气温28℃。

【国家元首】索隆拜·沙里波维奇·热恩别科夫(Сооронбай Шарипович Жээнбеков),2017年11月24日宣誓就职,任期六年。

【重要节日】新年:1月1日;纳乌鲁斯节:3月21日;宪法日:5月5日;建军节:5月29日;独立日:8月31日。主要宗教节日有开斋节、古尔邦节、复活节等。

[Country name] Kyrgyz Republic, Кыргызская Республика, referred to as Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан).

[Area] 19.99 million square kilometers.

[Population] As of October 2018, the number of permanent residents registered in Kyrgyzstan was 6.362 million, accounting for 49.5% of men. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, of which Kyrgyz accounted for 72.8%, Uzbek 14.5%, Russians 6.2%, Donggans 1.1%, Uygurs 0.9%, Tajiks 0.9%, and Turkish 0.7%. The Kazakhs account for 0.6%, and the others are ethnic groups such as Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, North Korea and Ukraine. More than 70% of the residents believe in Islam, and most of them are Sunnis. Kyrgyz is the national language and Russian is the official language.

[Capital] Bishkek (Бишкек). The population is 1.026 million (October 2018). The average temperature in January is -6 °C, and the average temperature in July is 26 °C.

Osh, Ош, with a population of 297,300 (October 2018). The average temperature in January is -2 °C, and the average temperature in July is 28 °C.

[Head of State] Solongby Sharipovich Jennbekov (Сооронбай Шарипович Жээнбеков), sworn in on November 24, 2017, for a term of six years.

[Important Festival] New Year: January 1; Naurus Festival: March 21; Constitution Day: May 5; Army Day: May 29; Independence Day: August 31. The main religious festivals are Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, and Easter.

【简况】位于中亚东北部,边界线全长约4503公里,北和东北接哈萨克斯坦,南邻塔吉克斯坦,西南毗连乌兹别克斯坦,东南和东面与中国接壤。境内多山,平均海拔2750米,90% 领土在海拔1500米以上,属大陆性气候,1月平均气温-6℃,7月平均气温27℃。

公元前3世纪已有文字记载。6-13世纪曾建立吉尔吉斯汗国。16世纪被迫从叶尼塞河上游迁居至现居住地。1876年被沙俄吞并。1917年11月至1918年6月建立苏维埃政权。1924年10月14日成立卡拉吉尔吉斯自治州。1936年12月5日成立吉尔吉斯苏维埃社会主义共和国,加入苏联。1991年8月31日,吉尔吉斯最高苏维埃通过国家独立宣言,正式宣布独立,改国名为吉尔吉斯共和国,同年12月21日加入独联体。

【政治】属政教分离的世俗国家。政治上推行民主改革并实行多党制。第一任总统阿卡耶夫(1990年11月—2005年3月)执政时期政治上推行民主改革,经济上实行以市场为导向的改革方针。2005年春,吉发生非正常政权更迭,阿卡耶夫被迫下台,反对派领导人、前总理巴基耶夫同年7月当选新一届总统。2009年7月23日,巴基耶夫连任成功。2010年爆发“4·7”革命,巴基耶夫政权被推翻,以奥通巴耶娃为总理的临时政府宣告成立。6月27日,吉全民公投通过新宪法,国家政体改为议会制,奥通巴耶娃出任过渡时期总统。

2011年10月30日,吉举行总统大选,过渡时期政府总理阿尔马兹别克·阿塔姆巴耶夫在首轮投票中以62.52%的得票率当选总统,任期六年。

2017年10月15日,吉举行新一届总统选举,11位候选人参选,全国登记选民300万,约169万参加投票。社民党候选人、前总理索隆拜·热恩别科夫在首轮投票中以54.77%的得票率获胜,当选新一届总统,任期六年。

【宪法】1993年5月5日,吉议会通过独立后第一部宪法,规定吉是建立在法制、世俗国家基础上的主权、单一制民主共和国,实行立法、司法、行政三权分立,总统为国家元首。此后,宪法几经修改。2010年“4·7”革命后,吉成立临时政府。5月,临时政府公布宪法草案,6月27日举行全民公投通过了新宪法。根据新宪法,吉政体由总统制过渡到议会制。2016年12月11日,吉举行修宪公投,将总统部分职权移交至政府。

[Profile] Located in the northeastern part of Central Asia, the boundary line is about 4,503 kilometers long. It borders Kazakhstan in the north and northeast, Tajikistan in the south, Uzbekistan in the southwest, and China in the southeast and east. There are many mountains in the territory, with an average elevation of 2,750 meters. 90% of the territory is above 1,500 meters above sea level. It is a continental climate. The average temperature in January is -6 °C, and the average temperature in July is 27 °C.

It has been written in the 3rd century BC. The Kyrgyz Khanate was established in the 6th-13th centuries. In the 16th century, it was forced to move from the upper reaches of the Yenisei River to its current residence. In 1876, it was annexed by Russia. The Soviet regime was established from November 1917 to June 1918. The Karajirgis Autonomous Prefecture was established on October 14, 1924. On December 5, 1936, the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was established and joined the Soviet Union. On August 31, 1991, the Kyrgyz Supreme Soviet officially declared independence through the National Declaration of Independence. It changed its name to the Kyrgyz Republic and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States on December 21 of the same year.

[Politics] is a secular state separated from politics and religion. Politically implement democratic reforms and implement a multi-party system. The first president, Akayev (November 1990-March 2005), politically promoted democratic reforms during the ruling period, and implemented a market-oriented reform policy in the economy. In the spring of 2005, when Kyrgyzstan changed its abnormal regime, Akayev was forced to step down. The opposition leader and former Prime Minister Bakiyev was elected as the new president in July of the same year. On July 23, 2009, Bakiyev was re-elected successfully. The “4·7” revolution broke out in 2010, the Bakiyev regime was overthrown, and the interim government with Otunbayeva as prime minister was proclaimed. On June 27th, the referendum of the Kyrgyz Republic passed a new constitution, the state government changed to a parliamentary system, and Otunbayeva became the president of the transitional period.

On October 30, 2011, Kyrgyzstan held a presidential election. The Transitional Prime Minister Almazbek Atambabaye was elected president in the first round of voting with 62.52% of the vote for a term of six years.

On October 15, 2017, Kyrgyzstan held a new presidential election, 11 candidates were elected, 3 million registered voters nationwide, and about 1.69 million votes. The Social Democratic Party candidate and former Prime Minister Solonby Jennbekov won the first round of voting with a vote of 54.77% and was elected as the new president for a six-year term.

[Constitution] On May 5, 1993, the Kyrgyz parliament passed the first constitution after independence, stipulating that Kyrgyzstan is a sovereign, unitary democratic republic based on the rule of law and secular state, and the separation of legislative, judicial, and administrative powers. For the head of state. Since then, the Constitution has been amended several times. After the “4·7” revolution in 2010, Kyrgyzstan established an interim government. In May, the interim government announced the draft constitution, and on June 27, a referendum was passed to pass the new constitution. According to the new constitution, the Kyrgyz government transitioned from the presidential system to the parliamentary system. On December 11, 2016, Kyrgyzstan held a constitutional referendum to transfer part of the president’s authority to the government.

【议会】第一届议会于1990年2月25日通过选举产生,1994年9月提前解散。1995年2月,选举产生了由立法会议和人民代表会议组成的新议会。2000年2月,吉选举产生第三届议会,由立法会议和人民代表会议组成。立法会议由60名议员组成,由单一选区和政党比例代表制选举产生。人民代表会议由45名议员组成,实行区域代表制度。2005年议会由两院制改为一院制,议员由105人减少到75人。取消政党比例代表制,全部议员由单一选区选举制选举产生。2007年10月21日,吉全民公决通过新宪法,规定议会完全按政党比例代表制选举产生,由90名议员组成;总统指定在议会选举中获得大多数席位的政党组建政府。2010年“4·7”革命后吉议会解散。2010年6月27日,吉通过新宪法,国家政体改为议会制,实行一院制,由120名议员组成,任期五年。10月举行第五届议会选举,故乡党、社民党、尊严党、共和国党和祖国党进入议会。2015年10月4日,吉举行第六届议会选举,社民党、共和国-故乡党、吉尔吉斯斯坦党、进步党、共同党、祖国党进入议会。10月7日,社民党、吉尔吉斯斯坦党、进步党、祖国党签署协议,组成执政联盟,社民党议员阿·热恩别科夫当选议长。2016年4月,议会执政联盟解散,阿·热恩别科夫议长辞职,社民党、吉尔吉斯斯坦党、共同党组成执政联盟,社民党议会党团主席图尔松别科夫当选议长。2017年10月,图尔松别科夫议长辞职,吉尔吉斯斯坦党议员朱马别科夫当选议长。2018年4月,吉改组政府,议会第二大党,原反对派共和国-故乡党加入执政联盟。现议会执政联盟由社民党、共和国-故乡党、吉尔吉斯斯坦党、共同党四党组成。

【政府】 现总理穆哈梅特卡雷·久舍科耶维奇·阿布尔加济耶夫(Мухаммедкалый Дюшекеевич Абулгазиев),2018年4月任职。

【行政区划】 全国划分为7州2市:首都比什凯克市、奥什市,及楚河州、塔拉斯州、伊塞克湖州、奥什州、贾拉拉巴德州、纳伦州、巴特肯州。

【经济】根据吉尔吉斯国家统计委员会公布的数据,按生产法计算,2017年全年吉国内生产总值(GDP)为4933.22亿索姆(约合71.63亿美元,2017年全年平均汇率为1美元兑换68.87索姆),同比增长4.5%。2017年,吉经济增长主要依靠的是工业、农业、建筑业、服务行业等发展的拉动。若不计“库姆托尔金矿”产值,吉国内生产总值为4453.961亿索姆(约合64.67亿美元),同比增长4.5%。2018年1-11月,吉国内生产总值67.95亿美元,同比增长3.1%。

【资源】 自然资源主要有黄金、锑、钨、锡、汞、铀和稀有金属等。其中锑产量居世界第三位、独联体第一位,锡产量和汞产量居独联体第二位,水电资源在独联体国家中居第三位。

[Parliament] The first parliament was elected on February 25, 1990, and disbanded in September 1994. In February 1995, a new parliament composed of the Legislative Assembly and the People’s Congress was elected. In February 2000, Kyrgyzstan elected the third parliament, which consisted of a legislative meeting and a meeting of people’s congresses. The Legislative Council is composed of 60 members and is elected by a single constituency and a proportional representation of political parties. The People’s Deputies’ Conference consists of 45 members and implements a regional representation system. In 2005, the parliament was changed from a bicameral system to a one-chamber system, and the number of members was reduced from 105 to 75. The proportional representation system of political parties is abolished, and all members are elected by a single constituency election system. On October 21, 2007, the Kyrgyz Republic referendum passed a new constitution, which stipulates that the parliament is elected according to the proportional representation system of the political party and consists of 90 members. The president designates a political party that has obtained a majority of seats in the parliamentary elections to form a government. After the “4·7” revolution in 2010, the Kyrgyz parliament was dissolved. On June 27, 2010, Kyrgyzstan adopted a new constitution, the state government changed to a parliamentary system, and implemented a one-chamber system consisting of 120 members for a five-year term. The fifth parliamentary election was held in October, and the hometown party, the Social Democratic Party, the Dignity Party, the Republic Party and the Motherland Party entered the Parliament. On October 4, 2015, Kyrgyzstan held the sixth parliamentary election. The Social Democratic Party, the Republic-Hometown Party, the Kyrgyz Party, the Progressive Party, the Common Party, and the Motherland Party entered the Parliament. On October 7, the Social Democratic Party, the Kyrgyz Party, the Progressive Party, and the Motherland Party signed an agreement to form a ruling coalition. The Social Democratic Party member A. Jennbekov was elected as the Speaker. In April 2016, the parliamentary ruling coalition was dissolved, the Speaker of the A. Jennbekov resigned, the Social Democratic Party, the Kyrgyz party, the Common Party formed the ruling coalition, and the Chairman of the Social Democratic Party Committee, Turssonbekov, was elected as the Speaker. In October 2017, Speaker Tursksbekov resigned and Kyrgyz party member Zhumabekov was elected as Speaker. In April 2018, the government of the Kyrgyzstan Reform Group, the second largest party of the parliament, and the former opposition republic-hometown party joined the ruling coalition. The current ruling coalition is composed of the Social Democratic Party, the Republic-Hometown Party, the Kyrgyz Party, and the Common Party.

[Government] The current Prime Minister Muhammet Kari Jisekekevich Abu Ghaziev (Мухаммедкалый Дюшекеевич Абулгазиев), served in April 2018.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 7 states and 2 cities: the capital city of Bishkek, Osh, and Chuhe, Taras, Issyk, Osh, Jalalabad, Naryn , Batken State.

[Economy] According to the data released by the Kyrgyz National Statistical Committee, according to the production method, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kyrgyzstan in 2017 is 493.322 billion som (about 7.163 billion US dollars, the average annual exchange rate in 2017 is 1 US dollar). Exchanged 68.87 som), an increase of 4.5%. In 2017, Kyrgyzstan’s economic growth relied mainly on the development of industry, agriculture, construction, and service industries. Excluding the output value of the “Kumtor Gold Mine”, Kyrgyzstan’s GDP was 445.391 billion som (about US$6.467 billion), a year-on-year increase of 4.5%. From January to November 2018, Kyrgyzstan’s GDP was US$6.795 billion, an increase of 3.1% year-on-year.

[Resources] Natural resources mainly include gold, antimony, tungsten, tin, mercury, uranium and rare metals. Among them, the output of plutonium ranks third in the world and the first in the CIS. Tin production and mercury production rank second in the CIS, and hydropower resources rank third in the CIS countries.