Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 沙特阿拉伯王国

【国 名】沙特阿拉伯王国(Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

【面 积】225万平方公里

【人 口】3255万,其中沙特公民约占62%。伊斯兰教为国教,逊尼派占85%,什叶派占15%。

【官方语言】阿拉伯语

【首 都】利雅得(Riyadh)。

【国家元首】国王兼首相:萨勒曼•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特(Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud),2015年1月23日继位。沙特第七任国王。

【重要节日】国庆日:9月23日;开斋节:伊历10月第一天;宰牲节:伊历12月10日。

【货 币】沙特里亚尔(Riyal),1美元=3.75沙特里亚尔。

【自然地理】位于阿拉伯半岛。东濒波斯湾,西临红海,同约旦、伊拉克、科威特、卡塔尔、阿联酋、阿曼、也门等国接壤,并经法赫德国王大桥与巴林相接。海岸线长2448公里。地势西高东低。除西南高原和北方地区属亚热带地中海型气候外,其他地区均属热带沙漠气候。夏季炎热干燥,最高气温可达50℃以上;冬季气候温和。年平均降雨不超过200毫米。

[Country name] Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[area] 2.25 million square kilometers

[People] 32.55 million, of which Saudi citizens account for about 62%. Islam is the state religion, Sunni is 85%, and Shiites are 15%.

[Official language] Arabic

[The capital] Riyadh.

[Head of State] King and Prime Minister: Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, succeeded on January 23, 2015. The seventh king of Saudi Arabia.

[Important Festival] National Day: September 23; Eid al-Fitr: the first day of October in Iraq; Eid al-Adha: December 10th.

[Coin] Riyal, 1 US dollar = 3.75 Saudi riyal.

[Natural Geography] is located in the Arabian Peninsula. The Persian Gulf in the east, the Red Sea in the west, borders with Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, etc., and is connected to Bahrain via the King Fahd Bridge. The coastline is 2,448 kilometers long. The terrain is high in the west and low in the east. Except for the subtropical Mediterranean climate in the southwest plateau and the northern region, the rest of the region has a tropical desert climate. The summer is hot and dry, the maximum temperature can reach above 50 °C; the winter climate is mild. The annual average rainfall does not exceed 200 mm.

【简 史】公元7世纪,伊斯兰教创始人穆罕默德的继承者建立阿拉伯帝国,8世纪为鼎盛时期,版图横跨欧、亚、非三洲。11世纪开始衰落,16世纪为奥斯曼帝国所统治。19世纪英国侵入,当时分汉志和内志两部分。1924年内志酋长阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特兼并汉志,次年自称为国王。经过多年征战,阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特终于统一了阿拉伯半岛,于1932年9月23日宣告建立沙特阿拉伯王国,这一天被定为沙特国庆日。

【政 治】沙特是君主制王国,禁止政党活动。无宪法,《古兰经》和先知穆罕默德的圣训是国家执法的依据。国王亦称“两个圣地(麦加和麦地那)的仆人”。国王行使最高行政权和司法权,有权任命、解散或改组内阁,有权立、废王储,解散协商会议,有权批准和否决内阁会议决议及与外国签订的条约、协议。1992年3月1日,法赫德国王颁布《治国基本法》,规定沙特阿拉伯王国由其缔造者阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•拉赫曼•费萨尔•阿勒沙特国王子孙中的优秀者出任国王。

【政 府】本届政府于2015年4月组成,随后进行几轮改组,目前共有阁员34人,主要成员是:国王兼首相萨勒曼•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特(Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud),王储兼副首相、国防大臣穆罕默德•本•萨勒曼•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特(Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud),外交大臣易卜拉欣·本·阿卜杜勒阿齐兹·阿萨夫(Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz Al-Assaf),能源、工业和矿产大臣哈立德•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•法利赫(Khalid bin Abdul-aziz Al-Falih),商业投资大臣马吉德•本•阿卜杜拉•卡斯比(Majid bin Abdullah Al-Qasabi)。

【议 会】沙特协商会议于1993年12月29日正式成立,是国家政治咨询机构,下设13个专门委员会。协商会议由主席和150名议员组成,由国王任命,任期4年,可连任。现任主席为阿卜杜拉•本•穆罕默德•阿勒谢赫(Abdullah Bin Mohammed Al Sheikh),2009年2月就任,2013年1月、2016后12月两次连任。

【行政区划】全国分为13个省:利雅得省、麦加省、麦地那省、东部省、卡西姆省、哈伊勒省、阿西尔省、巴哈省、塔布克省、北部边疆省、吉赞省、纳季兰省、焦夫省。省下设一级县和二级县,县下设一级乡和二级乡。

【司法机构】以《古兰经》和《圣训》为执法依据。由司法部和最高司法委员会负责司法事务的管理。2007年,阿卜杜拉国王颁布《司法制度及执行办法》和《申诉制度及执行办法》,建立新的司法体系。设立最高法院、上诉法院、普通法院等三级法院,并建立刑事、民事、商业、劳工等法庭。最高法院院长由国王任命。申诉制度规定设立直属于国王的三级行政诉讼机构,即最高行政法庭、行政上诉法庭和行政法庭。

[History] In the 7th century, the successor of the founder of Islam, Muhammad, established the Arab Empire. The 8th century was the heyday, and the territory spanned Europe, Asia, and Africa. The 11th century began to decline, and the 16th century was ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Invaded by the British in the 19th century, it was divided into two parts: Han Zhi and Neizhi. In 1924, the Chief of the Republic, Abdul Aziz Al Shah, merged with Han Zhi and claimed to be the King the following year. After years of fighting, Abdul Aziz Al-That finally unified the Arabian Peninsula and announced the establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on September 23, 1932. This day was designated as the Saudi National Day.

[Politics] Saudi Arabia is a monarchy that prohibits political parties. Without a constitution, the Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammad’s hadith are the basis for state law enforcement. The king also called “the servants of the two holy places (Mecca and Medina).” The king exercises the highest executive and judicial powers, has the power to appoint, dissolve or reorganize the cabinet, has the power to establish and abolish the Crown Prince, dissolve the consultation meeting, and has the power to approve and reject the resolutions of the cabinet meeting and the treaties and agreements signed with foreign countries. On March 1, 1992, King Fahd enacted the “Basic Law of the People’s Republic of China”, which stipulates that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the outstanding of the descendants of King Abdul Aziz Rahman Faisal Al-That, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Be the king.

[Government] The current government was formed in April 2015, followed by several rounds of reorganization. At present, there are 34 members of the cabinet. The main members are: King and Prime Minister Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Al-That ( Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud), Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defence Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz Al-Assaf, Khalid bin, Minister of Energy, Industry and Minerals, Khalid bin Abdul Aziz Al-Assaf Abdul-aziz Al-Falih), Minister of Business and Investment Majid bin Abdullah Al-Qasabi.

[Meetings] The Saudi Consultative Conference was formally established on December 29, 1993. It is a national political advisory body with 13 special committees. The consultation meeting consists of a chairman and 150 members, appointed by the king for a term of four years and renewable. The current chairman is Abdullah Bin Mohammed Al Sheikh, who took office in February 2009 and was re-elected twice in January 2013 and December 2016.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 13 provinces: Riyadh Province, Mecca Province, Medina Province, Eastern Province, Kassim Province, Ha’il Province, Asir Province, Baja Province, Tabuk Province, Northern Frontier Province, Jizan Province, Najran Province, and Jawf Province. The county has a first-level county and a second-level county, and the county has a first-level township and a second-level township.

[Judiciary] The Qur’an and the Sunnah are the basis for law enforcement. The administration of justice is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice and the Supreme Judicial Council. In 2007, King Abdullah issued the “Judicial System and Implementation Measures” and the “Appeal System and Implementation Measures” to establish a new judicial system. Establish three levels of courts such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, and the ordinary court, and establish criminal, civil, commercial, labor and other courts. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed by the King. The grievance system provides for the establishment of a three-level administrative litigation institution directly under the Crown, namely the Supreme Administrative Court, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal and the Administrative Tribunal.

【重要人物】

萨勒曼•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特:国王兼首相。生于1935年。自幼接受伊斯兰正统教育。多年担任利雅得省长。2011年11月被任命为国防大臣。2012年6月18日任王储兼副首相和国防大臣。2015年1月23日继任沙特第七任国王。曾于1999年4月、2014年3月、2017年3月访华。

穆罕默德•本•萨勒曼•本•阿卜杜勒阿齐兹•阿勒沙特:王储兼副首相、国防大臣。生于1985年。萨勒曼国王之子。2014年4月任国务大臣、内阁成员。2015年1月被任命为国防大臣、王宫办公厅主任、国王私人顾问,并担任新成立的经济与发展事务委员会主席。2015年4月被任命为王储继承人兼第二副首相、国防大臣。2017年6月被任命为王储兼副首相、国防大臣。曾于2016年8月底9月初访华,同张高丽副总理共同主持中沙高委会首次会议并出席二十国集团领导人杭州峰会。2019年2月访华,同韩正副总理共同主持中沙高委会第三次会议。

【经 济】石油工业是沙特经济的主要支柱。近年来,沙受益于国际油价攀升,石油出口收入丰厚,经济保持较快增长。但近期国际油价低迷,导致沙经济下行压力增大。为摆脱对石油产业高度依赖,推进多元化发展战略,于2016年推出“2030愿景”和“2020国家转型规划”。2005年12月,沙正式加入世界贸易组织。

2018年主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:7792亿美元

国内生产总值增长率:1.5%

进出口总额:4185亿美元

进口额:1240亿美元

出口额:2945亿美元

人均国内生产总值:2.34万美元

通货膨胀率:-0.2%

【资 源】原油探明储量363.5亿吨,占世界储量的16%,居世界第二位。天然气储量8.2万亿立方米,居世界第六位。此外,还拥有金、铜、铁、锡、铝、锌、磷酸盐等矿藏。沙特是世界上最大的淡化海水生产国,其海水淡化量占世界总量的20%左右。

【VIP】

Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud: King and Prime Minister. Born in 1935. Received Islamic orthodoxy education since childhood. For many years as the governor of Riyadh. In November 2011, he was appointed Minister of National Defense. On June 18, 2012, he served as the Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense. On January 23, 2015, he succeeded the seventh king of Saudi Arabia. He visited China in April 1999, March 2014 and March 2017.

Mohamed bin Salman Bin Abdul Aziz Al Shah: Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defence. Born in 1985. The son of King Salman. In April 2014, he served as Minister of State and member of the Cabinet. In January 2015, he was appointed Minister of National Defense, Director of the Royal Palace Office, Private Advisor to the King, and Chairman of the newly established Economic and Development Committee. In April 2015, he was appointed as the heir to the Crown Prince and the second deputy prime minister and defense minister. In June 2017, he was appointed Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense. He visited China at the end of August and the end of September 2016. He co-chaired the first meeting of the China-Saudi High Commission with Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli and attended the summit of the G20 leaders in Hangzhou. In February 2019, he visited China and co-chaired the third meeting of the China-Saudi Arabia High Commission with Vice Premier Han Zheng.

[Economy] The oil industry is the mainstay of the Saudi economy. In recent years, sand has benefited from the rise in international oil prices, oil export revenues, and the economy has maintained rapid growth. However, the recent downturn in international oil prices has led to an increase in the downward pressure on the sand economy. In order to get rid of the high dependence on the petroleum industry and promote the diversified development strategy, the “2030 Vision” and “2020 National Transformation Plan” will be launched in 2016. In December 2005, Sha officially joined the World Trade Organization.

The main economic data for 2018 are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $799.2 billion

GDP growth rate: 1.5%

Total import and export: $418.5 billion

Imports: $124 billion

Exports: $294.5 billion

Per capita GDP: $23,400

Inflation rate: -0.2%

[Resources] The proven reserves of crude oil are 36.35 billion tons, accounting for 16% of the world’s reserves, ranking second in the world. Natural gas reserves of 8.2 trillion cubic meters, ranking sixth in the world. In addition, it also has gold, copper, iron, tin, aluminum, zinc, phosphate and other mineral deposits. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest producer of desalinated seawater, with seawater desalination accounting for about 20% of the world’s total.

【工 业】石油和石化工业是沙特的经济命脉,石油收入占国家财政收入的87%,占国内生产总值的42%。近年来,沙特政府充分利用本国丰富的石油、天然气资源,积极引进国外的先进技术设备,大力发展钢铁、炼铝、水泥、海水淡化、电力工业、农业和服务业等非石油产业,依赖石油的单一经济结构有所改观。

【农 业】沙特70%的面积为半干旱荒地或低级草场,可耕地面积只占土地面积的1.6%,约350万公顷(2015年)。永久性草地约378.5万公顷,占土地面积的1.9%。森林覆盖率很低,林地面积只占到全部土地的0.45%(2015年)。耕地集中分布在降水量较充沛的西南部地区。由于大部分地区降水稀少,沙特农业的发展受到极大限制。尽管沙特在农业生产上不具有优势,但还是取得可喜成绩。目前沙特主要农产品有:小麦、水稻、玉米、椰枣、柑橘、葡萄、石榴等。沙特的谷物自给率比较低,只有20%多,依靠大量进口才能满足国内的需求。沙特是世界上最大的大麦进口国,年均进口约850万吨(2017年)。水果自给率达到60%。畜牧业主要有绵羊、山羊、骆驼等。

【交通运输】 公路交通是主要运输方式,沙特道路总长20.97万公里,其中公路总长6.46万公里(2015)。国际公路网与约旦、也门、科威特、卡塔尔、阿联酋、巴林等国相通。

沙特有商业银行12家(2017年),其中国民银行、利雅得银行和拉吉希金融投资公司3家为本国银行,其余为合资银行。沙特银行业发展良好,绝大多数银行实现盈利,净利润增长8%。

【对外贸易】实行自由贸易和低关税政策。出口以石油和石油产品为主,约占出口总额的90%,石化及部分工业产品的出口量也在逐渐增加。进口主要是机械设备、食品、纺织等消费品和化工产品。主要贸易伙伴是美国、日本、中国、英国、德国、意大利、法国、韩国等。由于大量出口石油,沙特对外贸易长期顺差。2018年沙特进出口总额为4185亿美元,出口额为2945亿美元,进口额为1240亿美元,顺差1705亿美元。

【军 事】沙特奉行防御性的国防政策。武装部队建于1964年,最高国防会议为国防最高决策机关。武装部队由正规军、国民卫队和准军事部队组成。正规军总兵力约23万人,其中陆军8.5万人 ,海军4万余人,防空军和战略导弹军3万余人,空军6万余人。国民卫队22.5万人。国家安全总机构、内政部下属的各种安全力量总人数约24.7万人。正规军平时实行志愿兵役制,战时实行义务兵役制,一般兵种服役期2年,特殊兵种服役三年。军事花费为GDP的9.85%,占比为世界第三(2016年)。

【教 育】政府重视教育和人才培养,实行免费教育。包括初等教育、职业培训、各类技术教育和成人教育等,实行强制义务教育。沙特基础教育实行三阶段一贯制。6岁儿童上6年制小学、3年制中间学校(相当于初中)和3年制高中。负责教育发展人才培养的机构有3个:教育部、女子教育最高委员会和技术职业培训总机构。在国内读书的大学生,除免费住宿外,还享受津贴。

[Industrial] The petroleum and petrochemical industries are the economic lifeblood of Saudi Arabia. Oil revenue accounts for 87% of the state’s fiscal revenue and 42% of GDP. In recent years, the Saudi government has made full use of its rich oil and natural gas resources, actively introduced advanced foreign technology and equipment, and vigorously developed non-oil industries such as steel, aluminum, cement, desalination, power industry, agriculture and service industries, relying on oil. The single economic structure has changed.

[Agriculture] 70% of Saudi Arabia’s area is semi-arid wasteland or low-level grassland, and the area of ​​arable land only accounts for 1.6% of the land area, about 3.5 million hectares (2015). The permanent grassland is about 3.785 million hectares, accounting for 1.9% of the land area. The forest coverage rate is very low, and the forest area only accounts for 0.45% of the total land (2015). The cultivated land is concentrated in the southwestern part of the country where precipitation is abundant. Due to the scarcity of precipitation in most areas, the development of Saudi agriculture is greatly limited. Although Saudi Arabia does not have an advantage in agricultural production, it has achieved gratifying results. At present, the main agricultural products in Saudi Arabia are: wheat, rice, corn, date palm, citrus, grape, pomegranate and so on. Saudi Arabia’s grain self-sufficiency rate is relatively low, only 20%, relying on a large number of imports to meet domestic demand. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest importer of barley, with an average annual import of about 8.5 million tons (2017). Fruit self-sufficiency rate reached 60%. Animal husbandry mainly includes sheep, goats and camels.

[Transportation] Road traffic is the main mode of transportation. The total length of Saudi roads is 209,700 kilometers, of which the total length of roads is 64,600 kilometers (2015). The international road network is connected to Jordan, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain.

There are 12 commercial banks in Saudi Arabia (2017), of which National Bank, Riyadh Bank and Rajishi Financial Investment Company are domestic banks, and the rest are joint venture banks. The Saudi banking industry is developing well, with most banks achieving profitability and net profit growth of 8%.

[Foreign Trade] Implement free trade and low tariff policies. Exports are dominated by petroleum and petroleum products, accounting for about 90% of total exports, and exports of petrochemicals and some industrial products are gradually increasing. Imports are mainly consumer goods and chemical products such as machinery and equipment, food, textiles. The main trading partners are the United States, Japan, China, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, South Korea and so on. Due to the large amount of oil exported, Saudi Arabia’s foreign trade has a long-term surplus. In 2018, Saudi Arabia’s total import and export volume was US$418.5 billion, with exports of US$294.5 billion, imports of US$124 billion and a surplus of US$170.5 billion.

[Military] Saudi Arabia pursues a defensive national defense policy. The armed forces were established in 1964, and the highest defense conference was the highest decision-making body of national defense. The armed forces are composed of regular, national and paramilitary units. The regular army has a total strength of about 230,000, including 85,000 troops, more than 40,000 navies, more than 30,000 anti-air force and strategic missile units, and more than 60,000 airmen. The National Guard has 225,000 people. The total number of security forces under the National Security Administration and the Ministry of the Interior is about 247,000. The regular army usually implements the voluntary military service system, and the compulsory military service system is implemented during the war. The general service period is 2 years, and the special service is served for three years. Military spending is 9.85% of GDP, accounting for the third in the world (2016).

[Education] The government attaches importance to education and personnel training and implements free education. Including primary education, vocational training, various types of technical education and adult education, etc., compulsory compulsory education. Saudi Basic Education implements a three-stage system. 6-year-old children attend 6-year primary school, 3-year intermediate school (equivalent to junior high school) and 3-year high school. There are three institutions responsible for the development of education and development personnel: the Ministry of Education, the Supreme Council for Women’s Education and the General Organization for Technical Vocational Training. Undergraduate students studying in the country, in addition to free accommodation, also enjoy the allowance.

【新闻出版】沙特奉行的新闻政策以遵守伊斯兰法规为原则,在思想上和文化上为社会服务。全国发行数十种报纸、上百种杂志。阿拉伯文报纸主要有:《利雅得报》、《中东报》(在伦敦出版)、《生活报》、《国家报》、《欧卡兹报》等,英文报刊主要有:《阿拉伯新闻》、《沙特报》、《沙特经济概览》等。

沙特通讯社:1971年1月23日成立,系沙特官方通讯社,直接受文化与新闻部领导。用阿、英、法文发稿。设有4个国内分社(麦加、麦地那、吉达、达曼)和6个国外分社(波恩、开罗、巴黎、伦敦、突尼斯、华盛顿)。

广播电台:沙特奉行的新闻政策以遵守伊斯兰法规为原则,在思想上和文化上为社会服务。全国发行数十种报纸、上百种杂志。阿拉伯文报纸主要有:《利雅得报》《生活报》《国家报》《欧卡兹报》《中东报》(在伦敦出版)等,英文报刊主要有:《阿拉伯新闻》《沙特报》《沙特经济概览》等。

沙特通讯社:1971年1月23日成立,系沙特官方通讯社,直接受文化与新闻部领导。用阿、英、法文发稿。设有4个国内分社(麦加、麦地那、吉达、达曼)和6个国外分社(波恩、开罗、巴黎、伦敦、突尼斯、华盛顿)。

广播电台:沙特广播电台由22个电台组成,使用中波、短波和调频播出。吉达广播电台、利雅得广播电台和《古兰经》广播电台是最大的3家电台。

电视台:1964年建立电视网,1965年开始播放黑白节目,1976年开始彩色播映。现有4个电视台。目前全国各地有107个中转站,电视网已覆盖全国98%的地区。

【对外关系】沙特奉行独立自主的外交政策。依托政治、宗教影响力及经济实力,积极参与地区事务。重视发展同美国关系,同时开展多元化外交,加强同巴基斯坦、马来西亚等亚洲伊斯兰国家以及中国、日本关系。积极发挥石油大国作用。是二十国集团中唯一的阿拉伯成员。已经同130多个国家建立外交关系。

[Press and Publication] Saudi Arabia’s journalistic policy is based on the principle of observing Islamic laws and serves the society intellectually and culturally. There are dozens of newspapers and hundreds of magazines in the country. Arabic newspapers mainly include: “Riyadh”, “Middle East” (published in London), “Life”, “National”, “Okaz”, etc. English newspapers mainly include: “Arabic News”, ” Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia Economic Survey, etc.

Saudi News Agency: Established on January 23, 1971, is the official Saudi news agency, directly under the leadership of the Ministry of Culture and Information. Published in Arabic, English and French. There are 4 domestic branches (Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Dammam) and 6 foreign branches (Bonn, Cairo, Paris, London, Tunisia, Washington).

Radio Station: Saudi Arabia’s journalistic policy is based on the principle of observing Islamic laws and serves the society intellectually and culturally. There are dozens of newspapers and hundreds of magazines in the country. Arabic newspapers mainly include: “Riyadh”, “Life”, “National”, “Okaz”, “Middle East” (published in London), etc. English newspapers mainly include: “Arabic News”, “Saudi”, “Saudi” Economic Survey, etc.

Saudi News Agency: Established on January 23, 1971, is the official Saudi news agency, directly under the leadership of the Ministry of Culture and Information. Published in Arabic, English and French. There are 4 domestic branches (Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Dammam) and 6 foreign branches (Bonn, Cairo, Paris, London, Tunisia, Washington).

Radio station: The Saudi radio station consists of 22 stations, which are broadcast using medium wave, short wave and FM. Jeddah Radio, Riyadh Radio and the Qur’an Radio are the three largest radio stations.

TV station: Established a television network in 1964. It began to broadcast black and white programs in 1965 and began to be broadcast in 1976. There are 4 TV stations. At present, there are 107 transfer stations across the country, and the TV network covers 98% of the country.

[External Relations] Saudi Arabia pursues an independent foreign policy. Rely on political, religious influence and economic strength, and actively participate in regional affairs. Attach importance to developing relations with the United States, and at the same time carry out diversified diplomacy and strengthen relations with Asian Islamic countries such as Pakistan and Malaysia, as well as China and Japan. Actively play the role of a major oil country. It is the only Arab member of the G20. Has established diplomatic relations with more than 130 countries.