Japan 日本国

【国 名】 日本国(Japan)。

【面 积】 陆地面积约37.8万平方公里,包括北海道、本州、四国、九州四个大岛和其它6800多个小岛屿。

【人 口】 约1亿2650万(2018年4月)。主要民族为大和族,北海道地区约有1.6万阿伊努族人。通用日语。主要宗教为神道教和佛教。

【首 都】 东京(Tokyo)。人口约1375万(2017年11月)。

【国家象征】 天皇明仁(Akihito),1989年1月即位,年号“平成”。

【重要节日】 天皇生日:12月23日(相当于国庆节)。建国纪念日:2月11日(系按阳历推算出的公元前7世纪日本第一代天皇神武天皇元年的元旦)。

[Country name] Japan (Japan).

[Dimensions] The land area is about 378,000 square kilometers, including four large islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, and more than 6,800 small islands.

[People] About 126.5 million (April 2018). The main ethnic group is the Yamato, and there are about 16,000 Ainu people in Hokkaido. General Japanese. The main religions are Shinto and Buddhism.

[City] Tokyo (Tokyo). The population is about 13.75 million (November 2017).

[National Symbol] Akihito (Akihito), in January 1989, the year number, “Heisei”.

[Important Festival] Emperor’s Birthday: December 23 (equivalent to National Day). The founding day of the founding of the People’s Republic of China: February 11 (the New Year’s Day of the first year of Emperor Shenwu of Japan in the 7th century BC).

【简 况】 位于太平洋西岸,是一个由东北向西南延伸的弧形岛国。西隔东海、黄海、朝鲜海峡、日本海与中国、朝鲜、韩国、俄罗斯相望。属温带海洋性季风气候,终年温和湿润。6月多梅雨,夏秋季多台风。1月平均气温北部-6°C,南部16°C;7月北部17°C,南部28°C。

日本位于环太平洋火山地震带,地震、火山活动频繁。全球有1/10的火山位于日本,1/5的地震发生在日本。1995年发生的阪神大地震、2004年新澙县中越地震造成重大人员财产损失,引起世界关注。2011年3月11日,日本发生里氏9.0级特大地震,并引发海啸和核电站泄漏事故,被称为“日本战后以来最严重的危机”。

日本在第二次世界大战中战败,1945年8月15日宣布无条件投降。战后初期,美军单独占领日本,1947年颁布实施新宪法,由天皇制国家变为以天皇为国家象征的议会内阁制国家。战后奉行“重经济、轻军备”路线,20世纪60年代末成为西方第二经济大国。80年代中期以来提出成为政治大国的目标,90年代经济陷入长期低迷,2002年起出现缓慢恢复,复苏时间创战后最长纪录。2008年以来,先后受到国际金融危机和3·11特大地震冲击,经济复苏势头受挫。现任首相安倍晋三上台后推出“安倍经济学”,实施了一系列刺激经济政策,一定程度上提振了日本经济。外交上,日本坚持日美同盟,重视亚洲外交,力争在国际事务中发挥重要作用。

【政 治】 实行立法、司法、行政三权分立。天皇为国家象征,无权参与国政。国会是最高权力和唯一立法机关,分众、参两院。内阁为最高行政机关,对国会负责,首相(亦称内阁总理大臣)由国会选举产生,天皇任命。

目前自民党和公明党联合执政。执政党在众议院和参议院均占据稳定多数席位。

[Profile] Located on the west bank of the Pacific Ocean, it is a curved island country extending from the northeast to the southwest. The East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Korean Strait, and the Sea of ​​Japan face China, North Korea, South Korea, and Russia. It is a temperate maritime monsoon climate with mild and humid years. More plum rain in June, more typhoons in summer and autumn. The average temperature in January is -6 °C in the north, 16 °C in the south, 17 °C in the north and 28 °C in the south.

Japan is located in the Pacific Rim volcanic seismic zone, with frequent earthquakes and volcanic activity. One-tenth of the world’s volcanoes are located in Japan, and one-fifth of the earthquakes occurred in Japan. The Great Hanshin Earthquake that occurred in 1995 and the Sino-Vietnamese Earthquake in Niigata Prefecture in 2004 caused major human and property losses, which caused world concern. On March 11, 2011, a 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck Japan and caused a tsunami and nuclear power plant leak. It was called “the worst crisis since the war in Japan.”

Japan was defeated in the Second World War and announced its unconditional surrender on August 15, 1945. In the early post-war period, the US military occupied Japan alone. In 1947, the new constitution was promulgated, and the country from the emperor system became the parliamentary state with the emperor as the symbol of the country. After the war, he pursued the “heavy economy, light armament” line, and became the second largest economic power in the West in the late 1960s. Since the mid-1980s, it has been proposed to become a political power. In the 1990s, the economy fell into a long-term downturn. Since 2002, it has slowly recovered, and the recovery time has been the longest record since the war. Since 2008, it has been hit by the international financial crisis and the March 11 earthquake, and the economic recovery has been frustrated. The current Prime Minister Shinzo Abe launched “Abenomics” after he took office, and implemented a series of stimulus policies, which boosted the Japanese economy to some extent. In diplomacy, Japan adheres to the Japan-US alliance, attaches importance to Asian diplomacy, and strives to play an important role in international affairs.

[Politics] The separation of the three powers of legislation, justice, and administration. The Emperor is a national symbol and has no right to participate in the national government. Congress is the supreme power and the only legislature, and it is divided into two chambers. The cabinet is the highest administrative organ and is responsible to the National Assembly. The Prime Minister (also known as the Prime Minister of the Cabinet) is elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the Emperor.

The Liberal Democratic Party and the Komeito Party are currently in power. The ruling party has a stable majority in both the House and the Senate.

【宪 法】 现行《日本国宪法》于1947年5月3日颁布实施。宪法第九条规定:“日本永远放弃以国权发动战争、武力威胁或行使武力作为解决国际争端的手段,为达此目的,日本不保持陆、海、空军及其他战争力量,不承认国家的交战权”。这成为日本战后走和平发展道路的重要保证,也是日本作为和平国家的重要保证。

【国 会】 由众、参两院组成,为最高权力机关和唯一立法机关。众议院定员为465名,任期4年。首相有权解散众议院,举行大选。参议院定员为242名。参议员任期6年,每3年改选半数,不得中途解散。在权力上,众议院优于参议院。每年1月至6月召开通常国会,会期150天。其它时间可根据需要召开临时国会和特别国会。现任众议院议长大岛理森(OSHIMA Tadamori),2015年4月就任。参议院议长伊达忠一(DATE Chuichi),2016年8月就任。

【政 府】 内阁为最高行政机关,对国会负责。由内阁总理大臣(首相)和分管各省厅的大臣组成。内阁总理大臣由国会提名,天皇任命,其他内阁成员由内阁总理大臣任免,天皇认证。现内阁主要成员为:首相安倍晋三(ABE Shinzo)、副首相兼财务大臣麻生太郎(ASO Taro)、总务大臣石田真敏(ISHIDA Masatoshi)、法务大臣山下贵司(YAMASHITA Takashi)、外务大臣河野太郎(KONO Taro)、文部科学大臣柴山昌彦(SHIBAYAMA Masahiko)、厚生劳动大臣根本匠(NEMOTO Takumi)、农林水产大臣吉川贵盛(YOSHIKAWA Takamori)、经济产业大臣世耕弘成(SEKO Hiroshige)、国土交通大臣石井启一(ISHII Keiichi)、环境大臣原田义昭(HARADA Yoshiaki)、防卫大臣岩屋毅(IWAYA Takeshi)、内阁官房长官菅义伟(SUGA Yoshihide)、复兴大臣渡边博道(WATANABE Hiromichi)、国家公安委员长山本顺三(YAMAMOTO Junzou)、一亿总活跃兼领土问题担当大臣宫腰光宽(MIYAKOSHI Mitsuhiro)、IT政策担当大臣平井卓也(HIRAI Takuya)、经济再生兼社会保障改革担当大臣茂木敏充(MOTEGI Toshimitsu)、地方创生兼女性活跃担当大臣片山皋月(KATAYAMA Satsuki)、东京奥运会及残奥会担当大臣樱田义孝(SAKURADA Yoshitaka)。

【行政区划】 分为1都(东京都:Tokyo)、1道(北海道:Hokkaido)、2府(大阪府:Osaka、京都府:Kyoto)和43县(省),下设市、町、村。

[Constitution] The current Constitution of Japan was promulgated on May 3, 1947. Article 9 of the Constitution stipulates: “Japan will forever give up the use of state power to launch war, threaten force or use force as a means of resolving international disputes. To achieve this goal, Japan does not maintain the land, sea, air force and other war forces, and does not recognize the state. Right to fight.” This has become an important guarantee for Japan to follow the path of peaceful development after the war and an important guarantee for Japan as a peaceful country.

[National Association] It is composed of the public and the Senate and is the highest authority and the only legislature. The House of Representatives has a capacity of 465 for a four-year term. The Prime Minister has the power to dissolve the House of Representatives and hold general elections. The Senate has a capacity of 242. The Senate has a six-year term of office and is re-elected every three years. In terms of power, the House of Representatives is superior to the Senate. The usual Congress is held from January to June each year, with a duration of 150 days. Other times, temporary and special parliaments can be convened as needed. The current Speaker of the House of Representatives, OSHIMA Tadamori, took office in April 2015. The Senate President, DAY Chuichi, took office in August 2016.

[Government] The cabinet is the highest administrative organ and is responsible to the National Assembly. It is composed of the Prime Minister of the Cabinet (Prime Minister) and the ministers in charge of the provincial offices. The Prime Minister of the Cabinet is nominated by the National Assembly, the Emperor is appointed, and other cabinet members are appointed and removed by the Prime Minister of the Cabinet, and the Emperor is certified. The main members of the cabinet are: Prime Minister Shin Abe Shinzo, Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Asa Taro, General Affairs Minister Ishida Masatoshi, Legal Minister YAMASHITA Takashi, and Foreign Minister Kono Taro ( KONO Taro), Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, SHIBAYAMA Masahiko, Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare (NEMOTO Takumi), Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, YOSHIKAWA Takamori, Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, Seki Hiroshige, Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Ishii ISHII Keiichi, Environment Minister HARADA Yoshiaki, Defense Minister IWAYA Takeshi, Cabinet Chief Executive Officer SUGA Yoshihide, Renaissance Minister Watanabe Hiromichi, National Public Security Commissioner YAMAMOTO Junzou, 100 million active and territorial issues minister, MIYAKOSHI Mitsuhiro, IT policy director HIRAI Takuya, economic regeneration and social security reform minister Mao Mumin (MOTEGI) Toshimitsu), place Minister of Health and Women play an active Katayama Gao (KATAYAMA Satsuki), Tokyo Olympic Games and Paralympic Games to play Tianyi Xiao Ying minister (SAKURADA Yoshitaka).

[Administrative Division] It is divided into 1 (Tokyo: Tokyo), 1 (Hokkaido: Hokkaido), 2 (Osaka: Osaka, Kyoto: Kyoto), and 43 (province), and there are cities, towns, and villages. .

【司法机构】 司法权属于最高法院及下属各级法院。采用“四级三审制”。最高法院为终审法院,审理违宪和其他重大案件。高等法院负责二审,全国共设八所。各都、道、府、县均设地方法院一所(北海道设四所),负责一审。全国各地还设有简易法院和家庭法院,负责民事及不超过罚款刑罚的刑事讼诉。最高法院长官(院长)由内阁提名,天皇任命,14名判事(法官)由内阁任命,需接受国民投票审查。其他各级法院法官由最高法院提名,内阁任命,任期10年,可连任。各级法官非经正式弹劾,不得罢免。现任最高法院长官大谷直人(OTANI Naoto),2018年1月就任。

检察机构与四级法院相对应,分为最高检察厅、高等检察厅、地方检察厅、区(镇)检察厅。检察官分为检事总长(总检察长)、次长检事、检事长(高等检察厅长)、检事(地方检察厅长称检事正)、副检事等。检事长以上官员由内阁任命。法务大臣对检事总长有指挥权。现任检事总长稻田伸夫 (INADA Nobuo),2018年7月就任。

【政党和团体】 战后日本实行“政党政治”,代表不同阶层的各种政党相继恢复或建立。目前主要政党有:执政的自民党、公明党;在野的立宪民主党、国民民主党、日本共产党、日本维新会、自由党、社民党等。

(1)自由民主党(简称“自民党”):执政党,第一大党。1955年11月由原自由党和民主党合并而成,此后连续单独执政长达38年。1993年下野,其后数度与别党组成联合政权。2000年4月起与公明党、保守党联合执政。2003年11月,自民党吸收原执政三党之一的保守新党,形成与公明党两党联合执政的局面。2009年8月,自民党在众议院选举中遭到惨败,再度成为在野党。2012年12月在众议院选举中获胜,重新执政。主张立足民主政治理念,维护自由经济体制,修改宪法,坚持日美安保体制,增强自主防卫力量。对外政策方面强调以日美同盟为基轴,积极拓展外交布局。现任总裁安倍晋三(ABE Shinzo),干事长二阶俊博(NIKAI Toshihiro)。

(2)公明党:执政党。1964年11月成立,其母体为宗教团体创价学会。1970年6月实行政教分离。曾于1993年8月参加非自民联合政权,并历经分裂组合。2000年4月,公明党与自民党、保守党组成联合政权,2009年8月众议院选举后成为在野党,2012年12月众议院选举后重归执政党。该党提倡在和平主义基础上构筑“世界中的日本”,主张坚持“中道路线”,贯彻深入民间的民主主义,尊重地方自主性,推行地方分权。现任党代表山口那津男(YAMAGUCHI Natsuo),干事长斋藤铁夫(SAITO Tetsuo)。

(3)立宪民主党:最大在野党,2017年10月2日由民进党内中左势力脱党发起成立,现任党代表枝野幸男(EDANO Yukio),干事长福山哲郎(FUKUYAMA Tetsuro)。

(4)国民民主党:现为日本第二大在野党。2018年5月7日由原民进党和大部分希望党成员合并成立。现任党代表玉木雄一郎(TAMAKI Yuichiro),干事长古川元久(FURUKAWA Motohisa)。

(5)日本共产党:1922年7月15日成立,战后获合法地位。七十年代中期步入发展的高峰期,九十年代后再次调整政策主张,注重灵活务实。党章规定党的性质为“工人阶级政党”和“全体日本国民的政党”。主张建设社会主义社会乃至共产主义社会;废除日美安保条约,将日本建成独立、民主、和平的自由国家。现任中央委员长志位和夫(SHII Kazuo),中央书记局长小池晃(KOIKE Akira)。

(6)日本维新会:2015年11月成立,以近畿地区为主要势力范围。主张成立大阪都,实现大阪府的副首都化,推进地方分权,打破中央集权。改革统治机构,推动修改宪法,实现首相普选。现任党首松井一郎(MATSUI Ichiro),干事长马场伸幸(BABA Nobuyuki)。

(7)自由党:2012年11月成立。主张实现自由、公平、开放的社会,遵守日本国宪法,维护宪法精神和原则。外交上主张维护世界和平、保护地球环境。党首由小泽一郎(OZAWA Ichiro)和山本太郎(YAMAMOTO Taro)共同担任,干事长玉城丹尼(TAMAKI Deni)。

(8)社会民主党(简称“社民党”):前身为社会党,1945年11月成立,1996年4月改为现名。曾参加多党联合政权及与民主党、国民新党的联合政权。该党主张建立尊重人类尊严、公正公平、自由民主的社会,创造性发展宪法所规定的主权在民、永久和平、基本人权、国际协调等理念。现任党首又市征治(MATAICHI Seiji),干事长吉川元(YOSHIKAWA Hajime)。

[Judiciary] Judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and its subordinate courts. Adopt “four-level three-trial system”. The Supreme Court is the Court of Final Appeal, which hears unconstitutional and other major cases. The High Court is responsible for the second instance, and there are eight in the country. Each of the capitals, provinces, prefectures and counties has a local court (four in Hokkaido), which is responsible for the first instance. There are also simple courts and family courts throughout the country that are responsible for civil and criminal proceedings that do not exceed fines. The Supreme Court Chief (President) is nominated by the Cabinet, appointed by the Emperor, and 14 judges (judges) are appointed by the Cabinet and subject to national voting. The judges of other courts are nominated by the Supreme Court and appointed by the Cabinet for a term of 10 years and may be re-elected. Judges at all levels may not be dismissed without official impeachment. The current Supreme Court Chief, OTANI Naoto, took office in January 2018.

The procuratorate is corresponding to the fourth-level court and is divided into the highest procuratorate, the higher procuratorate, the local procuratorate, and the district (town) procuratorate. The prosecutor is divided into the chief of the procurator (the chief procurator general), the second-term prosecutor, the chief of the procurator (the director of the high-level procuratorate), the procurator (the local procurator general said that the procurator is correct), and the deputy inspector. Officials of the Inspector General are appointed by the Cabinet. The Minister of Justice has command of the chief of the inspection. The current inspector general, INADA Nobuo, took office in July 2018.

[Parties and groups] After the war, Japan implemented “party politics”, and various political parties representing different classes were successively restored or established. At present, the main political parties are: the ruling Liberal Democratic Party and the Komeito Party; the opposition Cadre Party, the National Democratic Party, the Japanese Communist Party, the Japanese Reform Association, the Liberal Party, and the Social Democratic Party.

(1) The Liberal Democratic Party (“the Liberal Democratic Party”): the ruling party, the largest party. In November 1955, the former Liberal Party and the Democratic Party merged. Since then, they have been in power for 38 years. In 1993, he went down to the ground and later formed a joint regime with other parties. In April 2000, he joined the Komeito and Conservative parties in power. In November 2003, the Liberal Democratic Party absorbed the conservative new party, one of the three ruling parties, and formed a situation in which the two parties of the Komeito Party were in power. In August 2009, the Liberal Democratic Party suffered a fiasco in the House of Representatives election and became an opposition party again. In December 2012, he won the House of Representatives election and re-governed. It advocates a democratic political concept, safeguards the free economic system, modifies the constitution, adheres to the Japanese and American security system, and strengthens the independent defense force. In terms of foreign policy, the Japanese-US alliance is the main axis and the diplomatic layout is actively expanded. The current president, ABE Shinzo, is the head of the board of directors NIKAI Toshihiro.

(2) Komeito Party: The ruling party. It was established in November 1964 and its mother body is a societal society. In June 1970, the separation of administrative teaching was carried out. He joined the non-self-government coalition in August 1993 and has undergone a split combination. In April 2000, the Komeito Party formed a coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party and the Conservative Party. In August 2009, after the House of Representatives election, it became an opposition party. After the House of Representatives election in December 2012, it returned to the ruling party. The party advocates building “the world in the world” on the basis of pacifism, advocates adhering to the “middle road line”, implementing in-depth democratic democracy, respecting local autonomy, and promoting local decentralization. The current party representative Yamaguchi Natsuo, secretary-general SAITO Tetsuo.

(3) Constitutional Democratic Party: The largest opposition party, founded on October 2, 2017 by the Democratic Progressive Party, the left-wing force, and the current party representative, EDANO Yukio, and the chief of staff, FUKUYAMA Tetsuro.

(4) National Democratic Party: Now the second largest opposition party in Japan. On May 7, 2018, the original Democratic Progressive Party and most of the Hope Party members were merged. Current party representative TAMAKI Yuichiro, secretary general FURUKAWA Motohisa.

(5) The Communist Party of Japan: Established on July 15, 1922, and obtained legal status after the war. In the mid-1970s, it entered the peak period of development. After the 1990s, it adjusted its policy proposition again, focusing on flexibility and pragmatism. The party constitution stipulates that the nature of the party is “a working class party” and “a party of all Japanese nationals.” It advocates building a socialist society and even a communist society; abolishing the Japan-US security treaty and building Japan into an independent, democratic, and peaceful free country. The current Central Committee Chairman Shi Yi Kazuo, Central Secretary of the Secretary, Koike Akira (KOIKE Akira).

(6) Japan Renewal Association: Established in November 2015, with the Kinki area as the main sphere of influence. It is advocated that Osaka Capital will be established to realize the deputy capitalization of Osaka Prefecture, promote local decentralization, and break the centralization of power. Reform the ruling institutions, promote the revision of the Constitution, and achieve universal suffrage by the Prime Minister. The current party leader, MATSUI Ichiro, is the head of the bureau, BABA Nobuyuki.

(7) Liberal Party: Established in November 2012. Advocate a free, fair and open society, abide by the Japanese Constitution, and uphold the spirit and principles of the Constitution. Diplomacy advocates safeguarding world peace and protecting the global environment. The head of the party was co-chaired by OZAWA Ichiro and YAMAMOTO Taro, and the head of the office was TAMAKI Deni.

(8) Social Democratic Party (“Socialist Party”): Formerly known as the Socialist Party, it was established in November 1945 and changed its current name in April 1996. He has participated in the multi-party coalition regime and the joint government with the Democratic Party and the National New Party. The party advocates the establishment of a society that respects human dignity, fairness, justice, freedom and democracy, and creatively develops the concepts of sovereignty, permanent peace, basic human rights, and international coordination as stipulated in the Constitution. The current party leader is MATAICHI Seiji and the secretary is YOSHIKAWA Hajime.

【经 济】 日本是世界第三经济大国,2017年国内生产总值(GDP)约531.4万亿日元,增长率为1.7%。截至2018年11月底,外汇储备达12583亿美元。汇率:1美元≈113日元(2018年11月)。完全失业率:2.5%(2018年11月)。

【资 源】资源贫乏,90%以上依赖进口,其中石油完全依靠进口。日本政府积极开发核能等新能源,截至2011年2月,拥有54个核电机组,总发电装机容量为4946.7万千瓦,位居世界第三位。2011年3月福岛核电站核泄漏事故发生后,福岛第一核电站的4座核反应堆宣布废炉,日本所有核电站全部停运。2012年7月,为了应对电力短缺的问题,位于日本中部的关西电力公司大饭核电站3号和4号机组暂时重启,但于2013年9月进入定期检查,再次停运。2015年8月,日本时隔两年重启位于鹿儿岛县内的川内核电站1号机组核反应堆,10月重启该核电站2号机组核反应堆。

日本森林面积约为2508万公顷,占国土总面积的近2/3,森林覆盖率约67%,是世界上森林覆盖率最高的国家之一。木材自给率仅为20%左右,是世界上进口木材最多的国家。日本山地与河流较多,水力资源丰富,蕴藏量约为每年1353亿千瓦时。日本的专属经济区面积约相当于国土的10倍,渔业资源丰富。

【对外贸易】 外贸在国民经济中占重要地位,有贸易关系的国家(地区)数约200个。据日本财务省统计,2017年日本进出口总额约为153万亿日元,其中出口约78万亿日元,进口约75万亿日元。

主要进口商品有:原油、天然气、煤炭、服装、半导体等电子零部件、医药品、金属及铁矿石原材料等;主要出口商品有:汽车、钢铁、半导体等电子零部件、塑料、科学光学仪器、一般机械、化学制品等。2017年主要贸易对象为中国、美国、韩国、澳大利亚、台湾等国家和地区。

【对外投资】 重点投资的国家为美国、英国、中国、巴西等,重点投资地区为亚洲、欧洲。日本财务省公布的统计表明,日本2017年对外直接投资额约174万亿日元。

【对外援助】 世界主要援助大国。2016年政府开发援助支出总额约168.08亿美元,居世界第四位。

[Economy] Japan is the third largest economy in the world. In 2017, its gross domestic product (GDP) was about 531.4 trillion yen, a growth rate of 1.7%. As of the end of November 2018, foreign exchange reserves reached $1,258.3 billion. Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 113 yen (November 2018). Total unemployment rate: 2.5% (November 2018).

[Resources] Resources are scarce, and more than 90% rely on imports, of which oil is completely dependent on imports. The Japanese government is actively developing new energy sources such as nuclear energy. As of February 2011, it has 54 nuclear power units with a total installed capacity of 49.467 million kilowatts, ranking third in the world. After the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011, four nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant announced a waste furnace, and all nuclear power plants in Japan were shut down. In July 2012, in response to the power shortage, Units 3 and 4 of the Kansai Electric Power Plant in the central part of Japan temporarily restarted, but in September 2013, they entered regular inspections and were shut down again. In August 2015, Japan restarted the nuclear reactor of Unit 1 of the Sichuan Nuclear Power Station in Kagoshima County after two years, and restarted the nuclear reactor of Unit 2 of the nuclear power plant in October.

Japan’s forest area is about 25.08 million hectares, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the total land area, and forest coverage is about 67%. It is one of the countries with the highest forest coverage in the world. The timber self-sufficiency rate is only about 20%, which is the country with the most imported timber in the world. Japan has more mountains and rivers, and is rich in water resources. The reserves are about 135.3 billion kWh per year. Japan’s exclusive economic zone is about 10 times the size of the country and is rich in fishery resources.

[Foreign Trade] Foreign trade plays an important role in the national economy, and there are about 200 countries (regions) with trade relations. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Finance of Japan, the total import and export volume of Japan in 2017 was approximately 153 trillion yen, of which exports were about 78 trillion yen and imports were about 75 trillion yen.

The main imported goods are: crude oil, natural gas, coal, clothing, semiconductor and other electronic components, pharmaceuticals, metals and iron ore raw materials; the main export commodities are: automotive, steel, semiconductor and other electronic components, plastics, scientific optical instruments , general machinery, chemicals, etc. In 2017, the main trade targets were China, the United States, South Korea, Australia, Taiwan and other countries and regions.

[Foreign Investment] The key investment countries are the United States, the United Kingdom, China, Brazil, etc. The key investment areas are Asia and Europe. According to statistics released by the Ministry of Finance of Japan, Japan’s foreign direct investment in 2017 was approximately 174 trillion yen.

[Foreign Aid] The world’s major aid country. In 2016, the total amount of government development assistance expenditure was about 16.808 billion US dollars, ranking fourth in the world.

【军 事】

日本1945年战败投降后,军队被解散,军事机构被撤消。1950年日本组建“警察预备队”,后改称保安队,1952年成立“海上警备队”,1954年新建航空自卫队,7月颁布《防卫厅设置法》和《自卫队法》,将保安队、海上警备队分别改称为陆上自卫队和海上自卫队,将陆、海、空三军正式定名为自卫队,并成立了防卫厅和参谋长联席会议,健全了统帅指挥机构。随着日本经济实力的迅速增强,日本军队建设得到长足发展,在“质重于量”和“海空优先”的建军方针指导下,自卫队已发展成为一支装备精良、训练有素、作战能力较强的武装力量。2007年防卫厅升格为防卫省。2013年12月17日,日本政府在内阁会议上正式通过了二战后首部作为外交与安全政策综合方针的《国家安全保障战略》,并以此为依据确定了《防卫计划大纲》和《中期防卫力量整备计划》(2014年至2018年)。2014年7月1日,日本政府通过有限解禁集体自卫权的内阁决议,其核心内容是如果与日本关系密切国家受到武力攻击,日本在必要最小范围内行使实力,作为自卫措施在宪法上应被允许。2015年7月和9月,日本分别在众议院和参议院通过新安保法案,从多方面大幅强化了日自卫队活动能力。2018年12月18日,日本政府在内阁会议上正式通过了新版《防卫计划大纲》及《中期防卫力量整备计划》。新《防卫计划大纲》重申了坚持专守防卫,不成为军事大国的基本原则,同时指出日本周边安保环境“严峻性和不确定性急速增加”。日本自卫队要进一步强化太空、信息等新领域的防卫能力,构建“跨域”作战体制。

自卫队的最高统帅是首相,最高军事决策机构是内阁会议。“安全保障会议”是内阁在军事上的最高审议机构,由首相、外务大臣、财务大臣、内阁官房长官、国家公安委员长、防卫大臣等内阁主要成员组成,负责审议国防方针、建军计划及处理各种突发事件等。防卫省相当于国防部。参谋长联席会议由主席和陆、海、空军参谋长组成,负责拟定和调整三军作战、训练和后勤计划,搜集研究军事情报,在实施两个军种以上的联合作战、演习时,实施统一指挥。

日本提出的防卫基本政策是:在和平宪法下,实行专守防卫;坚持日美安保体制;确保文官治军;遵守无核三原则;有节制地增强防卫力量。

日本自卫队实行志愿兵役制。截至2017年3月,日本自卫队编制总兵力约为24.6万人,素质较高,装备精良。其中陆上自卫队约15.1万人,海上自卫队4.5万人,航空自卫队约4.7万人,统合幕僚监部(联合参谋本部)、情报本部人员共3300余人。另有即刻应变预备役自卫队员8175人,预备役自卫队员约47900人,预备役自卫队员候补约4600人,书记官、事务官等文职人员2万余人。

2019年度防卫预算为5.26万亿日元(约合483亿美元),连续7年增加。

[Military]

After Japan’s defeat in 1945, the army was disbanded and military institutions were revoked. In 1950, Japan established the “Police Reserve Team” and later renamed the Security Team. In 1952, the “Sea Guard” was established. In 1954, the Air Self-Defense Force was established. In July, the “Defense Agency Setup Law” and the “Self-Defense Forces Act” were issued. The Maritime Security Team was renamed the Land Self-Defense Force and the Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the land, sea and air forces were officially named Self-Defense Forces, and a joint meeting of the Defense Agency and the Chief of Staff was established to improve the command and command organization. With the rapid growth of Japan’s economic strength, the Japanese army’s construction has been greatly developed. Under the guidance of the “quality and quantity” and “sea and air priority” military guidelines, the Self-Defense Force has developed into a well-equipped and well-trained Armed forces with strong combat capabilities. In 2007, the Defense Agency was upgraded to the Defense Ministry. On December 17, 2013, the Japanese government officially adopted the “National Security Assurance Strategy” as the comprehensive policy of foreign policy and security policy after the Second World War, and based on this, determined the “defense plan outline” and “mid-term defense.” Strength Plan (2014-2018). On July 1, 2014, the Japanese government passed a cabinet resolution to lift the ban on collective self-defense rights. The core content is that if a country with close ties with Japan is attacked by force, Japan will exercise its strength within the minimum necessary scope, and as a self-defense measure, it should be constitutionally allow. In July and September 2015, Japan passed the new security bill in the House of Representatives and the Senate, which greatly enhanced the capacity of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in various aspects. On December 18, 2018, the Japanese government formally adopted a new version of the “Defense Program Outline” and the “Mid-Term Defence Force Maintenance Plan” at the cabinet meeting. The new “Defense Program Outline” reaffirmed the basic principle of adhering to special defense and not becoming a military power. At the same time, it pointed out that the security environment in Japan is “severely increasing and the uncertainty is increasing.” The Japanese Self-Defense Forces should further strengthen the defense capabilities in new areas such as space and information, and build a “cross-domain” warfare system.

The Supreme Commander of the Self-Defense Forces is the Prime Minister and the highest military decision-making body is the Cabinet Meeting. The “Safety and Security Conference” is the highest scrutiny body of the Cabinet in the military. It is composed of the Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Chief Cabinet Secretary, the National Public Security Commissioner, the Defense Minister and other major members of the Cabinet. It is responsible for reviewing the national defense policy and the military plan. Handling various emergencies, etc. The Ministry of Defense is equivalent to the Ministry of National Defense. The Joint Chiefs of Staff consists of the Chairman and the Chief of Staff of the Lu, Hai, and Air Forces. It is responsible for drafting and adjusting the combat, training, and logistics plans of the three armed forces, collecting military intelligence, and implementing unified command when implementing joint operations and exercises of more than two services.

Japan’s basic defense policy is: to implement special defense under the peace constitution; to adhere to the Japan-US security system; to ensure the protection of civilians; to abide by the three principles of non-nuclear; and to strengthen the defense force in a controlled manner.

The Japanese Self-Defense Forces implement a voluntary military service system. As of March 2017, the Japanese Self-Defense Force has a total strength of approximately 246,000, with high quality and well-equipped. Among them, there are about 151,000 people on the Ground Self-Defense Force, 45,000 from the Maritime Self-Defense Force, and 47,000 from the Air Self-Defense Force. There are more than 3,300 people in the Department of Supervision and Supervision (the Joint Staff Headquarters) and the Intelligence Headquarters. There are also 8,175 self-defense members in the immediate reindeer, about 47,900 in the reserve self-defense, about 4,600 in the reserve self-defense, and more than 20,000 in the civil service, including the clerk and the officer.

The defense budget for 2019 is 5.26 trillion yen (about 4.8 billion US dollars), which has increased for seven consecutive years.

【文化教育】

日本每年的科研经费约占GDP的3.7%,位居发达国家榜首。日本学校教育分为学前教育、初等教育、中等教育、高等教育四个阶段,学制为小学6年、初中3年、高中3年、大学4年、其中小学到初中为9年义务教育。大学有国立大学、公立大学和私立大学。著名的国立综合大学有东京大学、京都大学等,著名的私立大学有早稻田大学、庆应义塾大学等。日本重视社会教育,函授、夜校、广播、电视教育等较普遍。

日本新闻出版新闻事业发达,报刊发行量大,广播电视覆盖面广,在世界各国中位居前列。

全国性报纸5家(《读卖新闻》、《朝日新闻》、《每日新闻》、《日本经济新闻》、《产经新闻》),地区性报纸3家(《中日新闻》、《北海道新闻》、《西日本新闻》),主要地方报纸一百多家。发行月刊杂志约1900种,周刊约1000种。图书共出版7万余种。较有影响的杂志有:《中央公论》、《东洋经济》、《经济学家》、《文艺春秋》等。

共同通讯社是日本最大的通讯社,简称共同社,其前身是1936年1月成立的同盟通讯社。时事通讯社是第二大通讯社,简称时事社,成立于1945年11月。

广播电台有日本广播协会(NHK)和4大系列民营电台一百多家,平均每天播音22小时以上。NHK系半官方性质的“公共广播电视台”,创建于1925年3月。

电视台主要有半官方的“公共电视台”NHK和分属于5大报纸的5大系列民营电视台一百多家,另有民营卫星电视台、民营有线电视台若干。电视平均每天播放20小时以上。主要电视台:NHK于1953年开播电视节目,属半官方性质;东京广播公司(TBS),1951年成立;日本电视网(NTV),1952年成立。

【外 交】

日本外交政策的基本取向是以日美同盟为基轴,以亚洲为战略依托,重视发展大国关系,主推“俯瞰地球仪外交”和“战略性外交”,积极参与地区及全球事务。

[Culture Education]

Japan’s annual research funding accounts for about 3.7% of GDP, ranking first in developed countries. Japanese school education is divided into four stages: preschool education, primary education, secondary education, and higher education. The academic system consists of 6 years of primary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of high school, 4 years of university, and 9 years of compulsory education from elementary school to junior high school. Universities have national, public, and private universities. Famous national universities include the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. The famous private universities include Waseda University and Keio University. Japan attaches importance to social education, and correspondence, evening schools, radio, and television education are more common.

The Japanese press and publication journalism is well developed, the circulation of newspapers and periodicals is large, and the coverage of radio and television is wide, ranking among the top countries in the world.

5 national newspapers (Yomiuri Shimbun, “Asahi Shimbun”, “Daily News”, “Japan Economic News”, “Sankei Shimbun”), 3 regional newspapers (“China-Japan News”, “Hokkaido News, “West Japan News”), more than 100 major local newspapers. There are about 1,900 monthly magazines and about 1,000 weekly magazines. The book has published more than 70,000 kinds. The more influential magazines are: “Central Public Commentary”, “Dongyang Economics”, “Economist”, “Literature Spring and Autumn” and so on.

The Kyodo News Agency is Japan’s largest news agency, referred to as Kyodo, and its predecessor was the League News Agency, which was established in January 1936. The News Agency is the second largest news agency, referred to as the News Agency, which was established in November 1945.

The radio station has more than 100 private broadcasting stations of the Japan Broadcasting Association (NHK) and 4 series, with an average of more than 22 hours of broadcasting per day. NHK is a semi-official public television station created in March 1925.

The TV station mainly has a semi-official “public television station” NHK and more than 100 private TV stations belonging to the five major newspapers. There are also private satellite TV stations and private cable TV stations. TVs play an average of more than 20 hours a day. Major TV stations: NHK launched television programs in 1953, which was semi-official; Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation (TBS) was established in 1951; Japan Television Network (NTV) was established in 1952.

[外交交]

The basic orientation of Japan’s foreign policy is based on the Japan-US alliance as the basis, with Asia as the strategic support, attaching importance to the development of relations between major powers, and promoting “overlooking with global diplomacy” and “strategic diplomacy” and actively participating in regional and global affairs.