Georgia 格鲁吉亚

【国名】 格鲁吉亚(Georgia, Грузия)

【自然地理】 位于南高加索中西部。北接俄罗斯,东南和南部分别与阿塞拜疆和亚美尼亚相邻,西南与土耳其接壤,西邻黑海。海岸线长309公里。亚热带海洋性气候,1月平均气温3-7℃,8月平均气温23-26℃。

【面积】 6.97万平方公里

【人口】 372万(截至2019年1月)

【首都】 第比利斯(Tbilisi, Тбилиси),人口111.46万。

【民族】 主要为格鲁吉亚族(占86.8%),其他民族有阿塞拜疆族、亚美尼亚族、俄罗斯族及奥塞梯族、阿布哈兹族、希腊族等。

【语言】 官方语言为格鲁吉亚语,居民多通晓俄语。

【宗教】 主要信奉东正教,少数信奉伊斯兰教。

【国庆日】 5月26日

【货币名称】 拉里,1美元≈2.67拉里。

【行政区划】 全国由首都第比利斯、9个大区、1个自治州(南奥塞梯)、2个自治共和国(阿布哈兹、阿扎尔)组成。

[Country name] Georgia (Georgia, Грузия)

[Natural Geography] Located in the Midwest of the South Caucasus. It borders Russia in the north, Azerbaijan and Armenia in the southeast and south, Turkey in the southwest, and the Black Sea in the west. The coastline is 309 kilometers long. Subtropical maritime climate, with an average temperature of 3-7 °C in January and an average temperature of 23-26 °C in August.

[Area] 6.97 million square kilometers

[population] 3.72 million (as of January 2019)

[Capital] Tbilisi ( Тбилиси) with a population of 1,114,600.

[National] Mainly Georgian (86.8%), other ethnic groups are Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian and Ossetian, Abkhaz, Greek and so on.

[Language] The official language is Georgian, and the residents are familiar with Russian.

[Religion] Mainly believe in Orthodox Christianity, a minority believes in Islam.

[National Day] May 26

[Currency name] Larry, $1 ≈ 2.67 Larry.

[Administrative Division] The country consists of the capital Tbilisi, 9 regions, 1 autonomous prefecture (South Ossetia), and 2 autonomous republics (Abkhazia, Azar).

【简史】 公元前6世纪,在现格鲁吉亚境内建立了奴隶制的科尔希达王国。公元4-6世纪建立封建国家。公元6-10世纪基本形成格鲁吉亚族,公元8-9世纪初建立卡赫齐亚、爱列京、陶-克拉尔哲季封建公国和阿布哈兹王国。19世纪初,格鲁吉亚被沙皇俄国兼并。1918年5月26日成立格鲁吉亚民主共和国。1921年2月25日成立格鲁吉亚苏维埃社会主义共和国。1922年3月12日加入外高加索苏维埃社会主义联邦共和国,同年12月作为该联邦成员加入苏联。1936年12月5日,格鲁吉亚苏维埃社会主义共和国正式成为苏联加盟共和国。1990年11月4日发表独立宣言,定国名为“格鲁吉亚共和国”。1991年4月9日正式宣布独立。1995年8月24日通过新宪法,定国名为“格鲁吉亚”。

【国家元首】 总统萨洛梅·祖拉比什维利(Salome Zurabishvili, Саломе Зурабишвили),2018年11月当选,任期至2024年。

【议会】 议会是最高权力代表机构和最高立法机构,一院制,由150名议员组成,其中按比例制选举产生的议员占77席,按单一制选举产生的议员占73席,任期4年。本届议会为2016年10月选举产生,议长为伊拉克利·科巴希泽(Irakli Kobakhidze, Ираклий Кобахидзе)。

【政府】 总理马穆卡·巴赫塔泽(Mamuka Bakhtadze, Мамука Бахтадзе),2018年6月任职,任期至2020年10月。主要政府官员有:外交部长大卫·扎尔卡利亚尼(David Zalkaliani, Давид Залкалиани)、国防部长列万·伊佐里亚(Levan Izoria, Ливан Изория)、经济与可持续发展部长乔治·科布利亚(Giorgi Cherkezishvili, Георгий Кобулия)等。

【政局】 1991年5月26日,“自由格鲁吉亚圆桌会议”领导人加姆萨胡尔季阿当选格首任总统,后于1992年1月被推翻。1992年3月11日,前苏联外长谢瓦尔德纳泽被任命为国务委员会主席,11月被确认为国家元首。2003年11月发生“玫瑰革命”,萨卡什维利在随后举行的选举中当选总统,2008年1月连任。2008年8月8日格俄冲突爆发。2012年10月,格举行议会选举,“格鲁吉亚梦想”联盟胜出,伊万尼什维利出任总理并重新组阁。2013年10月,格举行总统选举,马尔格韦拉什维利当选总统。11月,伊万尼什维利卸任总理,时任内务部长加里巴什维利就任总理。2015年12月,加宣布辞职,时任副总理兼外长克维里卡什维利接任总理。2016年10月格举行议会选举,执政党“格鲁吉亚梦想—民主格鲁吉亚党”、反对党“统一民族运动”以及爱国者联盟等组成新一届议会,科巴希泽当选议长。经议会批准,克维里卡什维利留任总理。2017年10月格举行地方选举,“格鲁吉亚梦想—民主格鲁吉亚”党在首都第比利斯市等格多数地区赢得胜利。2018年6月,克维里卡什维利宣布辞职,巴赫塔泽接任总理。目前,“格鲁吉亚梦想—民主格鲁吉亚”党掌控格议会、政府与地方,保持一定控局能力。2018年10-11月,格举行两轮总统选举,执政党支持的独立候选人祖拉比什维利当选,任期至2024年。

[A brief history] In the 6th century BC, the kingdom of Kolkida, a slavery, was established in Georgia. The feudal state was established in the 4th to 6th centuries. The Georgian nationality was formed in the 6th-10th centuries. In the early 8th and early 9th centuries, the Kashzia, the Elekin, the Tao-Calz of the Feudal Principality and the Kingdom of Abkhazia were established. At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia was annexed by Tsarist Russia. The Democratic Republic of Georgia was established on May 26, 1918. The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic was established on February 25, 1921. Joined the Trans-Caucasus Soviet Socialist Federal Republic on March 12, 1922, and joined the Soviet Union as a member of the Federation in December of the same year. On December 5, 1936, the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic officially became a Soviet republic. The Declaration of Independence was issued on November 4, 1990, and the name of the country was “Republic of Georgia”. On April 9, 1991, it officially declared independence. On August 24, 1995, the new constitution was adopted and the country was named “Georgia.”

[Head of State] President Salome Zurabishvili (Саломе Зурабишвили) was elected in November 2018 for a term of 2024.

[Parliament] The parliament is the highest power representative body and the highest legislative body. It is a one-chamber system consisting of 150 members. Among them, 77 members are elected on a proportional basis, and 73 members are elected on a single system for a term of four years. The current parliament was elected in October 2016 and the speaker is Irakli Kobakhidze, Ираклий Кобахидзе.

[Government] Prime Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze (Мамука Бахтадзе), served in June 2018, and will serve until October 2020. The main government officials are: Foreign Minister David Zalkaliani (Давид Залкалиани), Defense Minister Levan Izoria (Ливан Изория), and Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development George Cobb Giorgi Cherkezishvili, Георгий Кобулия and so on.

[Political Situation] On May 26, 1991, the leader of the “Free Georgia Round Table”, Gamsakhurdi, was elected as the first president and was overthrown in January 1992. On March 11, 1992, former Soviet Foreign Minister Shevardnadze was appointed as the chairman of the State Council and was confirmed as the head of state in November. In November 2003, the “Rose Revolution” took place. Saakashvili was elected president in the subsequent elections and was re-elected in January 2008. On August 8, 2008, the Georgia-Russia conflict broke out. In October 2012, the parliamentary elections were held, the “Georgia Dreams” alliance won, and Ivanishvili became the prime minister and re-organized. In October 2013, Georgia held a presidential election and Margavel Rashvili was elected president. In November, Ivanishvili stepped down as Prime Minister and then Minister of Interior Gary Bashvili became Prime Minister. In December 2015, Jia announced his resignation, when Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Kveri Kashvili took over as Prime Minister. In October 2016, the parliamentary elections were held. The ruling party “Georgia Dream-Democratic Georgian Party”, the opposition “unified national movement” and the Patriot League formed a new parliament, and Kobashize was elected as the speaker. With the approval of the Parliament, Kveri Kashvili remained as Prime Minister. In October 2017, the local elections were held. The “Georgia Dreams – Democratic Georgia” party won in the majority of the capital city of Tbilisi. In June 2018, Kveri Kashvili announced his resignation and Bakhtaze took over as prime minister. At present, the “Georgia Dream-Democratic Georgia” Party controls the parliament, the government and the local government, and maintains certain control capabilities. In October-November 2018, the two rounds of presidential elections were held. The independent candidate supported by the ruling party, Zurabishvili, was elected for a term of 2024.

【经济】 2016年,格GDP为143亿美元,同比增长2.7%,人均GDP为3853美元。进出口总额120亿美元,同比增长21.0%。其中格出口21亿美元,进口99亿美元。2017年,格GDP为151.6亿美元,同比增长5%。进出口总额107亿美元,同比增长13.8%。其中格出口27.3亿美元,同比增长29.1%,进口79.8亿美元,同比增长9.4%。2018年1-9月,格GDP增长5.6%,进出口总额达91.25亿美元,同比增长20.8%。

【外交】 格现政权上台后,一方面继续谋求加入欧盟和北约,积极发展同美欧关系;另一方面主张改善同俄罗斯关系,格俄良性互动增加,经贸和人文关系有所缓和。2015年9月初,格举行驻外使节会议,强调突出外交的务实平衡性和经济外交作用,寻求对外关系的“四个发展”,即积极发展多元平衡外交;着力发展务实经济外交;恢复发展与欧亚国家关系,包括坚持对俄务实政策;加快发展对华关系等。

【军事】格鲁吉亚武装力量建于1992年4月30日。格鲁吉亚武装力量由陆军、空军、海防军和国民卫队组成。主要装备苏制或仿苏制武器,尤其是空军装备和防空武器。

[Economy] In 2016, the GDP was 14.3 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 2.7%, and the per capita GDP was 3,853 US dollars. The total import and export volume was US$12 billion, a year-on-year increase of 21.0%. Among them, the export volume was 2.1 billion US dollars and the import was 9.9 billion US dollars. In 2017, the GDP was US$15.16 billion, an increase of 5% year-on-year. The total volume of imports and exports was 10.7 billion US dollars, an increase of 13.8%. Among them, the export volume was 2.73 billion US dollars, up 29.1% year-on-year, and the import was 7.98 billion US dollars, up 9.4% year-on-year. From January to September 2018, GDP growth was 5.6%, and total import and export reached US$ 9.125 billion, a year-on-year increase of 20.8%.

[Diplomatic] After the political power came to power, on the one hand, he continued to seek to join the EU and NATO, and actively developed relations with the United States and Europe; on the other hand, he advocated improving relations with Russia, and the friendly interaction between Georgia and Russia increased, and the economic, trade and human relations have eased. At the beginning of September 2015, Gee held a diplomatic envoy meeting, emphasizing the pragmatic balance of diplomacy and the role of economic diplomacy, seeking “four developments” in foreign relations, that is, actively developing multi-balanced diplomacy; focusing on developing pragmatic economic diplomacy; restoring development and Eurasian state relations, including adhering to the pragmatic policy toward Russia; accelerating the development of relations with China.

[Military] The Georgian Armed Forces were established on April 30, 1992. The Georgian armed forces are composed of the Army, the Air Force, the Haiphong Army and the National Guard. Mainly equipped with Soviet or imitation Soviet weapons, especially air force equipment and air defense weapons.