Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste 东帝汶民主共和国

【国名】东帝汶民主共和国(Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste)。

【面积】14919平方公里。

【人口】129.6万(2017年),其中78%为土著人(巴布亚族与马来族或波利尼西亚族的混血人种),20%为印尼人,2%为华人。德顿(TETUM)语和葡萄牙语为官方语言,印尼语和英语为工作语言,德顿语为通用语和主要民族语言。约91.4%人口信奉天主教,2.6%信奉基督教,1.7%信奉伊斯兰教。

【首都】帝力,位于帝汶岛东北海岸,人口25万。全国政治、经济和文化中心,东80%以上的经济活动在此进行。

【国家元首】总统弗朗西斯科·古特雷斯·卢奥洛(Dr.Francisco Guterres Lú Olo),2017年5月20日就任东帝汶第四任总统。

【重要节日】恢复独立日(建国日):5月20日(纪念2002年5月20日联合国向东帝汶移交政权,东帝汶正式独立建国);独立公投日:8月30日(纪念1999年8月 30日在联合国主持下就东帝汶独立问题举行全民公投);独立日:11月28日(纪念1975年11月28日东帝汶独立革命阵线宣布独立);天主教节日(如圣诞节等)。

[Country name] Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste.

[Area] 14919 square kilometers.

[Population] 1.296 million (2017), 78% of which are indigenous (the mixed ethnicity of Papua and Malay or Polynesian), 20% are Indonesian and 2% are Chinese. TETUM and Portuguese are the official languages, Indonesian and English are working languages, and Teton is the lingua franca and the main national language. About 91.4% of the population believes in Catholicism, 2.6% believe in Christianity, and 1.7% believe in Islam.

[Capital] Dili, located on the northeast coast of Timor Island, has a population of 250,000. At the national political, economic and cultural center, more than 80% of the economic activities in the east are carried out here.

[Head of State] President Dr. Francisco Guterres Lú Olo, who became the fourth President of East Timor on May 20, 2017.

[Important Festival] Restoration of Independence Day (Foundation Day): May 20 (commemorating the transfer of power from the United Nations to East Timor on May 20, 2002, and the official establishment of East Timor); Independent Referendum Day: August 30 (commemorating August 1999) On the 30th, under the auspices of the United Nations, a referendum on East Timor’s independence was held); Independence Day: November 28 (commemorating the independence of the Independent Revolutionary Front of East Timor on November 28, 1975); Catholic holidays (such as Christmas, etc.).

【政治】历史上长期被葡萄牙殖民。1975 年葡政府允许东帝汶实行民族自决。主张独立的东帝汶独立革命阵线(简称“革阵”)、主张同葡维持关系的民主联盟(简称“民盟”)、主张同印尼合并的帝汶人民民主协会(简称“民协”)三方之间因政见不同引发内战。革阵于1975年11月28日单方面宣布东帝汶独立,成立东帝汶民主共和国。同年12月,印尼出兵东帝汶,次年宣布东为印尼第27个省。1975年12月联合国大会通过决议,要求印尼撤军,呼吁各国尊重东帝汶的领土完整和人民自决权利。1982年联大表决通过支持东帝汶人民自决的决议。从1983—1998年,在联合国秘书长斡旋下,葡萄牙与印尼政府就东帝汶问题进行了十几轮谈判。

1999 年1月,印尼总统哈比比在内外压力下同意东帝汶通过全民公决选择自治或脱离印尼。5月5日,印尼、葡萄牙和联合国三方就东帝汶举行全民公决签署协议。8月30日,东帝汶举行全民公决,75%的民众投票赞成独立,哈比比总统当日表示接受投票结果。投票后东帝汶亲印尼派与独立派发生流血冲突,局势恶化,约20多万难民逃至西帝汶。9月,哈比比总统宣布同意多国部队进驻东帝汶。安理会通过决议授权成立以澳大利亚为首、约8000人组成的多国部队,于9月20日正式进驻东帝汶,与印尼驻军进行权力移交。10月,印尼人民协商会议通过决议正式批准东帝汶脱离印尼。

1999 年11月,东帝汶成立具有准内阁,准立法机构性质的全国协商委员会(NCC),2000年7月成立首届过渡内阁,2001年8月举行制宪议会选举,9月15日成立制宪议会和第二届过渡内阁,2002年4月举行总统选举,东独立运动领袖凯·拉拉·夏纳纳·古斯芒(Kay Rala Xanana Gusmao)当选。2002年5月20日,东帝汶民主共和国正式成立。

东帝汶独立后,独立革命阵线(以下简称“革阵”)作为第一大党组建以其为主的首届政府,努力推进司法建设、行政管理、民族和解和经济重建,但民生问题长期突出,民众不满情绪上升。 2006年发生建国以来最大规模骚乱,澳大利亚组建国际稳定部队进驻东帝汶协助维持治安。骚乱导致马里·阿尔卡蒂里(Mari Alkatiri)总理辞职,前国务兼外交与合作部长若泽·拉莫斯·奥尔塔(Jose Ramos-Horta)接任,并于2006年7月14日组建新政府。2007年4月举行总统选举,奥尔塔当选。6月举行首届议会选举,革阵获21席,仍为第一大党;夏纳纳组建的重建全国大会党(以下简称“大会党”)获18席,并与其他政党组成议会多数联盟,赢得组阁权。8月8日新政府成立,夏纳纳出任总理;革阵成为在野党,拒绝承认新政府合法性。夏纳纳总理上台后,采取一系列措施发展经济、维护安全,但民生问题仍较为突出。2008年2月发生叛军袭击事件,奥尔塔总统受重伤,叛军头目被击毙。2012年3月和4月举行两轮总统选举,前国民军总司令鲁瓦克以60.23%得票率当选。7月举行第二届议会选举,大会党击败革阵成为议会第一大党,并联合民主党和革新阵线组成执政联盟。革阵仍为在野党。8月8日新政府成立,夏纳纳总理连任。同年底,联合国驻东帝汶综合特派团和国际稳定部队结束使命,撤离东帝汶。2015年2月,内阁大幅改组,夏纳纳总理辞职,由革阵中央委员阿劳若出任总理。2017年3月举行总统选举,革阵主席卢奥洛以57.08%得票率当选第四任总统,于5月20日正式就职,任期至2022年5月。7月议会选举,革阵获23票,联合民主党组阁。9月15日,革阵总书记阿尔卡蒂里出任总理。2018年1月26日东总统卢奥洛宣布解散议会。5月12日,东提前举行议会选举,由大会党、人民解放党(以下简称“人解党”)和人民团结繁荣党(以下简称“繁荣党”)组建的改革进步联盟获34席,赢得组阁权。6月22日,人解党主席、前总统鲁瓦克出任总理。

[Politics] It has long been colonized by Portugal in history. In 1975, the Portuguese government allowed East Timor to implement national self-determination. The independent East Timor Independent Revolutionary Front (“FRET”), the Democratic Alliance (“NLD”), which advocates maintaining relations with Portugal, and the Timorese People’s Democratic Association (“PLA”), which advocates the merger with Indonesia, The civil war was triggered by different political views. On November 28, 1975, FRETILIN unilaterally declared East Timor independence and established the Democratic Republic of East Timor. In December of the same year, Indonesia sent troops to East Timor, and the following year announced that East was the 27th province of Indonesia. In December 1975, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution demanding that Indonesia withdraw its troops and called on all countries to respect the territorial integrity of East Timor and the right of people to self-determination. In 1982, the UN General Assembly voted to adopt a resolution to support the self-determination of the East Timorese people. From 1983 to 1998, under the mediation of the UN Secretary-General, Portugal and the Indonesian government conducted more than a dozen rounds of negotiations on the East Timor issue.

In January 1999, Indonesian President Habibie agreed to allow East Timor to choose autonomy or leave Indonesia through a referendum under pressure from both inside and outside. On May 5, Indonesia, Portugal and the United Nations signed an agreement on a referendum in East Timor. On August 30, a referendum was held in East Timor, and 75% of the people voted for independence. President Habibie said on the same day that he accepted the vote. After the vote, there was a bloody clash between the pro-Indonesian faction and the independents in East Timor. The situation deteriorated and more than 200,000 refugees fled to West Timor. In September, President Habibie announced that he would agree to the presence of multinational forces in East Timor. The Security Council passed a resolution authorizing the establishment of a multinational force headed by Australia and consisting of about 8,000 people. It officially entered East Timor on September 20 and handed over power with the Indonesian garrison. In October, the Indonesian People’s Consultative Conference passed a resolution to formally approve East Timor’s departure from Indonesia.

In November 1999, Timor-Leste established the National Consultative Council (NCC) with a quasi-cabinet and quasi-legislative nature. The first transitional cabinet was established in July 2000, the Constituent Assembly election was held in August 2001, and the Constituent Assembly was established on September 15. With the second transitional cabinet, the presidential election was held in April 2002, and the leader of the Eastern Independence Movement, Kay Rala Xanana Gusmao, was elected. On 20 May 2002, the Democratic Republic of East Timor was formally established.

After the independence of East Timor, the Independent Revolutionary Front (hereinafter referred to as the “French Revolution”), as the first party to form the first government, mainly promoted judicial construction, administrative management, national reconciliation and economic reconstruction, but the issue of people’s livelihood has been prominent for a long time. Dissatisfaction rises. In 2006, the largest riots occurred since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and Australia established the International Stabilization Force to station in East Timor to help maintain law and order. The riots led to the resignation of Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri, former Minister of State and Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Jose Ramos-Horta, and the formation of a new company on July 14, 2006. government. In April 2007, the presidential election was held and Horta was elected. The first parliamentary election was held in June, and the FRETILIN won 21 seats. It is still the largest party; the Reconstruction National Congress Party (hereinafter referred to as the “Congress Party”) formed by Xanana has won 18 seats and formed a majority alliance with other political parties. Win the right to form a cabinet. On August 8th the new government was established and Xanana became the prime minister; the Faction became the opposition party and refused to recognize the legitimacy of the new government. After taking the stage, Prime Minister Xanana adopted a series of measures to develop the economy and maintain security, but the issue of people’s livelihood still stands out. In February 2008, a rebel attack occurred. President Horta was seriously injured and the rebel leader was shot dead. Two rounds of presidential elections were held in March and April 2012, and former National Army Commander Luwak was elected with a vote of 60.23%. In July, the second parliamentary election was held. The Congress Party defeated the Revolutionary Front to become the largest party in the parliament, and the United Democrats and the Revolutionary Front formed the ruling coalition. The FRETILIN is still an opposition party. On August 8, the new government was established and Prime Minister Xanana was re-elected. At the end of the year, the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste and the International Stabilization Force ended their mission and withdrew from East Timor. In February 2015, the cabinet was substantially reorganized, and Prime Minister Xanana resigned, and the member of the Central Committee of the FRETILIN, Araujo, became the prime minister. In March 2017, the presidential election was held. The Chairman of the Revolutionary Front, Luolo, was elected as the fourth president with a vote of 57.08%. He officially took office on May 20 and will serve until May 2022. In the July parliamentary elections, the Revolutionary Front won 23 votes and the United Democrats formed a cabinet. On September 15, General Secretary of the Philippines, Alkatiri, became Prime Minister. On January 26, 2018, Eastern President Loulo announced the dissolution of the parliament. On May 12, the East held parliamentary elections in advance, and the reform and progress alliance formed by the Congress Party, the People’s Liberation Party (hereinafter referred to as the “Humanitarian Party”) and the People’s Solidarity and Prosperity Party (hereinafter referred to as the “Prosperity Party”) won 34 seats and won the cabinet. right. On June 22, the chairman of the People’s Liberation Party and former President Luwak served as prime minister.

【宪法】2002年3月22日,东帝汶制宪议会通过并颁布《东帝汶民主共和国宪法》,规定东帝汶民主共和国是享有主权、独立、统一的民主法治国家,国民议会、政府和法院是国家权力机构。总统是国家元首和武装部队最高统帅,由全民直接选举产生,任期五年,可连任一届。

【国务委员会】是总统的政治咨询机构,由总统主持,成员包括前总统、国民议会议长、总理、议会按比例代表原则选出和总统委任的公民各5人。其权限为:就解散国民议会和政府、宣布战争与媾和以及《宪法》规定的其他事务发表意见。国务委员会会议不公开,委员会组成和运作由法律规定。

【国防安全高等委员会】是总统在国防、安全和主权事务方面的咨询机构,由总统主持,成员包括总理、负责国防、安全、内政和外交的部长或国务秘书、3名议会代表、国防军最高指挥官、国民警察总监、国家安全局局长和两名总统指定的公民。委员会主要权限是就国家国防安全、军警系统运作等问题向总统提供建议。国防安全高等委员会会议不公开,委员会组成和运作由法律规定。

【议会】称国民议会,实行一院制。代表全体公民行使制定法律、监督政府和政治决策权,由选民直接选举产生,共有65个议席,每届任期五年。首届国民议会由原制宪议会于2002年5月20日独立后自动过渡而成。2007年6月30日,东举行第二届议会选举,7个政党分获65个议席,其中革阵21席,重建全国大会党18席,社会民主联盟11席,民主党8席,国家统一党3席,民主联盟2席,团结党2席。2012年7月7日举行第三届议会选举,4个政党得票率超过3%,进入新一届议会。其中大会党获30席,革阵25席,民主党8席,革新阵线2席。2017年7月22日举行第四届议会选举,其中革阵23席,大会党22席,人解党8席,民主党7席,繁荣党5席。2018年5月12日举行第五届议会选举,其中由大会党、人解党和繁荣党组建的改革进步联盟34席,革阵23席,民主党5席,民主发展阵线3席。现任议长为阿朗·诺埃·德·热苏斯·达·科斯塔·阿马拉尔(Arao Noe de Jesus da Costa Amaral)。

[Constitution] On March 22, 2002, the Constitutional Assembly of East Timor adopted and promulgated the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, which stipulates that the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste is a sovereign, independent and unified democratic and rule-of-law country. The National Assembly, the government and the courts are the state powers. . The President is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces. It is directly elected by the whole people and has a five-year term of office.

[State Council] is the president’s political advisory body, chaired by the president. The members include the former president, the president of the National Assembly, the prime minister, and the parliament’s proportional representation principle and five citizens appointed by the president. Its authority is to express opinions on the dissolution of the National Assembly and the government, the declaration of war and defamation, and other matters stipulated in the Constitution. The meetings of the Council of State are not open, and the composition and operation of the committee are prescribed by law.

The National Defense Security High Commission is the president’s advisory body on defense, security, and sovereignty. It is chaired by the president and includes members of the prime minister, ministers or state secretaries responsible for defense, security, internal affairs, and diplomacy, three parliamentary representatives, and the highest command of the National Defense Forces. Official, National Police Director, Director of the National Security Agency and two citizens designated by the President. The main authority of the committee is to advise the president on issues such as national defense security and the operation of the military and police system. The meeting of the National Defense Security High Commission is not open, and the composition and operation of the committee are prescribed by law.

[Parliament] called the National Assembly and implemented a one-chamber system. Representing all citizens in exercising the law, supervising the government and political decision-making power, directly elected by the voters, a total of 65 seats, each term of five years. The first National Assembly was automatically converted from the original Constitutional Assembly on May 20, 2002 after independence. On June 30, 2007, the second parliamentary election was held in East. Seven political parties were divided into 65 seats, including 21 seats in the Revolutionary Faction, 18 seats in the National Congress, 11 in the Social Democratic Alliance, and 8 in the Democratic Party. 3 seats, 2 seats in the Democratic Alliance and 2 seats in the United Party. The third parliamentary election was held on July 7, 2012. Four political parties won more than 3% of the votes and entered the new parliament. Among them, the Congress Party won 30 seats, the Revolutionary Party has 25 seats, the Democratic Party has 8 seats, and the Innovation Front has 2 seats. On July 22, 2017, the fourth parliamentary election was held, including 23 seats in the Revolutionary Circle, 22 seats in the General Assembly, 8 seats in the People’s Liberation Party, 7 seats in the Democratic Party, and 5 seats in the Prosperous Party. On May 12, 2018, the fifth parliamentary election was held. Among them, 34 reform and progress alliances were formed by the Congress Party, the People’s Liberation Party and the Prosperity Party. There were 23 seats in the Revolutionary Party, 5 seats in the Democratic Party and 3 seats in the Democratic Development Front. The current speaker is Arao Noe de Jesus da Costa Amaral.

【政府】由总理、部长、副部长和国务秘书组成,向总统和国民议会负责。总理是政府首脑,由议会中拥中最多席位的政党或政党联盟提名,总统任命。副总理、部长和国务秘书由总理提名,总统任命。

本届政府成立于2018年6月22日,首批内阁成员包括:总理塔乌尔·马坦·鲁瓦克(Taur Matan Luwak),部长理事会国务部长埃梅内吉尔多·奥古斯托·卡布拉尔·佩雷拉(Hermenegildo Augusto Cabral Pereira),立法改革与议会事务部长菲得利斯·曼努埃尔·莱特·马加良斯(Fidélis Manuel Leite Magalhães),外交与合作部长迪奥尼西奥·达·科斯塔·巴博·苏亚雷斯(Dionisio da Costa Babo Soares),司法部长曼努埃尔·卡尔瑟勒斯·达·科斯塔(Manuel Carceres da Costa),教育、青年与体育部长杜尔塞·德·热苏斯·苏亚雷斯(Dulce de Jesus Soares),高等教育、科学与文化部长隆吉尼奥斯·多斯·桑托斯(Longuinhos dos Santos),社会救济与包容部长阿曼达·贝尔塔·多斯·桑托斯(Armanda Berta dos Santos),公共工程部长萨尔瓦多·苏亚雷斯·多斯·雷斯·皮雷斯(Salvador Soares dos Reis Pires),交通与通讯部长若泽·阿戈什蒂纽·达·席尔瓦(José Agostinho da Silva),农业与渔业部长若阿金·若泽·古斯芒·多斯·雷斯·马丁斯(Joaquim José Gusmao dos Reis Martins)。

【行政区划】共设13个地区(Districts),区以下设65个县(Sub-Districts),443个乡(“苏古”,Sucos)和2236个村(Aldeias)。

【司法机构】法院由最高法院、地方法院、行政、税务和审计高等法院和初审行政法院、军事法院组成。最高法院院长由总统任命,任期四年。东迄未成立最高法院,最高上诉法院 作为终审法院行使最高法院和宪法法院职能。现任最高上诉法院院长为德奥林多·多斯·桑托斯(Deolindo Dos Santos)。

总检察院是最高检察机关。总检察长由总统任命,任期4年,对总统负责,每年向国民议会报告工作。现任总检察长若泽·达科斯塔·希梅内斯(José da Costa Ximenes)。

[Government] is composed of the Prime Minister, Minister, Deputy Minister and Secretary of State and is responsible to the President and the National Assembly. The prime minister is the head of government, nominated by the party or party coalition with the most seats in the parliament, and appointed by the president. The Deputy Prime Minister, Minister and Secretary of State are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the President.

The current government was established on June 22, 2018. The first cabinet members include: Prime Minister Taur Matan Luwak, Minister of State of the Council of Ministers Emene Giordo Augusto Hermenegildo Augusto Cabral Pereira, Minister of Legislative Reform and Parliamentary Affairs, Fidélis Manuel Leite Magalhães, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Dionysio Dionisio da Costa Babo Soares, Minister of Justice Manuel Carceres da Costa, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports Dürr Dulce de Jesus Soares, Minister of Higher Education, Science and Culture Longuinhos dos Santos, Minister of Social Relief and Inclusion Amanda Berta Armanda Berta dos Santos, Minister of Public Works Salvador Soares dos Reis Pires, Transportation and Communication Minister José Agostinho da Silva, Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Joaquim José Gusmao dos (Joaquim José Gusmao dos Reis Martins).

[Administrative Division] There are 13 districts (Districts), with 65 sub-districts, 443 townships (“Sugu”, Sucos) and 2,236 villages (Aldeias).

[Judiciary] The court consists of the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Administrative, Tax and Audit High Court, the First-instance Administrative Court, and the Military Court. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President for a four-year term. The Supreme Court has not been established in the East, and the Supreme Court of Appeal has exercised the functions of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court as The current President of the Court of Cassation is Deolindo Dos Santos.

The General Prosecutor’s Office is the highest procuratorate. The Attorney General is appointed by the President for a four-year term and is accountable to the President and reports to the National Assembly every year. The current Attorney General, José da Costa Ximenes.

【政党】2004年东颁布《政党法》。目前有注册政党26个。东主要政党包括:

(1)东帝汶全国重建大会党(Congresso National de Reconstucao Timorense/National Congress of Timor Leste Re construction,简称CNRT,大会党):由夏纳纳于2007年3月27日创建。自称有党员20万,主要包括前“帝汶抵抗运动全国委员会”成员、其他中小政党前领导和骨干以及夏纳纳的追随者。主张改革与创新,倡导思想多元化,鼓励民众广泛参与国家重大决策。重视国家经济恢复和发展,提倡权力下放,鼓励采取更加开放、灵活的经济政策。党主席为夏纳纳,总书记为前旅游、文化与艺术部长黎发芳。

(2)东帝汶独立革命阵线(Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor,简称革阵,葡语简称为 FRETILIN),1974年5月20日成立,系东最早的政党之一,原名帝汶社会民主协会(ASDT),1974年9月11日改现名。自称有党员20 万,组织严密。1975年11月28日单方面宣布成立东帝汶民主共和国。同年12月7日印尼占领东帝汶后,部分成员流亡海外,其余在国内坚持抵抗斗争。1999年东启动独立进程后,革阵重新整合,提出恢复民主独立、巩固民族团结,建立多党民主法治国家等主张,获得广泛支持,并赢得2001年8月制宪议会选举。2002年组建以该党为主的首届政府,总书记阿尔卡蒂里任总理。党主席为卢奥洛,总书记为阿尔卡蒂里。

(3)民主党(Partido Demoratico/Democratic Party,简称PD):2001年6月10日成立,骨干多为青年学生和知识界人士,主张在民主法制基础上团结和发展国家,实现社会多元、公正和自由,提高人民生活水平。党主席为前农渔业部长马里阿诺·阿萨纳米·萨比诺,总书记为前国务部长兼社会事务协调人兼教育部长安东尼奥·德·孔塞桑。

(4)人民解放党(Partidu Libertasaun Popular/People’s Liberation Party):2015年12月22日成立,骨干多为具有良好教育背景的新一代社会精英,以“将东帝汶建设为富强安全的国家”为宗旨。党主席为塔乌尔·马坦·鲁瓦克。

(5)人民团结繁荣党(Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan,简称KHUNTO):2011年6月22日成立,由东最大的武术团体帝汶人民繁荣中心创始人奈莫里创建。目前该党正式成员有近4万人。党主席为阿曼达,总书记为达席瓦尔。

(6)东帝汶全国重建革新阵线(Frente de Reconstrucao Nacional de Timor-Lester-Mudanca),简称革新阵线(Frente-Mudansa)。2011年7月19日成立,前身为革阵革新派。主要领导人为原革阵党员,成员多为青年人。主张改革开放,注重团结党员,为党员谋利益。党主席为古特雷斯,总书记为若热·达·孔塞桑·特梅。

其它政党有:社会民主协会(ASDT)、社会民主党(PSD)、国家团结党(PUN)、英雄党(KOTA)、帝汶抵抗力量民族民主团结党 (UNDERTIM)、帝汶民主联盟(UDT)、共和党(PR)、国家发展党(PDN)、劳工党(Trabalhista)、民主帝汶党(PTD)、人民发展党(PDP)、民主千年党(PMD)、国家共和党(PARENTIL)、帝汶社会党(PST)、基督教民主党 (PDC)、自由民主党(PDL)、帝汶人民君主协会(APMT)、底层人民解放党(PLPA)、共和民主党(PDRT)、帝汶国家党(PNT)、帝汶人民党(PPT)。

[Party] In 2004, the East Party promulgated the “Party Law.” There are currently 26 registered political parties. The main political parties in the East include:

(1) Congresso National de Reconstucao Timorense/National Congress of Timor Leste Re construction (CNRT, Congress Party): Created by Shana on March 27, 2007. He claimed to have 200,000 members, mainly including members of the former “National Committee of the Timorese Resistance”, other leaders and backbones of small and medium-sized political parties, and followers of Xanana. Advocate reform and innovation, advocate diversification of ideas, and encourage people to participate in major national decision-making. Pay attention to the recovery and development of the national economy, promote decentralization, and encourage more open and flexible economic policies. The party chairman is Xanana, and the general secretary is Li Fafang, former Minister of Tourism, Culture and Art.

(2) The Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (referred to as FRETILIN in Portuguese) was established on May 20, 1974. It was one of the earliest parties in the East, formerly known as the Timor Social Democratic Association (ASDT). ), changed its name on September 11, 1974. He claimed to have 200,000 members and is well organized. The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was unilaterally announced on November 28, 1975. After the Indonesian occupation of East Timor on December 7, the same year, some members were exiled overseas, and the rest insisted on resistance in the country. After the start of the independence process in 1999, the Revolutionary Front re-integrated and proposed the idea of ​​restoring democratic independence, consolidating national unity, establishing a multi-party democracy and rule of law, receiving broad support and winning the August 2001 Constituent Assembly election. In 2002, the first government based on the party was formed, and General Secretary Alkatiri was appointed Prime Minister. The party chairman is Luolo, and the general secretary is Alkatiri.

(3) Partido Demoratico/Democratic Party (PD): Established on June 10, 2001. Most of the backbones are young students and intellectuals. They advocate unity and development of the country on the basis of democracy and the legal system, and realize social pluralism and justice. Freedom and improve people’s living standards. The party chairman is the former Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, Mariano Asaño Sabino, and the general secretary is former Minister of State and Social Affairs Coordinator and Minister of Education Antonio de Conceição.

(4) Partidu Libertasaun Popular/People’s Liberation Party: Established on December 22, 2015. The backbone is mostly a new generation of social elites with a good educational background, with the purpose of “building East Timor as a strong and safe country”. . The party chairman is Taur Martan Luwak.

(5) Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan (KHUNTO): Established on June 22, 2011, was founded by Nemoli, founder of the Timorese People’s Prosperity Center, the largest martial arts group in the East. At present, there are nearly 40,000 members of the party. The party chairman is Amanda and the general secretary is Da Shiwar.

(6) The Frente de Reconstrucao Nacional de Timor-Lester-Mudanca, referred to as the Frente-Mudansa. It was established on July 19, 2011, and was formerly known as the Revolutionary School. The main leaders are members of the former FRETIFAC and members are mostly young people. Advocating reform and opening up, focusing on uniting party members and seeking benefits for party members. The party chairman is Guterres, and the general secretary is Jorge da Conceição Teme.

Other political parties include the Social Democratic Association (ASDT), the Social Democratic Party (PSD), the National Unity Party (PUN), the Heroes (KOTA), the Timorese Resistance National Democratic Unity (UNDERTIM), the Timorese Democratic Alliance (UDT), Republican Party (PR), National Development Party (PDN), Labor Party (Trabalhista), Democratic Temporary Party (PTD), People’s Development Party (PDP), Democratic Millennium Party (PMD), National Republican Party (PARENTIL), Timor Socialist Party ( PST), Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Liberal Democratic Party (PDL), Timorese People’s Sovereignty Association (APMT), Lower People’s Liberation Party (PLPA), Republican Democratic Party (PDRT), Timorese National Party (PNT), Timorese People’s Party (PPT).

【重要人物】弗朗西斯科·古特雷斯·卢奥洛:总统。1954年9月出生于东帝汶维维立克地区。高中毕业后任中学辅导教员。1974年加入反印尼武装斗争,次年加入东帝汶独立革命阵线。1976年任东帝汶东部地区副书记。1987年任革阵武装斗争领导委员会副书记。2001年在革阵第一次全国党代会上当选主席,同年当选制宪议会议长。2002年东帝汶独立后,转任首任国会议长,连任至2007年。2007年和2012年两度参加总统选举失利。2017年再度参加总统选举获胜,5月20日就职。夫人西达利亚·莫西尼奥,有三子。

塔乌尔·马坦·鲁瓦克:总理。1956年10月出生于东帝汶包考地区。曾任东国防军司令。2012年4月当选东第三任总统。2015年12月创立人民解放党,系该党主席。对华友好,曾多次访华,2015年以总统身份来华出席中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年纪念活动。

夏纳纳:东帝汶独立运动领袖,被誉为“东帝汶的曼德拉”。1974年加入东帝汶独立革命阵线。2002年至2007年任东帝汶首任总统。2007年8月出任总理,2012年8月连任。2015年2月,东内阁改组,夏纳纳转任规划与战略投资部长、东海域划界代表,仍为东政坛实权人物。对华友好,重视我大国地位,期待我支持东经济发展。夏曾多次非正式访华,2014年以总理身份正式访华并出席博鳌亚洲论坛年会。

【经济】东帝汶经济发展水平落后,结构失衡,严重依赖油气收入和外国援助,非油气经济主要以传统服务业和农业为主。近年来,东帝汶政府将减少贫困和增加就业作为施政重点,逐步增加财政预算,扩大公共支出,鼓励外来投资,以拉动非油气经济增长。主要经济数据如下:

国内生产总值:17亿美元(2017年)

人均国内生产总值:1299美元(2017年)

经济增长率:-1.8%(2017年)

货币名称:通用美元,发行与美元等值的本国硬币。

通货膨胀率:0.6%(2015年)

贫困率:41.8%(每天生活费低于2美元,2014年)

失业率:33.2%(2012年)

【资源】主要矿藏有金、锰、铬、锡、铜等。帝汶海石油和天然气资源富集,迄已发现44块油田,探明石油储量约1.87亿吨(约50亿桶),天然气储量约7000亿立方米。2005年7月设立石油基金,截至2013年底,石油基金滚存至约150亿美元。截至2016年底,东石油基金累计为158亿美元。

【工农业】以印刷、肥皂、手帕、纺织业为主。年发电量1.37亿千瓦时。耕地面积23万公顷,农业人口占总人口71.4%。主要农作物为玉米、稻谷、薯类等,粮食不能自给自足。主要经济作物为咖啡、橡胶、椰子等。

【旅游业】多山、湖、泉、海滩,发展旅游业具有一定潜力,但旅游资源尚待开发。国际航班少。除帝力外,其他地区旅游实施落后。2014年接待外国旅客17.8万人次。

[Important] Francisco Guterres Luolo: President. Born in September 1954 in the Vivilik area of ​​East Timor. After graduating from high school, he was a secondary school counselor. He joined the anti-Indonesian armed struggle in 1974 and joined the East Timor Independent Revolutionary Front the following year. In 1976, he served as deputy secretary of the eastern region of East Timor. In 1987, he served as deputy secretary of the Revolutionary Armed Forces Leadership Committee. In 2001, he was elected as the chairman of the first National Party Congress of the Revolutionary Front, and in the same year he was elected as the president of the constitutional assembly. After the independence of East Timor in 2002, he was transferred to the first president of the country and re-elected until 2007. In 2007 and 2012, he participated in the presidential election twice. In 2017, he won the presidential election again and took office on May 20. Mrs. Sidalia Mosinho, has three sons.

Taur Martan Luwak: Prime Minister. Born in October 1956 in the Baucau area of ​​East Timor. Former commander of the East Defence Force. In April 2012, he was elected the third president of the East. The People’s Liberation Party was founded in December 2015 and is the chairman of the party. He has been visiting China for many times. He visited China in 2015 as a president and attended the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War.

Xanana: The leader of the East Timor independence movement, known as “Mandela of East Timor.” Joined the East Timor Independent Revolutionary Front in 1974. From 2002 to 2007, he served as the first president of East Timor. In August 2007, he became Prime Minister and was re-elected in August 2012. In February 2015, the Eastern Cabinet was reorganized, and Xanana was transferred to the Minister of Planning and Strategic Investment, the demarcation of the East China Sea, and still a real power figure in the East. I am friendly to China, attach importance to the status of my great power, and look forward to my support for the economic development of the East. Xia has visited China informally many times. In 2014, he officially visited China as a prime minister and attended the annual meeting of the Boao Forum for Asia.

[Economy] East Timor’s economic development level is backward, its structure is unbalanced, and it relies heavily on oil and gas revenues and foreign aid. The non-oil and gas economy is mainly based on traditional service industries and agriculture. In recent years, the Timorese government has reduced poverty and increased employment as the focus of governance, gradually increasing the budget, expanding public spending, and encouraging foreign investment to boost non-oil and gas economic growth. The main economic data are as follows:

Gross domestic product: $1.7 billion (2017)

Per capita GDP: $1,299 (2017)

Economic growth rate: -1.8% (2017)

Currency Name: General US Dollar, issuing domestic coins equivalent to the US dollar.

Inflation rate: 0.6% (2015)

Poverty rate: 41.8% (living daily cost is less than $2, 2014)

Unemployment rate: 33.2% (2012)

[Resources] The main mineral deposits include gold, manganese, chromium, tin and copper. The oil and natural gas resources of the Timor Sea have been enriched. So far, 44 oil fields have been discovered. The proven oil reserves are about 187 million tons (about 5 billion barrels) and the natural gas reserves are about 700 billion cubic meters. The oil fund was established in July 2005. By the end of 2013, the oil fund had been rolled over to approximately $15 billion. As of the end of 2016, the East Petroleum Fund accumulated a total of 15.8 billion US dollars.

[Industry and Agriculture] is mainly based on printing, soap, handkerchief and textile industry. The annual power generation is 137 million kWh. The cultivated land area is 230,000 hectares, and the agricultural population accounts for 71.4% of the total population. The main crops are corn, rice, and potatoes, and food cannot be self-sufficient. The main cash crops are coffee, rubber, coconut and so on.

[Tourism] There are certain potentials for the development of tourism in mountainous areas, lakes, springs and beaches, but tourism resources have yet to be developed. Less international flights. Except for Dili, tourism in other regions is lagging behind. In 2014, it received 178,000 foreign tourists.

【交通运输】基础设施落后,交通不便。

公路:总长10820公里,许多道路只能在旱季通车。

水运:帝力港为深水港,另有COM海港、HERA渔港等,货物吞吐量为5000至8000吨。

空运:共有3个一级机场、5个二级机场。帝力机场为东唯一国际机场,可起降波音737型客机,共有3条往返新加坡、巴厘岛和达尔文的国际航线。

【财政金融】2016年财政收入15.62亿美元,预算收入与支出持平。境内有葡萄牙国民海外银行(BNU)、澳新银行(ANZ)、印尼曼迪利(Mandiri)银行等外资银行。2015年外汇储备4.38亿美元。

【对外贸易】积极发展外贸,努力扩大出口。主要出口产品为咖啡、木材、橡胶、椰子等经济作物,进口燃油、谷物、车辆、机电设备等。2017年进出口总额为1.95亿美元,进口额为1.89亿美元,出口额为0.06亿美元。2018年前三季度进出口总额为4.3亿美元,进口额为4.1亿美元,出口额为0.2亿美元。主要进口国为印尼、马来西亚、新加坡、中国等,出口国为德国、日本等。

【外国投资】2015年吸引外资4300万美元。主要投资方为新加坡、泰国、葡萄牙、澳大利亚、英国、韩国、美国等,集中在基础设施建设、咖啡种植、旅游等行业。

【国际援助】1999年底,世行首次召开东帝汶捐助国会议(2003年6月改名为“东帝汶与发展伙伴会议”),此后会议每半年召开一次,讨论东财政预算和国家发展战略,并设立两个基金,即由联合国经管的统一信托基金(CFET)和世行经管的东帝汶信托基金(TFET),作为对东捐助渠道。1999年以来,共有澳大利亚、葡萄牙、日本、美国、联合国有关机构、欧盟等37个国家和国际组织向东提供援助。

【人民生活】被联合国列为全球最不发达国家之一,超过40%的居民每日生活费不足2美元。全国有6家医院,县一级设有卫生中心,仅能向60%人口提供医疗卫生服务。出生率5.7%,5岁以下儿童死亡率5.6%。近50%的儿童营养不良,半数以上人口无饮用水,预期寿命62.5岁。

【军事】东帝汶国防军(F-FDTL)于2001年2月成立,前身为成立于1975年8月的东帝汶民族解放军。总司令莱雷·蒂穆尔(Lere Timur)。实行志愿兵役制,现有兵力两千余人。

东独立过渡期间,由联合国维和部队担负防务工作。独立后,联合国向东派驻维和警察。2006年东发生大规模骚乱,澳大利亚组建国际稳定部队进驻东帝汶。2012年底,联合国驻东帝汶维和警察和国际稳定部队撤离东帝汶。

[Transportation] The infrastructure is backward and the traffic is inconvenient.

Highway: The total length is 10,820 kilometers, and many roads can only be opened to traffic during the dry season.

Water transport: Dili Port is a deep-water port, and there are also COM ports, HERA fishing ports, etc. The cargo throughput is 5,000 to 8,000 tons.

Air transport: There are 3 primary airports and 5 secondary airports. Dili Airport is the only international airport in the east. It can take off and land the Boeing 737. There are 3 international routes to and from Singapore, Bali and Darwin.

[Financial Finance] The fiscal revenue in 2016 was 1.562 billion US dollars, and the budget revenue was the same as the expenditure. There are foreign banks such as the Portuguese National Overseas Bank (BNU), ANZ Bank (ANZ) and Indonesian Mandiri Bank. In 2015, foreign exchange reserves were 438 million US dollars.

[Foreign Trade] Actively develop foreign trade and strive to expand exports. The main export products are coffee, wood, rubber, coconut and other cash crops, imported fuel, grain, vehicles, mechanical and electrical equipment. In 2017, the total import and export volume was 195 million US dollars, the import value was 189 million US dollars, and the export value was 0.06 billion US dollars. In the first three quarters of 2018, the total import and export volume was US$430 million, the import value was US$410 million, and the export value was US$0.2 billion. The main importing countries are Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China, etc., and the exporting countries are Germany and Japan.

[Foreign Investment] In 2015, foreign investment was attracted by US$43 million. The main investors are Singapore, Thailand, Portugal, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Korea, the United States, etc., concentrated in infrastructure construction, coffee planting, tourism and other industries.

[International Aid] At the end of 1999, the World Bank held the first meeting of donors in East Timor (renamed “East Timor and Development Partners Conference” in June 2003). Since then, the meeting has been held semi-annually to discuss the Eastern Budget and the National Development Strategy, and to establish two Funds, the United Nations-administered Unified Trust Fund (CFET) and the World Bank-administered East Timor Trust Fund (TFET), serve as a channel for donors to the East. Since 1999, a total of 37 countries and international organizations including Australia, Portugal, Japan, the United States, relevant UN agencies, and the European Union have provided assistance to the east.

[People’s Life] is listed by the United Nations as one of the least developed countries in the world, and more than 40% of residents live on less than $2 a day. There are 6 hospitals across the country, and there are health centers at the county level, which can only provide medical and health services to 60% of the population. The birth rate is 5.7% and the mortality rate for children under 5 years old is 5.6%. Nearly 50% of children are malnourished, more than half of the population has no drinking water, and the life expectancy is 62.5 years.

[Military] The East Timor Defence Force (F-FDTL) was established in February 2001. It was formerly known as the East Timor National Liberation Army established in August 1975. Commander-in-Chief, Lere Timur. The implementation of the voluntary military service system, the existing strength of more than 2,000 people.

During the transition period of the East independence, the UN peacekeeping forces took on the defense work. After independence, the United Nations sent a peacekeeping police to the east. In 2006, a large-scale riot occurred in the east, and Australia established the International Stabilization Force to station in East Timor. At the end of 2012, the United Nations Peacekeeping Police in East Timor and the International Stabilization Force withdrew from East Timor.

【教育】共有小学700所,初中100所,科技院校10所。东帝汶国立大学于2000年11月重新开办,在校生500人。15岁以上成年文盲率50.6%,入学率为82.7%。

【新闻出版】主要报纸有:《帝汶邮报》(Timor Post),2002年11月8日创办的葡语报,日发行量约2000份。《东帝汶之声》(Suara Timor Lorosae),德顿语、印尼语和葡语报,日发行量约2000份。尚未成立通讯社,主要葡语新闻来源于葡萄牙卢萨社(LUSA,又名葡通社)。

电台和电视台有:东帝汶国家广播电视台(RTTL),东帝汶之声电台和电视台。广播节目覆盖率90%,电视节目覆盖率30%,用葡语和德顿语播出。

【外交】奉行务实平衡、睦邻友好的外交政策。重视发展与澳大利亚、印尼、美国、葡萄牙等葡共体国家、太平洋岛国关系,广泛寻求国际援助。迄已同100多个国家建交, 包括中国在内的15个国家在帝力设立大使馆(或代表处),并派遣常驻大使或代表。阿根廷等30多个国家向东派驻非常任大使或代表。东在中国、葡萄牙、马来西亚、印尼、澳大利亚(兼驻新西兰)、美国、比利时和莫桑比克等国建立大使馆,在纽约设立常驻联合国代表处(常驻代表兼驻美大使),向布鲁塞尔派出常驻欧盟代表(兼驻比利时大使),在悉尼设立总领馆,在印尼巴厘岛和古邦设立领事馆。积极发展与葡萄牙及葡语国家关系。为2014-2016葡共体轮值主席国。2014年主办葡共体峰会。

重视同联合国等国际组织的关系。现已加入22个国际组织,其中2002年8月加入葡语国家共同体(第8个成员国),9月27日加入联合国(第191个会员国)及联合国儿童基金会、联合国开发计划署、联合国难民事务高级专员公署、联合国人权事务高级专员办事处、联合国妇女发展基金会、联合国人口基金、世界粮食计划署、世界卫生组织等。同年还加入了世界银行、国际货币基金组织、亚洲开发银行、国际刑事法院、国际刑事警察组织。现有20个国际组织在帝力设立了办事处。2011年9月,夏纳纳总理赴美出席第66届联大期间会晤联合国秘书长潘基文。2012年8月,联合国秘书长潘基文访问东帝汶。

1999年东帝汶举行全民公投以来,为帮助东组建政府并维持治安,联合国先后向东派驻了以下机构:联合国驻东帝汶特派团(UNAMET,1999年6月)、联合国东帝汶过渡行政当局(UNTAET,1999年10月至2002年5月)、联合国东帝汶支助团(UNMISET,2002年5月至2005年5月)、联合国东帝汶办事处(UNOTIL,2005年5月至2006年5月)、联合国东帝汶综合特派团(UNMIT,2006年8月至2012年12月)。

[Education] There are 700 primary schools, 100 junior high schools, and 10 science and technology institutions. The National University of Timor-Leste was reopened in November 2000 with 500 students. The adult illiteracy rate of 15 years and older is 50.6%, and the enrollment rate is 82.7%.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers are: “Timor Post”, the Portuguese-language newspaper, which was founded on November 8, 2002, with a daily circulation of about 2,000 copies. Suara Timor Lorosae, Tetum, Indonesian and Portuguese, has a daily circulation of about 2,000 copies. The news agency has not yet been established. The main Portuguese-speaking news comes from the Portuguese Lusa (LUSA, also known as the Portuguese News Agency).

Radio and television stations are: East Timor National Radio and Television (RTTL), East Timor Voice Radio and TV. The coverage of radio programs is 90%, and the coverage of TV programs is 30%. It is broadcast in Portuguese and Tetum.

[Diplomacy] Pursuing a foreign policy of pragmatic balance and good neighborliness and friendship. Attach importance to the development of relations with Australia, Indonesia, the United States, Portugal and other Portuguese countries, Pacific island countries, and extensively seek international assistance. Up to now, more than 100 countries have established diplomatic relations, and 15 countries including China have established embassies (or representative offices) in Dili and dispatched permanent ambassadors or representatives. More than 30 countries, including Argentina, have sent permanent ambassadors or representatives to the east. East established embassies in China, Portugal, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia (also in New Zealand), the United States, Belgium and Mozambique, and established a permanent representative office in the United Nations (resident representative and ambassador to the United States) to send out frequently to Brussels. Representative to the European Union (also ambassador to Belgium), set up a consulate in Sydney and a consulate in Bali and Kupang, Indonesia. Actively develop relations with Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking countries. For the 2014-2016 Portuguese Community rotating presidency. Hosted the Portuguese Community Summit in 2014.

Attach importance to relations with international organizations such as the United Nations. Has now joined 22 international organizations, including the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (8th Member State) in August 2002, and the United Nations (191st Member State) and UNICEF, the United Nations Development Programme, on September 27 The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Development Fund for Women, the United Nations Population Fund, the World Food Programme, the World Health Organization, etc. In the same year, he also joined the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, the International Criminal Court, and the International Criminal Police Organization. There are currently 20 international organizations that have established offices in Dili. In September 2011, Prime Minister Xanana went to the United States to attend the 66th UN General Assembly and met with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. In August 2012, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited East Timor.

Since the referendum in East Timor in 1999, in order to help the East to form a government and maintain law and order, the United Nations has sent the following agencies to the East: United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET, June 1999), United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET, 1999) October-May 2002), United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET, May 2002-May 2005), United Nations Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL, May 2005-May 2006), United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste Mission (UNMIT, August 2006 to December 2012).