Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国

【国 名】 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国(Democratic People’s Republic of Korea)。

【面 积】 12.3万平方公里。

【人 口】 约2400万。单一民族,通用朝鲜语。

【首 都】 平壤(Pyongyang),面积2629.4平方公里,人口约325万,下设18个区、4个郡。年平均气温9.7℃。

【最高领导人】 金正恩(Kim Jong Un),朝鲜劳动党委员长、国务委员会委员长、朝鲜人民军最高司令官。

【重要节日】 2月16日:光明星节,朝鲜前最高领导人金正日诞辰日。4月15日:太阳节,前国家主席金日成诞辰日。9月9日:国庆节。10月10日:朝鲜劳动党建党纪念日。

【简 况】 位于亚洲东部朝鲜半岛北半部。北部与中国为邻,东北与俄罗斯接壤。平均海拔高度440米,山地约占国土面积的80%。

1910年至1945年,朝鲜半岛沦为日本殖民地。1945年8月日本投降,苏美军队分别进驻半岛北南部。1948年9月9日朝鲜民主主义人民共和国宣告成立。金日成长期担任朝鲜最高领导人。1994年金日成逝世后,金正日接班担任朝鲜最高领导人。2011年12月金正日逝世后,金正恩接班任朝鲜最高领导人。

[Country name] Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

[area] 123,000 square kilometers.

[People] About 24 million. Single nation, GM Korean.

[Citizen] Pyongyang, with an area of ​​2629.4 square kilometers and a population of about 3.25 million, has 18 districts and 4 counties. The annual average temperature is 9.7 °C.

[Supreme Leader] Kim Jong Un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea, Chairman of the State Council, and Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army.

[Important Festival] February 16th: The Light Star Festival, the birthday of Kim Jong Il, the former top leader of North Korea. April 15th: The Sun Festival, the birthday of former President Kim Il Sung. September 9th: National Day. October 10: The Korean Workers’ Party Founding Day.

[Profile] Located in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula in eastern Asia. The north is bordered by China and the northeast is bordered by Russia. The average altitude is 440 meters, and the mountains account for about 80% of the country’s land area.

From 1910 to 1945, the Korean peninsula became a Japanese colony. In August 1945, Japan surrendered and the Soviet-US troops entered the northeastern part of the peninsula. On September 9, 1948, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was proclaimed. Kim Il Sung has served as the top leader of North Korea for a long time. After the death of Kim Il Sung in 1994, Kim Jong Il took over as the top leader of North Korea. After Kim Jong Il’s death in December 2011, Kim Jong-un took over as the top leader of North Korea.

【宪 法】 1972年颁布《朝鲜民主主义人民共和国社会主义宪法》,1992、1998年、2009年、2012年、2013年、2016年进行修订。

【议 会】 最高人民会议,是国家最高权力机关。议员由选举产生,每届任期5年。闭会期间的常设机构为最高人民会议常任委员会。常任委员会委员长代表国家,与外国元首互换贺电、贺信,接受外国使节递交的国书。2014年4月,选举产生第13届最高人民会议议员687名。现任常任委员会委员长金永南,副委员长杨亨燮、金英大,名誉副委员长金英柱、崔永林。现任议长崔泰福,副议长安东春、李惠正。

【国务委员会】 2016年,朝举行最高人民会议第13届4次会议。会议修改宪法,新设国务委员会,取代原国防委员会,向最高人民会议负责,每届任期5年。国务委员会是朝鲜最高国防指导机关。国务委员会委员长为朝国家最高领导人。现任委员长金正恩,副委员长崔龙海、朴凤柱。

【政 府】 内阁,国家最高行政执行机关,每届任期5年。本届内阁主要成员有:总理朴凤柱,副总理卢斗哲、任哲雄、金德勋、李周五、李龙男、全光虎、李茂英、高仁浩、董正浩。国家计划委员会委员长卢斗哲(兼)、国家保卫相郑京泽、人民武力相努光铁、化学工业相张吉龙、农业相高仁浩(兼)、外务相李勇浩、电力工业相金万寿、煤炭工业相文明学、金属工业相金忠杰、铁道相张赫、陆海运相姜宗宽、采掘工业相李学哲、国家资源开发相李春三、原油工业相裴鹤、林业相韩龙国、原子能工业相王昌旭、电子工业相金载诚、邮政相金光哲、建设建材工业相朴勋、国家建设监督相权成浩、食品日用品工业相赵永哲、水产相宋春燮、财政相奇光浩、国家价格委员会委员长崔强、劳动相郑永洙、对外经济相金英才、国家科技委员会委员长李忠吉、国家科学院院长张哲、国土环境保护相金景俊、城市经营相姜永洙、收购粮政相文应祖、商业相金庆男、教育委员会委员长兼普通教育相金昇斗、金日成综合大学校长兼教育委员会高等教育相太亨彻、保健相张俊尚、文化相朴春男、体育相金日国、体育指导委员会委员长崔辉、中央银行总裁金天钧、中央统计局长崔胜虎、内阁事务长金英浩。

【行政区划】 全国划分为1个直辖市、2个特别市和9个道,分别为平壤市、南浦市、罗先市、平安南道、平安北道、慈江道、两江道、咸镜南道、咸镜北道、江原道、黄海南道、黄海北道。

【司法机构】 审判机关有中央裁判所、道(直辖市)裁判所、人民裁判所(基层法院)和特别裁判所。中央裁判所是国家最高审判机关,所长由最高人民会议选举产生,任期5年。现任所长康润石,2016年6月任职。

检察机关有中央检察所、道(直辖市)、市(区)、郡检察所和特别检察所。中央检察所是国家最高检察机关,所长由最高人民会议任命,任期5年。现任所长金铭吉,2017年4月任职。

[Constitution] The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was promulgated in 1972, and was revised in 1992, 1998, 2009, 2012, 2013, and 2016.

[Meetings] The Supreme People’s Assembly is the highest authority of the state. Members are elected and each term is five years. The permanent institution during the intersessional period is the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly. On behalf of the country, the chairman of the permanent committee exchanges congratulatory messages and congratulatory letters with foreign heads of state and accepts the credentials submitted by foreign envoys. In April 2014, 687 members of the 13th Supreme People’s Assembly were elected. Jin Yongnan, chairman of the current permanent committee, Yang Hengyu, Jin Yingda, vice chairman, and honorary vice chairman Jin Yingzhu and Cui Yonglin. The current speaker is Cui Taifu, deputy speaker An Dongchun and Li Huizheng.

[State Council] In 2016, the DPRK held the 4th meeting of the 13th session of the Supreme People’s Assembly. The meeting revised the constitution, newly established the State Council, replaced the former National Defense Commission, and was responsible to the Supreme People’s Assembly for a term of five years. The Council of State is the highest national defense agency in North Korea. The chairman of the State Council is the highest leader of the country. The current chairman Kim Jong-un, vice chairman Cui Longhai and Pu Fengzhu.

[Government] Cabinet, the highest administrative executive of the country, with a term of five years. The main members of the cabinet include: Premier Piao Fengzhu, Deputy Prime Minister Lu Douzhe, Ren Zhexiong, Jin Dexun, Li Friday, Li Longnan, Quan Guanghu, Li Maoying, Gao Renhao and Dong Zhenghao. Chairman of the National Planning Commission Lu Douzhe (concurrently), National Security Minister Zheng Jingze, People’s Armed Forces Xiangnu Guangtie, Chemical Industry Xiangji Long, Agricultural Phase Gao Renhao (and), Foreign Affairs Li Yonghao, Power Industry Xiangjin Wanshou, Coal Industry Civilization, Metal industry phase Jin Zhongjie, railway phase Zhang He, land shipping phase Jiang Zongkuan, mining industry phase Li Xuezhe, national resource development phase Li Chunsan, crude oil industry Xianghe crane, forestry phase Han Longguo, atomic energy industry phase Wang Changxu, electronics industry Xiangjin Zaicheng, postal phase Jin Guangzhe, Construction of building materials industry Xiang Puxun, national construction supervision, Xiangquan Chenghao, food and daily necessities industry Zhao Yongzhe, aquatic products Song Chunxi, financial phase Qiguanghao, chairman of the State Price Committee Cui Qiang, labor phase Zheng Yongzhen, foreign economic phase Jin Yingcai, National Science and Technology Commission Chairman Li Zhongji, President of the National Academy of Sciences Zhang Zhe, National Environmental Protection Department Jin Jingjun, City Management Xiang Jiang Yongzhen, Acquisition of Grain Administration Xiangwen Yingzu, Commercial Xiang Jinqing, Chairman of the Education Committee and General Education Jin Jindou, Jin Richeng President of the University and the Board of Education Education too Hengche phase, care-Zhang Jun Shang, Haruo Park culture, sports country with Kim, chairman of the Steering Committee of Sports Cui Hui, president of the Central Bank of Jintian Jun, director of the Central Statistical Cuisheng Hu, Kim Young-ho cabinet purser.

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 1 municipality, 2 special cities and 9 roads, namely Pyongyang City, Nanpu City, Luoxian City, South Pyongan Road, North Pyongan Road, Cijiang Road, Liangjiang Road and South Hamgyong Road. North Hamgyong, Gangwon-do, South Yellow Sea, and North Yellow Sea.

[Judiciary] The judicial organs include the Central Magistracy, the Dao (municipality) referee, the People’s Court (basic court) and the special court. The Central Court is the highest judicial organ of the country, and the director is elected by the Supreme People’s Assembly for a term of five years. The current director, Kang Runshi, served in June 2016.

The procuratorates include the Central Procuratorate, the Dao (municipality), the city (district), the county procuratorate and the special procuratorate. The Central Procuratorate is the highest procuratorate of the country, and the director is appointed by the Supreme People’s Assembly for a term of five years. The current director Jin Mingji, served in April 2017.

【政 党】 朝主要政党有:

(1)朝鲜劳动党:执政党。前身为北朝鲜共产党,成立于1945年10月10日,1946年8月28日与朝鲜新民党合并为朝鲜劳动党,1949年6月29日与南朝鲜劳动党合并。建党纪念日为1945年10月10日,现有党员400多万。该党指导思想是“金日成金正日主义”,目标是实现“全社会主体思想化,建设共产主义社会”。委员长金正恩。朝鲜劳动党中央政治局常委有金正恩、金永南、朴凤柱、崔龙海。(2)朝鲜社会民主党:原名朝鲜民主党,成立于1945年11月3日,由反对日本殖民统治的中小企业家、商人、手工业者、农民和基督徒组成。1981年改称现名,党员3万多人。委员长金英大,1998年8月当选。

(3)天道教青友党:成立于1946年2月8日,主要由信奉天道教的农民组成。

此外,朝鲜还有祖国统一民主主义战线、祖国和平统一委员会等社会团体和组织。

【重要人物】 金正恩:朝鲜最高领导人,朝鲜劳动党委员长、国务委员会委员长、朝鲜人民军最高司令官。2010年9月获授朝鲜人民军大将,同月当选党中央军事委员会副委员长。2011年12月30日被推举为朝鲜人民军最高司令官。2012年4月11日在朝鲜劳动党第4次党代表会议上被推举为第一书记。4月13日在朝鲜最高人民会议第12届5次会议上被推举为国防委员会第一委员长。7月17日被授予朝鲜民主主义人民共和国元帅称号。2014年4月9日在朝鲜最高人民会议第13届1次会议上再次被推举为国防委员会第一委员长。2016年5月,在朝鲜劳动党第7次全国代表大会上被推举为朝鲜劳动党委员长。2016年6月29日在朝鲜最高人民会议第13届4次会议上被推举为国务委员会委员长。金永南:朝鲜最高人民会议常任委员会委员长。1928年生。1961年任党中央国际部副部长。1963年9月任外务省副相。1972年任党中央国际部部长。1974年当选朝党中央政治委员会候补委员,1978年升任委员。1980年当选党中央政治局委员、书记局书记。1983年12月任政务院副总理兼外交部长。1998年、2003年、2009年和2014年连续当选最高人民会议常任委员会委员长。2010年9月当选党中央政治局常委。

崔龙海:朝鲜国务委员会副委员长。1950年生。历任金日成社会主义青年同盟第一书记,党中央副部长,黄海北道党委责任书记。2010年任党中央军事委员会委员,2012年当选朝党中央政治局常委,同年4月任党中央军事委员会副委员长、人民军总政治局局长。2014年4月任国防委员会副委员长、朝党中央书记局书记、党中央副委员长。2016年5月再次当选朝党中央政治局常委,6月当选国务委员会副委员长。

朴凤柱:朝鲜内阁总理。1939年生。历任南兴青年联合化工厂党委责任书记、党中央副部长、化学工业相、内阁总理、党中央轻工业部第一副部长、部长等职。2013年3月再次出任内阁总理。2016年5月当选党中央政治局常委,6月当选国务委员会副委员长。

[Political Party] The main political parties are:

(1) Korean Workers’ Party: The ruling party. Formerly known as the North Korean Communist Party, it was established on October 10, 1945, and merged with the North Korean New Democratic Party on August 28, 1946 as the Workers’ Party of Korea. On June 29, 1949, it merged with the South Korean Workers’ Party. The anniversary of the founding of the Party was October 10, 1945, and there are more than 4 million party members. The party’s guiding ideology is “Jin Richeng Jinzheng Rigorism”, with the goal of realizing “the whole society’s ideologicalization and building a communist society”. Chairman Kim Jong-un. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Workers’ Party of Korea has Kim Jong-un, Kim Yong-nam, Pu Feng-zhu, and Cui Long-hai. (2) The Korean Social Democratic Party: formerly known as the Democratic Party of Korea, was established on November 3, 1945, and consisted of small and medium-sized enterprises, merchants, craftsmen, farmers, and Christians who opposed Japanese colonial rule. In 1981, it was renamed the current name, with more than 30,000 members. Chairman Jin Yingda was elected in August 1998.

(3) Tiandao Qingyou Party: Founded on February 8, 1946, it is mainly composed of farmers who believe in Taoism.

In addition, North Korea also has social groups and organizations such as the motherland’s unified democratic front and the motherland’s peaceful reunification committee.

[Important figures] Kim Jong-un: North Korea’s top leader, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea, Chairman of the State Council, and Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army. In September 2010, he was awarded the general of the Korean People’s Army. In the same month, he was elected as the vice chairman of the Party Central Military Committee. On December 30, 2011, he was elected as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army. On April 11, 2012, he was elected as the first secretary at the 4th Party Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea. On April 13th, he was elected as the first chairman of the National Defense Commission at the 5th meeting of the 12th North Korean Supreme People’s Assembly. On July 17, he was awarded the title of Marshal of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. On April 9, 2014, at the 13th meeting of the Supreme People’s Assembly of the DPRK, he was again elected as the first chairman of the National Defense Commission. In May 2016, he was elected as the chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea at the 7th National Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea. On June 29, 2016, at the 4th meeting of the 13th session of the Supreme People’s Assembly of the DPRK, he was elected as the chairman of the Council of State. Kim Yong Nam: Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly of the DPRK. Born in 1928. In 1961, he served as deputy director of the International Department of the Party Central Committee. In September 1963, he served as the vice minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1972, he served as the Minister of the International Department of the Party Central Committee. In 1974, he was elected as an alternate member of the Political Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and was promoted to membership in 1978. In 1980, he was elected member of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee and Secretary of the Secretariat. In December 1983, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Government Council. In 1998, 2003, 2009 and 2014, he was elected as the chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly. In September 2010, he was elected to the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee.

Cui Longhai: Vice Chairman of the North Korean State Council. Born in 1950. He served successively as the first secretary of the Kim Il Sung Socialist Youth League, the deputy minister of the Party Central Committee, and the responsible secretary of the Party Committee of the North Yellow Sea. In 2010, he served as a member of the Party Central Military Committee. In 2012, he was elected as the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee. In April of the same year, he served as the vice chairman of the Party Central Military Committee and the General Political Bureau of the People’s Army. In April 2014, he served as vice chairman of the National Defense Commission, secretary of the Central Party Secretariat of the DPRK, and vice chairman of the Party Central Committee. In May 2016, he was re-elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and was elected as the vice chairman of the State Council in June.

Piao Fengzhu: Prime Minister of the Korean Cabinet. Born in 1939. He successively served as Secretary of the Party Committee of Nanxing Youth Joint Chemical Factory, Deputy Secretary of the Party Central Committee, Chemical Industry Department, Prime Minister of the Cabinet, First Deputy Minister and Minister of the Central Light Industry Department of the Party Central Committee. In March 2013, he became the Prime Minister of the Cabinet again. In May 2016, he was elected as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee and in June was elected as the vice chairman of the State Council.

【经 济】 实行计划经济。据2018年4月朝鲜官方公布数据,2017年国家预算收入计划超额完成1.7%,较2016年增长4.9%。地方预算收入计划超额完成0.5%。2017年国家预算支出计划执行99.8%。国家预算支出中,国防支出占15.8%,经济建设支出占47.7%,文化建设支出36.3%。2018年国家预算较2017年增加3.2%。

【资 源】 已探明矿产300多种,其中有用矿200多种。石墨、菱镁矿储量居世界前列。铁矿及铝、锌、铜、银等有色金属和煤炭、石灰石、云母、石棉等非金属矿物储量丰富。水力和森林资源较丰富。

【工 业】 重视发展冶金、电力、煤炭、铁路运输四大先行产业和采矿、机械、化工、轻工业,努力实现生产正常化、现代化。

【农 业】 集中力量发展粮食生产,继续推行种子改良和二熟制,扩大土豆、大豆种植。粮食生产以水稻和玉米为主。

【交通运输】 以铁路运输为主。铁路总长度为8800多公里,电气化铁路总长度为2000多公里,1993年基本实现干线铁路电气化。电力机车牵引比重达90%以上。

公路总长度77500多公里。已建成平壤-南浦、平壤-元山、平壤-开城和平壤-妙香山高速公路。

海港有清津、南浦、元山、兴南、罗津等。

空运:平壤顺安机场为国际机场。定期国际航线有平壤-北京,平壤-沈阳等。

【对外贸易】 主要贸易伙伴为中国、俄罗斯、韩国等。

【外国资本】 从20世纪80年代起,朝鲜开始引进外资,创办合资合营企业。1991年12月,朝鲜在靠近中朝、朝俄边境的罗先地区设立自由经济贸易区。1992年朝鲜颁布合资合营企业法。2002年11月,朝鲜宣布建立开城工业区和金刚山旅游区,由朝韩双方合作开发。2008年,朝俄“哈桑—罗津”铁路和罗津港改造项目启动。朝鲜与埃及大型水泥厂合作进展顺利,与埃及欧瑞斯克姆电信公司合作开通第三代移动通信业务。2011年6月,中朝举行“两个经济区”项目开工仪式,共同开发、共同管理黄金坪、威化岛经济区和罗先经贸区。

[Economy] Implement a planned economy. According to official North Korean data released in April 2018, the 2017 national budget revenue plan exceeded 1.7%, an increase of 4.9% over 2016. The local budget revenue plan is over 0.5%. The 2017 National Budget Expenditure Plan implemented 99.8%. Among the national budget expenditures, defense expenditures accounted for 15.8%, economic construction expenditures accounted for 47.7%, and cultural construction expenditures accounted for 36.3%. The national budget for 2018 is 3.2% higher than 2017.

[Resources] More than 300 kinds of minerals have been discovered, including more than 200 useful minerals. The reserves of graphite and magnesite are among the highest in the world. Iron ore and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, zinc, copper and silver and non-metallic minerals such as coal, limestone, mica and asbestos are abundant. Water and forest resources are abundant.

[Industrial] Pay attention to the development of the four leading industries of metallurgy, electric power, coal and railway transportation, mining, machinery, chemical industry and light industry, and strive to normalize and modernize production.

[Agriculture] Concentrate on the development of food production, continue to promote seed improvement and secondary cultivation, and expand potato and soybean cultivation. Grain production is dominated by rice and maize.

[Transportation] Mainly by rail transportation. The total length of the railway is more than 8,800 kilometers, and the total length of the electrified railway is more than 2,000 kilometers. In 1993, the electrified railway was basically electrified. The proportion of electric locomotive traction is over 90%.

The total length of the road is more than 77,500 kilometers. Pyongyang-Nampo, Pyongyang-Yuansan, Pyongyang-Kaicheng and Pyongyang-Miaoxiangshan Expressway have been completed.

The harbor has Qingjin, Nanpu, Yuanshan, Xingnan and Luojin.

Air transport: Pyongyang Shun’an Airport is an international airport. Regular international routes include Pyongyang-Beijing, Pyongyang-Shenyang, etc.

[Foreign Trade] The main trading partners are China, Russia, South Korea, etc.

[Foreign Capital] Since the 1980s, North Korea has begun to introduce foreign capital and establish joint venture joint ventures. In December 1991, North Korea established a free economic and trade zone in the Luoxian area near the border between China and North Korea and Russia. In 1992, North Korea issued a joint venture joint venture law. In November 2002, North Korea announced the establishment of the Kaesong Industrial Zone and the Mount Kumgang Tourist Area, which were jointly developed by the DPRK and the ROK. In 2008, the “Hassan-Rozin” railway and the Luojin Port reconstruction project were launched. The cooperation between North Korea and Egypt’s large cement plants is progressing smoothly, and the third-generation mobile communication business is launched in cooperation with Egypt’s Oriscomm Telecom. In June 2011, China and the DPRK held the groundbreaking ceremony for the “Two Economic Zones” project to jointly develop and jointly manage the Golden Ping, Weihua Island Economic Zone and Luoxian Economic and Trade Zone.

【军 事】 朝鲜将金日成创建第一支抗日游击队的1932年4月25日定为朝鲜人民革命军成立日,将金日成把朝鲜人民革命军发展成统一正规军的1948年2月8日定为朝鲜人民军建军日。朝鲜实行普遍义务兵役制。

【教 育】 实行12年义务教育制。有大专院校300多所,中专570多所。著名高等学府有金日成综合大学、金策工业综合大学、金亨稷师范大学和人民经济大学等。大学生和专科学校学生享受国家助学金。全国有知识分子170多万。

【新闻出版】 主要报刊有:《劳动新闻》,朝鲜劳动党中央委员会机关报,发行量150万份;《民主朝鲜》,最高人民会议常任委员会和内阁机关报;《勤劳者》杂志,月刊,朝鲜劳动党中央委员会机关刊物,发行量30万份。另外还有《朝鲜人民军》、《青年前卫》、《平壤新闻》等报。朝鲜外文出版社用多种外文出版杂志《今日朝鲜》和画报《朝鲜》。此外,还发行英文和法文周报《平壤时报》。

朝鲜中央通讯社:简称朝中社,为国家通讯社,1946年12月5日成立。发行日刊《朝鲜中央通讯》等。

朝鲜中央广播电台:为国家广播电台,1945年10月14日成立。除用朝鲜语广播外,还用多种外语对外广播。

朝鲜中央电视台和开城电视台20世纪60年代开始播放节目;万寿台电视台1983年底开播。

【朝韩关系】 朝鲜战争停战后,朝鲜半岛长期处于政治对立、军事对峙、经济隔绝状态。1990年9月至1991年12月,朝韩先后举行5次总理会谈,签署《南北和解、互不侵犯及交流合作协议书》,发表《朝鲜半岛无核化共同宣言》,朝韩关系有所改善。此后受金日成逝世及朝核等问题影响,朝韩关系趋冷。

1998至2008年,韩国金大中和卢武铉两任政府分别奉行对朝“阳光政策”及“和平与繁荣政策”,推进南北和解合作。2000年6月和2007年10月,金大中、卢武铉分别访朝,同金正日举行首脑会晤,发表《南北共同宣言》和《南北关系发展与和平繁荣宣言》。其间朝韩举行多次官方会谈和一系列民间交流活动,签署多项合作协议。

2008年至2016年李明博、朴槿惠任韩国总统期间,南北关系时有起伏。2014年2月双方举行高级别会谈和离散亲属会面。2015年8月和10月,双方先后举行高级别磋商和离散亲属会面。2016年2月韩方关闭开城工业园。

2018年朝韩关系取得积极进展。1月,双方重启板门店热线、西海军事热线,举行高级别会谈。2月,朝方派金永南、金与正出席韩国平昌冬奥会开幕式,派朝鲜劳动党中央委员会副委员长、统战部部长金英哲出席闭幕式。韩国国家安保室长郑义溶、国家情报院院长徐薰作为文在寅总统特使访朝,会见朝鲜劳动党委员长金正恩。4月,金正恩委员长同文在寅总统在板门店举行首次领导人会晤,发表《板门店宣言》。5月双方再次会晤。9月,文在寅访朝,双方第三次会晤,签署《9月平壤共同宣言》。9月,韩朝共同联络办事处正式成立。10月,双方举行第10次北南将军级军事会谈和山林领域合作会议。12月,朝韩军方对非军事区内试点拆除哨所情况进行互查。同月,朝韩在板门店举行铁路公路对接项目开工仪式。2019年1月,朝鲜最高领导人金正恩发表新年贺词,表明进一步发展朝韩关系意愿,韩方对此表示欢迎。

[Military] North Korea set Kim Il Sung’s first anti-Japanese guerrilla group on April 25, 1932, as the founding day of the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army, and Kim Il Sung developed the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army into a unified regular army. February 8, 1948 Japan is scheduled to be the Army Day of the Korean People’s Army. North Korea has a universal compulsory military service system.

[Education] Implement a 12-year compulsory education system. There are more than 300 colleges and universities, and more than 570 secondary schools. The famous institutions of higher learning include Jin Richeng University, Jince Industrial University, Jinhengyu Normal University and People’s Economic University. College students and college students enjoy national bursaries. There are more than 1.7 million intellectuals in the country.

[Press and Publication] The main newspapers and periodicals include: “Labor News”, the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea, with a circulation of 1.5 million copies; “Democratic Korea”, the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly and the Cabinet Office; “Industrious” magazine, monthly magazine, The publication of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea, with a circulation of 300,000 copies. In addition, there are newspapers such as the Korean People’s Army, Youth Avantgarde, and Pyongyang News. The Korean Foreign Languages ​​Publishing House publishes the magazine “Today’s North Korea” and the pictorial “Korean” in a variety of foreign languages. In addition, the English and French weekly newspaper Pyongyang Times was also published.

The Korean Central News Agency: referred to as the Korean Central News Agency, was established by the National News Agency on December 5, 1946. Issued the Japanese magazine “North Korea Central Communications” and so on.

North Korea Central Radio: For the National Radio Station, it was established on October 14, 1945. In addition to broadcasting in Korean, it is also broadcast in a variety of foreign languages.

North Korea’s CCTV and Kaesong TV began broadcasting in the 1960s; Wanshou TV was launched at the end of 1983.

[North Korea-South Korea Relations] After the Korean War, the Korean Peninsula has long been in political opposition, military confrontation, and economic isolation. From September 1990 to December 1991, the DPRK and the ROK held five prime ministerial talks, signed the “Agreement on North-South Reconciliation, Non-Aggression and Exchange and Cooperation”, and issued the “Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” improve. Since then, due to the death of Kim Il Sung and the DPRK nuclear issue, the relationship between the DPRK and the ROK has become cold.

From 1998 to 2008, the two governments of South Korea’s Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun pursued the “sunshine policy” and the “peace and prosperity policy” respectively, and promoted North-South reconciliation cooperation. In June 2000 and October 2007, Kim Tae-chung and Roh Moo-hyun visited the DPRK respectively, held a summit meeting with Kim Jong Il, and issued the “South-North Joint Declaration” and the “Declaration on the Development and Peaceful Prosperity of North-South Relations.” During the period, the DPRK and China held several official talks and a series of non-governmental exchange activities and signed a number of cooperation agreements.

During the period from 2008 to 2016, when Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye were presidents of South Korea, there was an ups and downs in North-South relations. In February 2014, the two sides held high-level talks and met with separated relatives. In August and October 2015, the two sides held high-level consultations and meetings with separated relatives. In February 2016, the Korean side closed the Kaesong Industrial Park.

Positive progress has been made in North Korea relations in 2018. In January, the two sides restarted the Panmunjom hotline and the West Sea military hotline to hold high-level talks. In February, the DPRK sent Jin Yongnan and Jin Hezhen to attend the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics in South Korea, and sent the Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the Minister of United Front Work, Jin Yingzhe, to attend the closing ceremony. Zheng Yurong, head of the National Security Office of South Korea, and Xu Xun, President of the National Intelligence Service, visited the DPRK as the special envoy of President Wen Hao and met with Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea. In April, Chairman Kim Jong-un, Tong Wen, held the first meeting of leaders at the Panmunjom in the President’s meeting in Panmunjom and published the Panmunjom Declaration. The two sides met again in May. In September, Wen was in a visit to the DPRK, and the two sides met for the third time and signed the “Pyongyang Joint Declaration in September.” In September, the Korea-DPRK Joint Liaison Office was formally established. In October, the two sides held the 10th North-South General Military Talks and Mountain Forest Cooperation Conference. In December, the Korean and Korean military sides conducted a mutual investigation of the pilot demolition of the post in the demilitarized zone. In the same month, the DPRK and Korea held a groundbreaking ceremony for the railway and highway docking project in Panmunjom. In January 2019, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un delivered a New Year message, indicating that he would further develop the willingness to relations between the DPRK and the ROK. The ROK side welcomed this.

【对外关系】 朝鲜奉行“自主、和平、友好”的外交政策,主张按照完全平等、自主、相互尊重、互不干涉内政和互利的原则发展对外关系。朝鲜于1975年5月成为“七十七国集团”正式成员国,同年8月正式加入不结盟运动,1991年9月加入联合国,2000年7月加入东盟地区论坛(ARF)。目前朝鲜与160余个国家(含欧盟)建立了外交关系。

【同美国的关系】 朝美尚未建交。

2018年4月,美国国务卿提名人、中央情报局局长蓬佩奥作为总统特朗普特使访朝,朝鲜最高领导人金正恩会见。

2018年5月,美国国务卿蓬佩奥再次访朝,并与朝鲜最高领导人金正恩会面。

2018年5月,朝鲜劳动党副委员长兼统一战线部长金英哲访美,同美国总统特朗普会面,转达朝鲜最高领导人金正恩的亲笔信,与蓬佩奥国务卿举行高级别会谈。

2018年6月,朝鲜最高领导人金正恩与美国总统特朗普在新加坡举行会晤,签署联合声明。

2018年7月,美国国务卿蓬佩奥访朝,与朝鲜劳动党副委员长金英哲会谈。

2018年7月,朝鲜向美方移交55具美军遗骸。

2018年10月,美国务卿蓬佩奥访朝,会见朝鲜最高领导人金正恩,与朝鲜劳动党副委员长金英哲举行会谈。

[External Relations] North Korea pursues a foreign policy of “autonomous, peaceful, and friendly” and advocates the development of foreign relations in accordance with the principles of full equality, independence, mutual respect, non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit. North Korea became a full member of the “Seventy-seventh Group” in May 1975. It officially joined the Non-Aligned Movement in August of the same year, joined the United Nations in September 1991, and joined the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2000. At present, North Korea has established diplomatic relations with more than 160 countries (including the European Union).

[Relationship with the United States] The DPRK and the United States have not yet established diplomatic relations.

In April 2018, the US Secretary of State’s nominee and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Pompeo, visited the DPRK as President Trump, and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un met.

In May 2018, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited the DPRK again and met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un.

In May 2018, Vice Chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea and Minister of the United Front, Kim Young-soo visited the United States, met with US President Trump, conveyed a personal letter from North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, and held high-level talks with Secretary of State Pompeo.

In June 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and US President Trump met in Singapore and signed a joint statement.

In July 2018, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited the DPRK and met with Kim Jung-chung, vice chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea.

In July 2018, North Korea handed over 55 US military wills to the US.

In October 2018, US Secretary of State Pompeo visited the DPRK and met with Kim Jong-un, the top leader of the DPRK, and held talks with Kim Woo-chung, vice chairman of the Workers’ Party of Korea.

【同俄罗斯的关系】 朝俄关系总体发展良好。

2010年12月,朝鲜外相朴义春访俄,俄罗斯联邦会议联邦委员会主席米罗诺夫会见。

2011年8月20日至25日,朝鲜最高领导人金正日应邀访问俄罗斯西伯利亚和远东地区,与俄罗斯总统梅德韦杰夫举行会谈。

2011年4月,俄罗斯副总理兼总统驻远东联邦区特别全权代表特鲁特涅夫访朝,朴凤柱总理、卢斗哲副总理等分别会见。

2011年10月,朝鲜外务相李洙墉访俄,俄罗斯副总理兼总统驻远东联邦区特别全权代表特鲁特涅夫会见。

2011年11月,朝鲜劳动党中央政治局常委、中央书记崔龙海作为金正恩特使访俄,普京总统会见,拉夫罗夫外长会谈。

2015年5月,金永南委员长出席俄罗斯卫国战争胜利70周年庆典。

2018年4月,李勇浩外相访俄,与俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫外长举行会谈。

2018年5月,俄罗斯外长拉夫罗夫访朝,并与朝鲜最高领导人金正恩会面。

2018年6月,金永南委员长访俄,出席2018年世界杯开幕式。

2018年7月,朝鲜劳动党中央委员会副委员长兼国际部长李洙墉访问俄罗斯。

2018年8月,朝鲜最高领导人金正恩在朝光复节73周年纪念日与俄罗斯总统普京互致贺电。

[Relationship with Russia] The overall development of DPRK-Russia relations is good.

In December 2010, North Korean Foreign Minister Park Yi-chun visited Russia, and the Chairman of the Federal Council of the Russian Federation, Mironov, met with him.

From August 20 to 25, 2011, North Korean leader Kim Jong Il was invited to visit Siberia and the Far East of Russia to hold talks with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev.

In April 2011, Russian Deputy Prime Minister and President of the Far Eastern Federal District, Special Plenipotentiary Trutnev visited the DPRK, and Prime Minister Piao Fengzhu and Vice Premier Lu Douzhe met with him respectively.

In October 2011, North Korean Foreign Minister Li Wei visited Russia, and Russian Deputy Prime Minister and President of the Far East Federal District special plenipotentiary Trutnev met with him.

In November 2011, Cui Longhai, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Workers’ Party of the Korean Workers’ Party, and Central Secretary Cui Longhai visited Russia as General Envoy Kim Jong-un. President Putin met with Foreign Minister Lavrov.

In May 2015, Chairman Jin Yongnan attended the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Russian Patriotic War.

In April 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao visited Russia and held talks with Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov.

In May 2018, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov visited the DPRK and met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un.

In June 2018, Chairman Kim Yong Nam visited Russia to attend the opening ceremony of the 2018 World Cup.

In July 2018, Li Wei, vice chairman and international minister of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea, visited Russia.

In August 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un exchanged congratulatory messages with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the 73rd anniversary of the revitalization of the DPRK.

【同日本的关系】 朝日尚未建交。

2009年9月,日本共同社社长石川聪应邀访朝,朝鲜最高人民会议常任委员会委员长金永南会见。

2012年8月,朝鲜与日本在北京重启两国政府间磋商。

2013年5月,日本首相安倍特使饭岛勋访朝,金永南委员长会见。

2013年8月,金永南委员长会见日本国会参议员猪木宽至。

2013年9月,金永南委员长会见日本共同社代表团。

2015年9月,日本共同社代表团访朝。

【同其它国家和国际组织的关系】

2017年8月,李勇浩外相出席菲律宾东盟地区论坛外长会。

2017年9月,李勇浩外相出席联合国大会第72届会议。

2017年11月,李勇浩外相赴古巴访问。

2017年12月,联合国副秘书长杰弗里•费尔特曼访朝。

2018年3月,李勇浩外相访问瑞典。

2018年4月,李勇浩外相访问阿塞拜疆,参加不结盟运动(NAM)阁僚会议。

2018年7月,朝鲜劳动党中央委员会副委员长兼国际部长李洙墉赴古巴访问。

2018年8月,李勇浩外相在新加坡出席东盟地区论坛(ARF)外长会。

2018年9月,李勇浩外相在纽约联合国总部出席第73届联大,并出席不结盟运动外长会议。

2018年10月,朝鲜外务省副相申红哲访问俄罗斯。

2018年11月,朝鲜奥委会主席、体育相金日国赴日本出席将于东京举行的国家和地区奥林匹克委员会协(ANOC)全体会议。

2018年11月,金永南委员长出访古巴、委内瑞拉,并赴墨西哥出席墨西哥总统就职典礼。

2018年12月,李勇浩外相访问越南、叙利亚、蒙古。

[Relationship with Japan] The Asahi has not yet established diplomatic relations.

In September 2009, Ishikawa Satoshi, president of the Kyodo News Agency, was invited to visit the DPRK. Kim Yong Nam, chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly of the DPRK, met with him.

In August 2012, North Korea and Japan resumed inter-governmental consultations in Beijing.

In May 2013, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe made a visit to the DPRK and Chairman Kim Yong Nam met with him.

In August 2013, Chairman Kim Yong Nam met with Senator Hosuke of Japan.

In September 2013, Chairman Kim Yong Nam met with the Japanese Kyodo delegation.

In September 2015, the Japanese Kyodo delegation visited the DPRK.

[Relationship with other countries and international organizations]

In August 2017, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao attended the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Philippine ASEAN Regional Forum.

In September 2017, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao attended the 72nd session of the UN General Assembly.

In November 2017, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao visited Cuba.

In December 2017, UN Under-Secretary-General Jeffrey Feltman visited the DPRK.

In March 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao visited Sweden.

In April 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao visited Azerbaijan to attend the meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

In July 2018, Li Wei, vice chairman and international minister of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea, visited Cuba.

In August 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao attended the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in Singapore.

In September 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao attended the 73rd UN General Assembly at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and attended the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned Movement.

In October 2018, North Korean Deputy Foreign Minister Shen Hongzhe visited Russia.

In November 2018, the president of the Korean Olympic Committee and the sports minister Kim Il Japan went to Japan to attend the National and Regional Olympic Committee (ANOC) plenary meeting to be held in Tokyo.

In November 2018, Chairman Kim Yong Nam visited Cuba and Venezuela and went to Mexico to attend the inauguration ceremony of the Mexican President.

In December 2018, Foreign Minister Li Yonghao visited Vietnam, Syria and Mongolia.