Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 委内瑞拉玻利瓦尔共和国

【国名】 委内瑞拉玻利瓦尔共和国(Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, República Bolivariana de Venezuela)。

【面积】 916400平方公里。

【人口】 3111万人(2018年)。印欧混血种人占58%,白人29%,黑人11%,印第安人2%。官方语言为西班牙语。多数居民信奉天主教。

【首都】 加拉加斯(Caracas),人口322万,年均气温21℃。

【国家元首】 总统尼古拉斯·马杜罗·莫罗斯(Nicolás MADURO Moros),2018年5月胜选连任,2019年1月就职,任期至2025年1月。

【重要节日】 独立日:7月5日

【简况】 位于南美洲大陆北部。东与圭亚那为邻,南同巴西接壤,西与哥伦比亚交界,北濒加勒比海。海岸线全长2813公里。全境除山地外基本属热带草原气候。气温因海拔高度不同而异,山地温和,平原炎热。每年6~11月为雨季,12~5月为旱季。

曾为印第安人阿拉瓦克族和加勒比族的居住地。1567年沦为西班牙殖民地。1811年7月5日宣布独立。1819~1829年同现哥伦比亚、巴拿马和厄瓜多尔组成“大哥伦比亚共和国”。1830年建立委内瑞拉联邦共和国。1864年改名为委内瑞拉合众国。1953年改为委内瑞拉共和国。1999年改称委内瑞拉玻利瓦尔共和国。1958年实行宪政,建立文人政权。此后,民主行动党和基督教社会党交替执政。1998年12月,“爱国中心”总统候选人查韦斯在大选获胜,打破了两大传统政党长期交替执政的政治格局。

【政治】 实行总统制。总统为国家元首、政府首脑、武装部队统帅,任期6年。

【宪法】 现行宪法于1999年12月颁布。2009年2月,委通过全民公投修改宪法,取消对包括总统在内的民选公职人员连选连任次数的限制。

【议会】 全国代表大会(简称“全代会”)是全国最高立法机构,一院制。全代会主要职能为制定法律、修改宪法、依法监督政府和公共管理部门、宣布大赦和审批国家预算等。全代会代表由全国大选直接选举产生,任期六年;主席任期一年,可连选连任。第一届全代会于2000年8月成立。本届全代会于2016年1月成立。现任全代会主席胡安·瓜伊多(Juan Guaidó)。

[Country name] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela).

[Area] 916,400 square kilometers.

[Population] 31.11 million people (2018). Indo-European mixed-race people accounted for 58%, whites 29%, blacks 11%, and Indians 2%. The official language is Spanish. Most residents believe in Catholicism.

[Capital] Caracas has a population of 3.22 million and an average annual temperature of 21 °C.

[Head of State] President Nicolas Maduro Moros was re-elected in May 2018 and took office in January 2019 for a term until January 2025.

[Important Festival] Independence Day: July 5th

[profile] Located in the northern part of the South American continent. It is adjacent to Guyana in the east, bordering Brazil in the south, bordering Colombia in the west and the Caribbean in the north. The coastline is 2813 kilometers in length. The entire territory except the mountains is basically a savanna climate. The temperature varies depending on the altitude, the mountains are mild, and the plains are hot. The rainy season is from June to November every year, and the dry season is from December to May.

Once a place of residence for the Indians Arawak and the Caribbean. In 1567 it became a Spanish colony. On July 5, 1811, independence was declared. From 1819 to 1829, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador formed the “Greater Republic of Colombia”. The Federal Republic of Venezuela was established in 1830. In 1864 it was renamed the United States of Venezuela. In 1953 it was changed to the Republic of Venezuela. In 1999, it was renamed the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In 1958, constitutionalism was implemented and the literati regime was established. Since then, the DAP and the Christian Socialist Party have been in power. In December 1998, the “Patriotic Center” presidential candidate Chavez won the election, breaking the political pattern of the long-term alternate governance of the two traditional parties.

[Politics] Implement the presidential system. The president is head of state, head of government, and commander of the armed forces for a six-year term.

[Constitution] The current Constitution was promulgated in December 1999. In February 2009, the committee amended the constitution through a referendum and lifted restrictions on the number of re-elections of elected public officials, including the president.

[Parliament] The National Congress (referred to as the “Full Congress”) is the highest legislative body in the country, a one-chamber system. The main functions of the entire conference are to enact laws, amend the constitution, supervise the government and public administration departments according to law, announce amnesty, and approve state budgets. The representatives of the entire conference will be directly elected by the national general election for a term of six years; the chairman will serve for one year and can be re-elected. The first full-generation conference was established in August 2000. This full-generation conference was established in January 2016. The current president of the full-generation conference, Juan Guaidó.

【制宪大会】2017年5月1日,委内瑞拉总统马杜罗宣布,为解决国内朝野分歧、搭建对话平台、促进国家发展,根据宪法第340至350条有关规定,决定召开制宪大会。新宪法主要内容拟包括建立新型参与式民主制度、“后石油”经济体系等,完成后将提交全民公投表决。7月30日,委举行制宪大会代表选举,执政党赢得全部席位。8月4日,委制宪大会成立。制宪大会成立后,先后通过《反仇恨、促和平共处与包容法》、《反经济战法》等法律。

【政府】 总统是政府首脑,副总统和内阁部长由总统任命。本届政府于2013年4月成立,多次调整。现内阁成员有:副总统德尔西·罗德里格斯(Delcy RODRÍGUEZ,女),人民政权总统府部长豪尔赫·马尔克斯(Jorge MÁRQUEZ),人民政权外交部长豪尔赫·阿雷亚萨(Jorge ARREAZA),人民政权内政和司法部长内斯托尔·雷韦罗尔(Néstor REVEROL),人民政权国防部长弗拉迪米尔·帕德里诺·洛佩斯(Vladimir PADRINO López),人民政权新闻通讯部长豪尔赫·赫苏斯·罗德里格斯·戈麦斯(Jorge Jesús RODRIGUEZ Gómez),人民政权经济与财政部长西蒙·塞尔帕·德尔加多(Simón ZERPA Delgado),人民政权工业和生产部长塔雷克·埃尔·艾萨米(Tareck El AISSAMI),人民政权外贸外资部长约玛娜·科太奇(Yomana KOTEICH,女),人民政权农业和土地部长维尔马·阿尔弗雷德·卡斯特罗·索特尔多(Wilmar Alfredo CASTRO Soteldo),人民政权城镇农业部长梅耶琳·阿里亚斯(Mayerlin ARIAS,女),人民政权渔业水产部长丹特·里瓦斯(Dante RIVAS),人民政权食品部长路易斯·阿尔韦托·梅迪纳(Luis Alberto MEDINA),人民政权旅游部长斯特拉·卢戈(Stella LUGO,女),人民政权石油和矿业部长兼国家石油公司总裁曼努埃尔·萨尔瓦多·克韦多·费尔南德斯(Manuel Salvador QUEVEDO Fernández),人民政权生态矿业发展部长维克多·卡诺(Víctor CANO),人民政权计划部长里卡多·何塞·梅嫩德斯(Ricardo José MENÉNDEZ ),人民政权卫生部长路易斯·洛佩斯(Carlos ALVARADO González),人民政权印第安人事务部长阿洛阿·努涅斯(Aloha Núñez,女),人民政权妇女和性别平等部长卡莉尔·贝尔托(Caryl BERTHO,女),人民政权水资源保护部长艾维琳·巴斯克斯(Evelyn VÁSQUEZ,女),人民政权青年和体育事务部长佩德罗·因方特(Pedro INFANTE),人民政权监狱服务部长伊里斯·巴雷拉(Iris Varela,女),人民政权劳动与社会保障部长爱德华多·皮尼亚特(Eduardo PIÑATE),人民政权文化部长埃尔内斯托·比列加斯(Ernesto VILLEGAS),人民政权教育部长阿里斯托沃洛·伊斯图里斯(Aristóbulo ISTÚRIZ),人民政权高等教育部长乌戈贝尔·拉斐尔·罗亚·卡鲁西(Hugbel Rafael ROA Caruci),人民政权生态部长埃里克·兰赫尔(Heryck RANGEL),人民政权住房部长伊德马洛·毕亚罗尔·阿里斯门迪(IIdemaro VILLARROEL Arismendi),人民政权公社和社会主义运动部长布兰卡·埃库特(Blanca EEKHOUT),人民政权交通部长伊波利托·阿夫雷乌(Hipólito ABREU),人民政权公共工程部部长玛乐妮·孔特雷拉斯(Marleny Contreras),人民政权电力部长伊格尔·何塞·加维迪亚·莱昂(Igor José GAVIDIA León),人民政权边境事务部长赫拉多·伊斯基耶多(Gerardo IZQUIERDO),人民政权食品部长卡洛斯·特列里亚(Carlos TELLERIA),人民政权科技部长弗雷迪·布里托(Freddy BRITO)。

【行政区划】 全国划分为21个州,2个边疆地区(亚马孙和阿马库罗三角洲边疆区),1个首都区和1个联邦属地(由311个岛屿组成)。

【司法机构】 最高法院为全国最高司法机构,由院长、两名副院长和32名大法官组成,下设宪法、政治行政、选举、民事审判、社会审判和刑事审判六个法庭。大法官由司法推选委员会推荐,由全国代表大会任命,任期12年,不得连任。院长任期2年,可连选连任一次。现任最高法院院长迈克尔·莫雷诺·佩雷斯(Maikel Moreno Pérez)。司法系统还包括总检察署、总审计署、护民署、刑事调查机构和司法辅助机构。国家总检察长塔雷克·威廉·萨博(Tarek William SAAB)。总审计长马努艾尔·恩里克·加林多(Manuel Enrique GALINDO),护民官阿尔弗雷多·鲁伊斯(Alfredo Ruiz)。

[Constitutional Assembly] On May 1, 2017, Venezuelan President Maduro announced that in order to resolve domestic differences between the ruling and the opposition, to build a platform for dialogue, and to promote national development, the Constitutional Assembly was decided in accordance with the relevant provisions of Articles 340 to 350 of the Constitution. The main contents of the new constitution are intended to include the establishment of a new type of participatory democracy, the “post-oil” economic system, etc., which will be submitted to the referendum after completion. On July 30, the committee held a representative election for the Constitutional Convention, and the ruling party won all seats. On August 4th, the Constitutional Assembly was established. After the establishment of the Constitutional Convention, it passed laws such as “Anti-Hate, Peaceful Coexistence and Inclusive Law” and “Anti-Economic Warfare Law”.

[Government] The President is the head of government, and the Vice President and Cabinet Minister are appointed by the President. The current government was established in April 2013 and has been adjusted several times. The current cabinet members are: Vice President Delcy RODRÍGUEZ, female, Jorge MÁRQUEZ, Minister of the People’s Government, and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Jorge Areiasa (Jorge ARREAZA), Néstor REVEROL, Minister of the Interior and Justice of the People’s Power, Vladimir PADRINO López, Minister of Defence of the People’s Power, People’s Government Newsletter Minister Jorge Jesús RODRIGUEZ Gómez, Minister of Economy and Finance of the People’s Government, Simón ZERPA Delgado, People’s Power Industry and Production Minister Tareck El AISSAMI, Foreign Minister of Foreign Investment, Yomana KOTEICH, female, Minister of Agriculture and Land of the People’s Government, Verma Alfred Wilmar Alfredo CASTRO Soteldo, Mayerlin ARIAS, Minister of Agriculture, People’s Power, People’s Power Dante RIVAS, Minister of Fisheries and Fisheries, Luis Alberto MEDINA, Minister of Food of the People’s Power, Stella Lugo (female), Minister of People’s Government Tourism, People Manuel Salvador QUEVEDO Fernández, Minister of Petroleum and Mining, and President of the National Oil Company, Víctor CANO, Minister of Ecological Mining Development of the People’s Power, Minister of the People’s Power Planning Ricardo José MENÉNDEZ, Minister of Health of the People’s Power, Carlos ALVARADO González, Minister of Indian Affairs of the People’s Government, Aloha Núñez (female) Caryl BERTHO (female), Minister of Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Evelyn VÁSQUEZ, Minister of Water Resources Protection of the People’s Power, Pade, Minister of Youth and Sports Affairs of the People’s Power Pedro INFANTE, Iris Va, Minister of Prison Service of the People’s Power (Iris Va Rela, female), Eduardo PIÑATE, Minister of Labor and Social Security of the People’s Power, Ernesto VILLEGAS, Minister of Culture of the People’s Power, Minister of Education of the People’s Power, Aristo Aristóbulo ISTÚRIZ, Hugbel Rafael ROA Caruci, Minister of Higher Education of the People’s Power, and Eric Lancher, Minister of the People’s Government Ecology Heryck RANGEL), Minister of Housing of the People’s Political Affairs IIdemaro VILLARROEL Arismendi, People’s Government Commune and Socialist Movement Minister Blanca EEKHOUT, People’s Power Minister of Communications Hipólito ABREU, Minister of Public Works of the People’s Power Marleny Contreras, Minister of Power of the People’s Power, Igle Jose Gavidia · Igor José GAVIDIA León, Minister of Border Affairs of the People’s Power, Gerardo IZQUIERDO, Minister of Food, Food Minister Vince Telieliya (Carlos TELLERIA), Minister of People’s Power Technology Freddy Brito (Freddy BRITO).

[Administrative Division] The country is divided into 21 states, 2 frontier regions (Amazon and Amaculo Delta), 1 capital district and 1 federal territory (composed of 311 islands).

[Judiciary] The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country. It consists of the president, two vice presidents and 32 justices. It consists of six courts: constitution, political administration, election, civil trial, social trial and criminal trial. The judge is recommended by the Judicial Select Committee and appointed by the National Congress for a term of 12 years and is not eligible for reappointment. The term of office of the Dean is 2 years and can be re-elected once. The current Supreme Court President, Maikel Moreno Pérez. The judicial system also includes the General Prosecutor’s Office, the General Audit Office, the Department of Civil Defence, the Criminal Investigation Agency and the Judicial Assistance Agency. National Attorney General Tarek William SAAB. Manuel Enrique GALINDO, the chief auditor, and Alfredo Ruiz, the civil servant.

【政党】 全国性主要政党有:

(1)委内瑞拉统一社会主义党(Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV):执政党。2008年1月成立。现有正式党员763万人。2009年11月至2010年4月,统社党召开第一次特别代表大会,确定《党章》、《原则宣言》和《基础纲领》三个文件。该党主张反对资本主义和帝国主义,奉行社会主义、人道主义和国际主义,捍卫玻利瓦尔革命果实,维护劳动阶级和人民利益,致力于建设公平、自由、人道的“21世纪社会主义”。2018年7月,统社党召开第四次代表大会,马杜罗总统连任党主席。

(2)正义第一党(Primero Justicia):反对党。2000年成立,2003年成为全国性政党政党,主张人道主义中间路线。前米兰达州州长卡普里莱斯为其创始人。全国协调员胡里奥·博尔赫斯(Julio BORGES),总书记托马斯·瓜尼帕(Tomás GUANIPA)。

(3)一个新时代党(Un Nuevo Tiempo):反对党。1999年成立,2006年成为全国性政党。社会党国际成员。全国协商委员会为党的最高权力机构。创始人曼努埃尔·罗萨莱斯(Manuel ROSALES)。执行主席奥马尔·巴尔博萨(Omar BARBOZA)。

(4)民主行动党(Partido de Acción Democrática):反对党。1941年9月13日成立,有党员150万人。社会党国际成员。全国代表大会为党的最高权力机构。党主席伊萨贝尔·卡尔莫纳(Isabel CARMONA),总书记亨利·拉莫斯·阿留普(Henry RAMOS Allup)。

(5)人民意愿党(Partido de Voluntad Popular):反对党。2009年成立。社会党国际成员。主张尊重人的政治和公民权利,推动建立自由、进步、民主、包容的社会。全国总协调人莱奥波尔多·洛佩斯(Leopordo López)。

(6)争取社会主义运动(Movimiento al Socialismo):1971年1月19日成立,党员47万人。社会党国际成员。由脱离委内瑞拉共产党的一部分中央委员组成,主张革新马克思主义理论,建社有委内瑞拉特色的民主、多元、主权、人民自治的社会主义。2001年,党内分裂为反对政府和支持政府两派。总书记费利佩·穆希卡(Felipe MUJICA),发言人何塞· 安东尼奥· 埃斯帕尼亚(José Antonio ESPAÑA)。

(7)基督教社会党(Partido Socialcristiano):反对党。1946年1月成立,党员约45万。基民党国际和美洲基民组织成员。党主席罗贝托·恩里克斯(Roberto ENRIQUEZ),总书记赫苏斯·阿尔贝托·巴里奥斯(Jesús Alberto BARRIOS)。

(8)进步党(Avanzada Progresista):反对党。2012年6月成立。由统社党、大家的祖国党(Patria Para Todos)异见分子组成。主张通过民主参选上台,全面实施经济美元化,改善同美国等西方国家关系。党主席为亨利·法尔孔(Henri FALCON Fuentes)。

【重要人物】 尼古拉斯·马杜罗·莫罗斯:总统。1962年11月出生,中学毕业。青年时期为学生运动领袖,曾担任加拉加斯地铁工会领导。历任“玻利瓦尔革命运动200”全国领导人、“玻利瓦尔劳动者力量党”协调员和“第五共和国运动”动员部主任。2008年参与创建执政党委内瑞拉统一社会主义党,现为统社党副主席。1998年当选众议员,2005至2006年担任全国代表大会主席。2006年8月被任命为外长。2012年10月,被任命为副总统兼外长。2013年1月起不再兼任外长。4月14日在重新举行的总统选举中击败反对党联盟候选人卡普里莱斯当选总统,并于4月19日就职,任期至2019年4月。2014年7月26日,当选委统一社会主义党主席。2018年5月在大选中胜选连任,2019年1月宣誓就职,任期至2025年1月。

乌戈·查韦斯·弗里亚斯:前总统。1954年7月出生。毕业于委军事学院,获陆军工程军事科学和艺术硕士学位,后在西蒙·玻利瓦尔大学进修政治学专业,曾获“卡拉沃沃之星”和“陆军十字”等勋章。1982年创建由退役军人和社会中下层人士组成的“玻利瓦尔革命运动200”。1992年领导“二·四”军人政变未遂,入狱两年后获释。1998年1月创建“第五共和国运动”,主张彻底改革国家政治体制,建立人民参与的真正民主;12月,作为竞选联盟“爱国中心”候选人参加大选并获胜。就任后推动通过全民公决成立制宪大会修宪,对国家政治体制进行重大改革。根据新宪法,查于2000年7月再次当选总统。2006年12月和2012年10月,查连选连任总统。2013年3月5日,查韦斯在加拉加斯去世。

【经济】 自然禀赋优越,能源资源丰富,委石油(含重油)探明储量为3000亿桶,居世界第一位。主要工业部门有石油、铁矿、建筑、炼钢、炼铝、电力、汽车装配、食品加工、纺织等。石油工业为委国民经济命脉。全国共有8000万公顷土地适合发展农业、林业、畜牧业、水产养殖,其中可耕地面积3007万公顷,天然和人工放牧草场面积1379万公顷,农业发展缓慢,粮食不能自给。近年来,国际油价下滑对委经济造成严重冲击。

【对外贸易】 1990年9月,委加入“关税和贸易总协定”,现与世界100多个国家和地区有贸易关系。主要出口原油、石油化工产品、铝锭、钢材、铁矿砂、金属制品等,进口机电设备、化工和五金产品、汽车配件、建筑材料及农产品等。主要贸易对象为美国、中国、哥伦比亚、巴西和墨西哥。

[Party] The main national political parties are:

(1) Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (PSUV): The ruling party. Established in January 2008. There are 7.63 million official party members. From November 2009 to April 2010, the Tongshe Party held the first special congress to determine the three documents of the Party Constitution, the Declaration of Principles and the Basic Program. The party advocates opposing capitalism and imperialism, pursuing socialism, humanitarianism and internationalism, defending the fruits of the Bolivarian revolution, safeguarding the interests of the working class and the people, and committing to building a fair, free and humane “21st century socialism.” In July 2018, the UN Socialist Party held its fourth congress, and President Maduro was reelected as the party chairman.

(2) Primer Justicia: Opposition. Established in 2000, in 2003 became a national political party, advocating the humanitarian middle line. Former Miranda Governor Capriles is the founder. National Coordinator Julio BORGES, General Secretary Tomás GUANIPA.

(3) Un Nuevo Tiempo: Opposition. Established in 1999 and became a national political party in 2006. International member of the Socialist Party. The National Consultative Council is the highest authority of the party. Founder Manuel Rosales. Executive Chairman Omar BARBOZA.

(4) Partido de Acción Democrática: Opposition party. It was established on September 13, 1941, with 1.5 million members. International member of the Socialist Party. The National Congress is the highest authority of the party. Party chairman Isabel CARMONA, general secretary Henry RAMOS Allup.

(5) Partido de Voluntad Popular: Opposition. Established in 2009. International member of the Socialist Party. Advocating respect for human political and civil rights and promoting the establishment of a free, progressive, democratic and inclusive society. Leopordo López, the national coordinator.

(6) Socialist Movement (Movimiento al Socialismo): Established on January 19, 1971, with 470,000 members. International member of the Socialist Party. Composed of a part of the Central Committee members who have left the Communist Party of Venezuela, they advocate the reform of Marxist theory. The founding of the society has the socialism of democracy, pluralism, sovereignty, and people’s autonomy characterized by Venezuela. In 2001, the party split into opposing the government and supporting the government. General Secretary Felipe MUJICA, spokesperson José Antonio EspaÑA.

(7) Partido Socialcristiano: Opposition. Founded in January 1946, the party members are about 450,000. Member of the Christian Democratic Party and the American Foundation. Party Chairman Roberto ENRIQUEZ, General Secretary Jesús Alberto BARRIOS.

(8) The Progressive Party (Avanzada Progresista): The opposition party. Established in June 2012. It is composed of the Confucius Party and the Patria Para Todos dissidents. It is advocated to go to power through democratic elections, fully implement economic dollarization, and improve relations with the United States and other Western countries. The party chairman is Henri FALCON Fuentes.

[important person] Nicholas Maduro Moros: President. Born in November 1962, graduated from high school. He was a student sports leader in youth and served as the leader of the Caracas Metro Union. He has served as the national leader of the “Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement 200”, the “Bolivarian Labor Forces Party” Coordinator and the Director of the Mobilization Department of the “Fifth Republic Movement”. In 2008, he participated in the creation of the ruling party of the Venezuelan Unified Socialist Party, and is now the vice chairman of the UN Socialist Party. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1998 and served as the President of the National Congress from 2005 to 2006. In August 2006, he was appointed foreign minister. In October 2012, he was appointed Vice President and Foreign Minister. From January 2013, he will no longer serve as foreign minister. On April 14th, in the re-election of the presidential election, the opposition coalition candidate Capriles was elected president, and he took office on April 19th, until April 2019. On July 26, 2014, he was elected chairman of the Socialist Party. In May 2018, he was re-elected in the general election. He was sworn in in January 2019 and served until January 2025.

Hugo Chavez Frias: Former President. Born in July 1954. He graduated from the Military Academy of the Communist Party of China and obtained a master’s degree in military science and art from the Army. He then studied political science at Simon Bolivar University and won medals such as “Star of Caravavo” and “Army Cross”. In 1982, the “Bolivar Revolutionary Movement 200” was formed by veterans and the lower middle class. In 1992, he led the attempt of the “two-fourth” military coup, and was released after two years in prison. In January 1998, the “Fifth Republic Movement” was established, which advocated a thorough reform of the country’s political system and the establishment of true democracy in which the people participated. In December, as a candidate for the “Apatriatic Center” of the campaign coalition, he participated in the general election and won. After taking office, he promoted the constitutional assembly of the National Assembly to amend the Constitution and carried out major reforms of the national political system. According to the new constitution, the investigation was re-elected as president in July 2000. In December 2006 and October 2012, Chalian was re-elected as president. On March 5, 2013, Chavez died in Caracas.

[Economy] The natural endowment is superior and the energy resources are abundant. The proven reserves of oil (including heavy oil) are 300 billion barrels, ranking first in the world. The main industrial sectors are oil, iron ore, construction, steelmaking, aluminum smelting, electric power, automobile assembly, food processing, and textiles. The oil industry is the lifeblood of the national economy. A total of 80 million hectares of land is suitable for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The area of ​​arable land is 30.70 million hectares, and the area of ​​natural and artificial grazing grassland is 13.79 million hectares. The agricultural development is slow and the food cannot be self-sufficient. In recent years, the decline in international oil prices has had a serious impact on the economy.

[Foreign Trade] In September 1990, the Commission joined the “General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade” and now has trade relations with more than 100 countries and regions in the world. It mainly exports crude oil, petrochemical products, aluminum ingots, steel, iron ore, metal products, etc., imported mechanical and electrical equipment, chemical and hardware products, auto parts, building materials and agricultural products. The main trade partners are the United States, China, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico.

【军事】 总统是军队的最高统帅。国家安全与防务委员会是总统在国家安全和防务战略和政策方面的最高咨询机构, 由副总统、国防部长、内政部长、财政部长以及武装力量总监、联合参谋长等人组成。最高军事指挥部是军队的最高领导机构,是总统和国家安全与防务委员会的最高军事顾问机构,由国防部长、武装力量总监、联合参谋长及四个军种司令7人组成,由国防部长负责领导。委军实行义务兵役制。根据兵役法规定,凡年满18-50岁身体健康的公民,必须依法在兵役局注册登记服兵役。陆、海、空军和国民警卫队的服役期限均为24个月。委内瑞拉武装力量由正规军,即陆军、海军、空军和国民警卫队四个军种以及国家玻利瓦尔民兵等后备役部队组成。

人民政权国防部长弗拉迪米尔·帕德里诺·洛佩斯( Vladimir PADRINO López);武装部队战略作战司令部司令雷米西奥·赛瓦略斯(Remigio CEBALLOS),武装部队占领作战司令部副司令兼参谋长何塞·奥尔内亚(José ORNELLA),陆军司令赫苏斯·苏亚雷斯(Jesús SUÁREZ),海军司令埃德格里斯·埃雷拉(Edglis Herrera),空军司令佩德罗·阿尔贝托·胡里亚克·拉尔蒂格斯(Pedro Alberto JULIAC Lartíguez),国民警卫队司令里卡多·洛佩斯(Ricardo LÓPEZ),玻利瓦尔国家民兵司令卡洛斯·莱亚尔(Carlos LEAL)。

【教育】 对6~15岁儿童实行义务教育,已被联合国教科文组织宣布为无文盲国家。全国有48所大学,其中23所公立大学、25所私立大学,另有103所专科学院。著名大学有委内瑞拉中央大学、西蒙·玻利瓦尔大学、安德烈斯·贝略天主教私立大学。政府规定,全国所有学校都必须在教育部立案,并按统一规定课程教学。2009年修改教育法,将“21世纪社会主义”纳入中小学教学大纲。2012年,学前班人数122万,9年制基础教育普及率93%,中等教育普及率75.1%,注册大学生263万人。

【新闻出版】 有100多种报纸杂志,其中日报75种。主要报纸,均为私营:《国民报》,1943年创刊,在知识界较有影响,发行量17.5万份;《宇宙报》,1909年由努涅斯家族创办,无党派报纸在金融企业界较有影响,发行量14万份;《最新消息报》,1941年创办,以社会新闻为主,发行量约35万份。主要杂志有《塞塔》、《波希米亚人》等,属综合性杂志。以上报刊均为西班牙文版。2010年发行《奥里诺科邮报》,系执政党统一社会主义党机关报。

委内瑞拉通讯社为国营通讯社,1977年5月成立。后改为玻利瓦尔通讯社。

2009年建立国家通讯委员会,在该委员会注册登记的电台、电视台391家,除国家广播电台、国家电视台之外,其余均为私营和商业性质。

【对外关系】 奉行反帝、反殖、反霸、独立自主的外交政策。主张建立相互尊重、无霸权的多极化世界,反对新自由主义和自由贸易。提倡南南合作。积极推动拉美地区一体化,注重同古巴、玻利维亚、巴西等拉美国家开展合作。重视同俄罗斯、伊朗等国家发展关系。坚决反对外部干涉内政。

委同160多个国家保持外交关系,是不结盟运动、七十七国集团、石油输出国组织、世界贸易组织、美洲国家组织、拉美和加勒比国家共同体、拉美经济体系、拉美开发银行、美洲玻利瓦尔联盟、南美国家联盟、加勒比石油计划等国际和地区组织成员国。拉美经济体系、加勒比石油计划总部设在加拉加斯。

[Military] The president is the supreme commander of the army. The National Security and Defence Committee is the president’s highest advisory body on national security and defense strategies and policies. It is composed of the vice president, the defense minister, the interior minister, the finance minister, the director of the armed forces, and the joint chief of staff. The Supreme Military Command is the highest leading body of the military. It is the highest military advisory body of the President and the National Security and Defence Committee. It is composed of the Minister of Defense, the Director of the Armed Forces, the Joint Chief of Staff, and seven commanders of the four services. The Minister of Defense is responsible for the leadership. . The army has implemented compulsory military service. According to the Military Service Law, citizens who are 18 to 50 years old and healthy must be registered in the Military Service Bureau for military service. The service period for the land, sea, air force and National Guard is 24 months. The Venezuelan Armed Forces consist of the regular army, namely the Army, Navy, Air Force and National Guard four services and the State Bolivar militia.

Vladimir PADRINO López, Minister of Defence of the People’s Power; Remigio CEBALLOS, Commander of the Strategic Operations Command of the Armed Forces, Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces Occupying Combatant Command José ORNELLA, Chief of Staff, Jesús SUÁREZ, Commander of the Army, Edglis Herrera, Commander of the Navy, Pedro Al, Commander of the Air Force Pedro Alberto JULIAC Lartíguez, National Guard Commander Ricardo LÓPEZ, Bolivar National Militia Commander Carlos LEAL ).

[Education] Compulsory education for children aged 6 to 15 has been declared a non-literate country by UNESCO. There are 48 universities across the country, including 23 public universities, 25 private universities, and 103 colleges. Famous universities include the Central University of Venezuela, the University of Simon Bolivar, and the Catholic University of Andrés Bello. According to the government, all schools in the country must file a case with the Ministry of Education and teach according to the uniform rules. In 2009, the Education Law was amended to incorporate “21st Century Socialism” into the syllabus of primary and secondary schools. In 2012, the number of preschool classes was 1.22 million, the nine-year basic education penetration rate was 93%, the secondary education penetration rate was 75.1%, and the registered university students were 2.63 million.

[Press and Publication] There are more than 100 newspapers and magazines, including 75 kinds of daily newspapers. The main newspapers are private: National News, founded in 1943, has a more influential knowledge in the intellectual world, with a circulation of 175,000 copies; Cosmos, founded in 1909 by the Nunez family, non-partisan newspapers in the financial enterprise sector More influential, the circulation of 140,000 copies; “News News”, founded in 1941, mainly based on social news, with a circulation of about 350,000 copies. The main magazines include “Seta” and “Bohemians”, which are comprehensive magazines. The above newspapers are all in Spanish. In 2010, the Orinoco Post was issued, which was the ruling party’s unified socialist party newspaper.

The Venezuelan News Agency is a state-run news agency, established in May 1977. Later changed to Bolivar News Agency.

In 2009, the National Communications Commission was established. The number of radio and television stations registered with the committee is 391. Apart from the national radio station and the national television station, the rest are private and commercial.

[External Relations] Pursue a foreign policy of anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-hegemonic, and independent. It advocates the establishment of a multi-polar world of mutual respect and non-hegemony, and against neo-liberalism and free trade. Promote South-South cooperation. Actively promote the integration of Latin America and focus on cooperation with Latin American countries such as Cuba, Bolivia and Brazil. Attach importance to developing relations with countries such as Russia and Iran. Resolutely oppose external interference in internal affairs.

Maintaining diplomatic relations with more than 160 countries, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of American States, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Development Bank, the Americas Member States of international and regional organizations such as the Lival Alliance, the South American Union, and the Caribbean Petroleum Program. The Latin American Economic System and the Caribbean Petroleum Program are based in Caracas.