Wood is a key source of energy that has been used for millennia for cooking, boiling water, lighting and heating. Today, about 2.5 billion people depend on biomass energy for cooking and heating, with 87% of this energy being provided by wood (IEA, 2006). In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), more than 90% of the population relies on woodfuel (i.e. firewood and charcoal) as a primary source of domestic energy. Over 80% of households in urban areas use charcoal, while firewood is mainly used in rural areas and by institutions such as schools and certain industries such as the drying of tea. So, clearly, wood energy should not be seen as a marginal, “poor man’s” energy source that is on its way out as countries develop. Woodfuel in Africa is a multi-billion, often crossborder, business worth more than US$ 11 billion and employing over seven million people; this is predicted to rise to US$12 billion and 12 million people in 2020 (FAO, 2014). In addition to population growth, urbsanisation also continues to push up demand: a one percent rise in urbanisation can increase charcoal consumption by 14% (World Bank, 2009). With limited real and practical alternatives available for the majority of the SSA population, woodfuel will thus remain a major commodity in developing countries for decades to come. However, current methods of woodfuel management and use throughout SSA bring major socio-economic and environmental challenges which need full and urgent attention.